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B3 9015 00240 169 6 








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EonDon : C. J. CLAY and SONS, 



OUftgoin: 263, ABGYLE STBEBT. 


l.eq)>tg: F. A. BEOGKHAUS. 

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[All Rights reserved,] 

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rpHE story which is here rescued from the Arabian Nights and, 
-*- with some diffidence, restored to the Biblical Apocrypha, 
occurs in such various forms and in so many languages that there 
are few scholars who could edit it single-handed, and I suspect 
that not many critics will see their way at once through the 
diverse transmission of the legend to its primitive verity. 

In the present edition I have had the assistance of my friends 
Mrs Lewis and Mr Conybeare in dealing with the linguistic 
problems ; and I am also much indebted to my friend Mr Kennett 
for his kindness in reading and revising the Syriac sheets. 
Without their aid, the attempt to edit Ahikar would have been 
inadequate. As it is, I hope we have been able to clear up 
some of the difficulties in the text, and to pave the way for its 
further criticism. The part taken by each of the contributors is 
indicated by the initials of their names. 



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Introduction vii 

Slavonic Translation 1 

Armenian Translation 24 

Syriac Translation 56 

Abthiopic Translation 85 

Arabic Translation 87 

Greek Text 119 

Armenian Text 125 

Syriac Text v\ 

Arabic Text I 

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The story of Ahikar has been long known to readers of the 
Arabian Nights, in the supplement to which it finds a place ; but, 
in common with many other tales which are so liberally heaped up 
by Scheherezad^, or which have been attached to her collection, it 
has escaped up to the present time from the close inspection of 
criticism, into the focus of which it has been slowly drifting ; but, 
as we shall see when we consider the literature that has been 
quietly accumulating around it during the last few years, there 
has been an increasing perception that we had in this pretty 
romance something more and something earlier than a con- 
ventional Arab tale af the way in which Ingratitude meets its 
due, and that the nucleus of the tale, at all events, was Biblical or 
semi-Biblical in character, however wide the gulf might at first 
seem between the Hebrew and the Arabic literatures. And it is 
this perception of the imperfectly recognised debt which one 
branch of Semitic literature owes to another, and the rectification 
of ideas involved in the payment of the debt, that furnishes the 
main motive of the present tract. 

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But, before plunging into readings and recensions, into the 
criticism of texts and the discrimination of sources, let us briefly 
sketch the main features of the story itself. 

Ahikar, or, as he is called in Arabic, Haykar, was the vizier of 
Sennacherib the king of Assyria, and was famous amongst men 
for his wisdom in all that concerned morality and politics. But 
he had a standing grief, in that the wealth and power which he 
had acquired, and the wisdom which he had attained, could not be 
perpetuated in a son born of his own body ; nor did his prayers to 
the gods in this regard, nor the successive marriages which he 
made with sixty wives, result in any male child whom he might 
bring up as his successor, and to whom he might teach those 
precepts of virtue which every Sage, from his time onward to the 
days of Polonius, the Grand Vizier of Denmark, has wished to 
eternize by gravure thereof upon the youthful mind. At the last 
his reiterated appeals brought him the reply of the Supreme 
Power that he should take his sister s son and bring him up as his 
own oflfspring. 

The babe who is thus brought on the scene grows into man's 
estate, becomes as tall as a cedar (though a mere bramble in 
heart), and is in due course introduced to king Sennacherib as the 
successor-designate of the now aged Ahikar. He is a 'goodly 
apple, rotten at the core.' The precepts of his uncle have scarcely 
penetrated the outworks of his mind, and he seems to have grown 
up without any taste for the proverbial philosophy which Ahikar 
had so liberally showered upon him. 

He commenced to take more than a son's place in the home, 
and more than a successor's right in the palace. At home he 
squandered, and at court he intrigued. Finally a suggestion on 
the part of Ahikar to replace his wilfulness and wantonness by the 
superior fidelity of a younger brother brought the intrigue to a 
head. Nadan wrote in Ahikar's name treasonable letters to 
neighbouring sovereigns, sealed them with Ahikar's seal of office 
and then betrayed his uncle to the king. When the unfortunate 
victim of this intrigue is brought before the king, he is unable. 

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through fear and surprise, to utter a word in his own defence, and 
as he who does not excuse himself, accuses himself more eflfectively 
than his slanderers, he is promptly ordered to be done to death. 

It happens, however, that Ahikar had on a previous occasion 
saved from the wrath of his majesty King Sennacherib, the very 
person who is now directed to cut oflf the head of Ahikar and throw 
it a hundred ells from the body. An appeal to his gratitude 
results in a scheme by which a substitute is found in the con- 
demned cells at Nineveh to undergo the extreme penalty, while 
Ahikar is safely ensconced in a dark underground excavation 
beneath his own house, where he is secretly supplied with food, 
and has occasional visits of consolation from his friend the 
Executioner. Here he has the maddening experience of hearing 
the overhead revels of Nadan and his boon companions and the 
shrieks of his beaten men and maids, and occupies his loneliness 
by fervent petitions to the Lord for a rectification of his lot, which 
prayers were, if we may judge by subsequent events, more closely 
allied to the vindictive Psalms than to the Sermon on the Mount. 

The liberation of the imprisoned Vizier comes at length 
through political dangers in which his wise head and steady hand 
were needed and not found. The- king of Egypt, presuming on 
the reports of Ahikar's death, sends a series of absurd demands to 
Sennacherib of a type which Eastern story-tellers aflfect, requiring 
answers to fantastic questions and the performance of impossible 
requirements. Inter alia, he will have a castle built in the air 
and ropes twisted out of sand. All the while he conceals beneath 
these regal amenities the desire to damage the Assyrian kingdom. 
Ahikar is now in demsmd: Assyria has need of him; and the 
prudent Executioner plays the friend's part by confiding to the 
king that the Sage is still living. The re-instatement of the 
buried outcast aflfords material for the story-teller to dilate upon, 
as he records how the wasted and withered old man, with nails 
grown like eagle's talons and hair like the shaggy fells of beasts, is 
brought back to his place of power. 

And here Justice might well step in and avenge on Nadan his 

L. A. b 

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intrigue and crime. But the moral action of the story is checked 
while it is related (it must be admitted that it is done too much in 
detail) how Ahikar answered all the hard questions and evaded 
the absurd den^nds of Pharaoh of Egypt. Then, when Ahikar 
returns enriched with gifts, and with an enhanced reputation for 
wisdom, and appears before Sennacherib as the saviour of his 
country, there comes the moment when Nemesis is on the heels of 
Nadan, who is delivered up to his uncle, that he may work his 
vengeance on him. 

The wretched young man is tamed by preliminary discipline 
of flogging, followed by black-hole and bread and water, and his 
uncle enriches his mind with further instruction of a very personal 
character and application; and when, at the close of this pre- 
liminary treatment, Ahikar is preparing the extreme penalty for 
Nadan, the nephew simplifies the action of the play by swelling 
up and bursting asunder in a melodramatic manner which satisfies 
all the instincts of Justice. 

Such, in brief, is the story which has come to light in the 
Arabian Nights and elsewhere. Whether it be actually a part of 
the recitations by which for 1001 nights the fidthful and ingenious 
Scheherezad^ whiled away the impatience and wore out the 
mistrust and wrath of the Sultan, or whether it is only a sup- 
plement to that collection, is not of immediate importance. We 
may make its acquaintance, if we will, in the Arabian Nights ; but 
the real question which has arisen is the possible transference of 
the story, either wholly or in part, into the borders of a much 
older and more reverend literature. 

Now it would not at all surprise us, if in the study of a 
collection so rich in material for the history of religion and so full 
of folk-lore as the Arabian Nights, we should be able to find 
instructive parallels by which to elucidate what is obscure in 
Biblical or Patristic writings. 

How full, for example, is such a story as that of the 'Two 
Sisters who envied their younger Sister ' of matter borrowed ifrom 
the very earliest folk-lore : and all folk-lore is elucidatory of the 

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history of belief. But this general correspondence becomes minute 
and particular in such a case as the desci:iption, in the story 
alluded to, of the Singing Tree, which is known to the students of 
Christian Martyrology in the Visions of Perpetua as one of the 
plants of Paradise. 

And not only do the Tales of the 'Thousand Nights and a 
Night ' elucidate ecclesiastical literature, they are themselves also 
reciprocally elucidated by Biblical and Patristic parallels. To 
take a single instance, in the story of 'the Linguist Dame, the 
Duenna and the King's son,' we have one case out of a cycle, in 
which the asking of hard questions is made a prominent feature. 
This kind of questioning goes on in the story of the Linguist 
Dame with some of the same material that is found in the 
catechising of Ahikar by the Pharaoh of Egypt : that is to say, the 
matter is recurrent and cyclical. The Biblical parallel, par ex- 
cellence, is, of course, the catechism of Solomon by the Queen of 
Sbeba, which furnished abundant scope to the fertile imaginations 
of those who desired to speculate on the kind of riddles that might 
have perplexed the wisest of kings. Amongst these questions in 
the 'Linguist Dame' there is one which involves early Syriac 
Commentaries upon the Bible. The king's son is asked by the 
lady to inform her ' concerning the Naqus or Gong, who was the 
inventor thereof and at what time it was first struck in the history 
of the world V The riddle is immediately solved by the king's son, 
who declares that the Naqud was invented by Noah and was first 
struck by him in the Ark. The answer seems, at first sight, to be 
almost as perplexing as the question. But a reference to the 
Syriac Literature helps us : thus in the Cave of Treasures, com- 
monly attributed to St Ephrem, we find the directions for making 
of a Naqus by Noah, and the information is given that he struck 
it thi*ee times in the day, once in the morning, so as to gather the 
workmen for building the Ark, and at midday for the workmen's 
dinner, and at night that they might cease from work. And this 
legend, which may be found elsewhere in Syriac, underlies the 
question in the story of the Linguist Dame. So that we need 

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not be surprised that Biblical and Patristic learning should be 
elucidatory of obscurities in the Arabian Nights, nor that a 
converse statement should be possible. It is, however, a very 
little step indeed, to show that the two literatures are mutually 
explanatory: and what we have proposed is the much more 
startling thesis that a curious story in the Arabian Nights belongs 
to the fringe and penumbra of the Biblical Literature itself. 

The a priori improbability of this thesis may be diminished 
by observing that there is one proved case of transfer from the 
Apocrypha of the Old Testament into the body of the Arabian 
Nights. The story of Susanna is incorporated, canonized we may 
say, by Scheherezad6, although it is the most demonstrably Greek 
of all the Biblical Apocrypha. ' Susanna and the Elders ' is an 
antilegomenon in one literature, an accepted part of another. 
Why, then, may not a somewhat similar statement be true of 
the story of Ahikar? 

Those who were the first students of the book had observed 
the Biblical colouring of the story. Thus Salhani, who was the 
publisher of the Arabic text, remarks : ' on y reconnait le style 
vulgaire de Syrie et le ton simple, naif et sans apprSts d'un 
lecteur de la S*® Bible. Plusieurs avis mis dans la bouche du 
sage Haiqar sont tir^s des proverbes de Salomon.' According to 
Salhani, then, the style of the book is due to the fact that its 
author was a Bible-reader : he did not suspect, however, that he 
might have been a Bible-writer. 

Burton, also, was much impressed with the same feature. His 
notes, unpleasant and irritating as they sometimes are, show that 
he understood that there was Biblical matter in what he was 
translating: e.g. p. 2, 'The surroundings suggest Jehovah, the 
tribal deity of the Jews': p. 4, 'This barbarous sentiment [as 
to the value of the rod in the education of children] is Biblical — 
inspired': p. 9, 'The simplicity of the old Assyrian correspond- 
ence is here well preserved.' His judgment is, however, sur- 
prisingly aberrant and self-contradictory when he declares of 
the great idol Bel, to whom A^iikar had compared his master 

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Sennacherib, that * Bel may here represent Hobal, the biggest idol 
in the Meccan Pantheon, which used to be borne on raids and 
expeditions to give plunder a religious significance/ This is 
going out into the wilderness with a vengeance ! Were the gods 
of Nineveh so obscure and so unknown that they had to be 
displaced in favour of a Meccan fetish ? 

Kirby, who has added some notes to Burton's great trans- 
lation, points out that of A|jikar's precepts, many find their 
parallels, not only in Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, as we might 
reasonably expect, but in the Havamdl of the Elder Edda! It 
is unfortunate that he did not carry the subject of Biblical 
parallels a little further, in which case he might actually have 
found the leading characters in the story of Ahikar existing in 
the text of the Septuagint 1 

I believe it was Hoffmann who first carried the discussion 
of the Biblical element in the story of Ahikar out of mere con- 
jectural resemblances into demonstrated consanguinity. His 
famous tract, entitled Auszilge aus Syrische Erzdhlwngen von 
Persischen Mdrtyrem, appeared in the viith volume of the 
Abhandlungen fur Kilnde des Morgenlands in the year 1880. 
On p. 182 of this beautiful piece of iuvestigation into the history 
of the Syrian Church, he points out how frequently the monastic 
legends of Syria are affected by geographical and historical details 
derived from the ancient kingdom of Assyria. And he suggests 
as a special instance, that the story of Ahikar, which he had 
come across in the MSS. of the British Museum, had some con- 
nexion with the book of Tobit. Accordingly he points out that 
the name Ahikar stands in Tob. xi. 17 as '^X'^^X^P ^^ ^^ so- 
called B-recension^ of the Greek text, while the nephew of Ahikar 
appears in the same place as Na/8a8. From which he concludes 
that the Syrians of Athor (the ancient Assyria) made use of the 
book of Tobit in one of the recensions in which this book has 
come down to us^. 

^ Which has nothing, however, to do with Codex B. 
2 Hoffmann, L c, pp. 182, 183. 

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If Hofiinann's view had been correct, I suppose we should 
have been obliged to say that the story of Ahikar was written 
(in part, at all events) to explain certain allusions in the book 
of Tobit. These are certainly puzzling enough to the modern 
reader, who does not see why the dying Tobit should mingle 
with his last commissions and instructions a reference to the 
ill-treatment of Ahikar by his adopted son : and what the modem 
reader feels, is reflected in the manner in which the scribes of 
the Tobit legend have striven to mend the passages in question 
by inserting better known and, as they supposed, more appropriate 

For, to take the leading passage referred to, viz. Tob. xiv. 10, 
the reader of the English Apocrypha finds the following abrupt 
transition in the last words of Tobit : 

* Bury me decently and thy mother with me : but tarry no 

longer in Nineve. Remember, my son, how Aman handled 

Achiacarus that brought him up, how out of light he brought 

him into darkness, and how he rewarded him again: yet 

Achiacarus was saved, but the other had his reward, for he 

went down into darkness. Manasses gave alms, and escaped 

the snares of death which they had set for him : but Aman 

fell into the snare, and perished.' 

The perplexity which this passage has caused to the scribes 

is evident from the emendation of the proper names. Nadan has 

been replaced by Aman, and Ahikar by Manasseh ! It is fortunate 

that Achiacarus has not altogether disappeared, or the whole 

identification of the characters might have been lost. 

We are indebted, then, to Hoflfmann for identifying the 
characters which appear so obscurely in Tobit with those that 
occur in the story of Ahikar: but he leaves the matter almost 
as perplexing as he found it to the critical enquirer, who wishes 
to know, not whether any one has been explaining obscure pas- 
sages in Tobit, so much as the reason why those passages are 

It does not, moreover, seem to have occurred to Hoffmann that 

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the identification which he made between the characters referred 
to in the two stories might be explained in another way. It 
clearly was not necessary to assume that Ahikar was later than 
Tobit, and that the existence of the Sjrriac and Arabic legends 
of Ahikar involved the acquaintance of the Elast Syrians with 
the Old Testament Apocrypha. For example, Tobit might be 
dependent upon Ahikar, or both of them upon a third document 
which has disappeared. If the supposition of Hoffmann were 
correct, then the story of Ahikar would be an apocryphon of the 
second order, written, in part, to explain obscure allusions in an 
earlier apocryphon. Its relation to Tobit would then be something 
like the supplementary position which it occupies in the Arabian 
Nights; it would be an antilegomenon in two collections. But 
if Tobit were the later of the two compositions, then Ahikar 
takes its place amongst the Old Testament Apocrypha by right 
of the firstborn ; and the elder ceases to serve the younger. It is 
now no longer commentary, it has become text ; and, so far as one 
writer is commentator upon the other, it is Tobit that moralizes 
upon what has been read in Ahikar. 

It becomes, therefore, of the first importance to determine 
whether. Hoffmann's valuable information concerning the common 
matter in Tobit and in Ahikar should be explained as Hoffmann 
has done, or whether the relative priority of the two stories should 
be reversed. 

Now we may say at once that the internal evidence of the 
two stories is suflBcient to decide the question in favour of the 
second alternative. But before making the necessary textual 
comparison, it may be well to watch a little more in detail the 
way in which the attention of critics was being drawn to this 
remarkable legend. 

It had already been pointed out by J. S. Assemani in his 
BMiotheca Orientalis when describing a MS. of the story of 
Ahikar, that a similar story was extant in the Aesop legends \ 

1 B, 0. ii. 508. God. 40, in indioe oodd. Arab., continet Hicari Philosophi 

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As we shall see by and by, the story of the adventures of 
Aesop at the court of Lykeros, king of Babylon, are an exact 
parallel to the story of the wise Ahikar. So that the problem 
is now complicated by the introduction of a third competitor for 
the place of honour, and this time a Greek competitor. 

The importance of this fresh factor was further accentuated 
by the discovery of a text of the legend which was clearly based 
upon a Greek original; for it was found to have passed over 
into Slavonic, and to be, even at the present day, very popular 
in Russia. And the publication of a translation of this Slavonic 
text^ in 1892 by Jagi6 rendered a comparison possible between 
the story as it had come down in ' Arabic (probably from a Syriac 
base) and the Slavonic (as it had come down from a Greek base). 
So that the argument for a Greek original could be maintained 
from the Aesop legends plus the Slavonic version, as against 
the theory of a Semitic original, based on the Arabian Nights 
plus such Syriac and other Oriental versions as might be re- 

Nor was the diffusion of the legend of Ahikar exhausted even 
by this statement, for there were parallels and allusions in 
Eastern literature, not a few, both to the history of Ahikar and 
his ethics and his wise solution of riddles and other peculiarities 
of the story as current in Greek or in Arabic, which rendered it 
certain that the story could not be of modern growth or de- 

It became necessary, therefore, that a closer investigation 
should be made of the relations between Tobit and the Greek 
and Semitic forms of the legend of Ahikar. Accordingly Kuhn, 
who had added an admirable summary of the materials available 

Mosulani praecepta. [Mosulani is the Arabic translation of the Syriao for 
Ninevite ?] 

B. 0. iii. 286. Historia Hicari sapientis et quae ipsi oontigere onm Nadan 
sororis suae filio et com rege Aegypti. [Cod. Arab. 55.] De Hicaro eadem fere 
narrantur quae de Aesopo Phryge. Ejusdem Hicari, qui Philosophus Mosulanus 
appeUatur, praecepta Arabice extant Cod. 40. 

1 Byzantinische ZeiUchrift, Vol, i. Pt. 1, 1892, 

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for criticism of the legend to the translation published by Jagid, 
asked especially for a fresh treatment of the Aesop legends. Kuhn, 
however, still followed Hoffmann in regarding the story of Ahikar 
as being dependent upon what is called the B-recension of the 
book of Tobit. 

In 1894 there appeared, in response to Kuhn's appeal, a new 
and remarkably fresh and exhaustive treatment of the whole 
subject by Meissner, entitled Qaellenuntersuchungen zur Haikar- 
geschichte, in which the question of the relative priority of the 
Greek and Semitic legends was re-examined and an abundance 
of fresh material relating thereto was brought forwards 

We shall see presently that Meissner, in spite of the valuable 
material which he accumulated, drew wrong conclusions in giving 
to the Aesop legends the priority over those contained in the 
Arabian Nights: and while recognising, as he could not fail to 
do, the allusions to the story in the book of Tobit, he treated 
that story as if it existed, in the days before Tobit, merely in 
the form of floating legend, and not in the form of a book. 
According to Meissner, in four passages the author of the book of 
Tobit alludes to a certain Elastern Sage, whose history he throws 
into connexion with the hero of his own book. We may then, 
according to Meissner's view of the case, assume the existence \ 
of an ancient Hebrew legend, whose hero was Ahikar, which 
legend was transferred by a Greek wiiter to Aesop. This story 
was committed to writing by Syrian Christians in the seventh 
or eighth century A.D., probably with an actual employment of / 
the already existing Greek form. 

The person of Ahikar was thus, according to Meissner, well- 
known to antiquity, and his fame had spread far and wide from 
Syria. The origin of the Jewish legend was earlier than the book 
of Tobit, which is, with good reason, referred to the first or second 
century B.c. Meissner does not think the story of Ahikar was 
current much earlier. In any case it was committed to writing in 
Greek. And at the time when this was done, Hebrew was already 

1 The tract wiU be found in Z. D. M, O, vol. 48, pp. 171-197. 
L. A. C 

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an ecclesiastical language, not understood of the people. And this 
fact, together with the non-religious character of the story, renders 
it certain that the book was never received into the Apocryphal 
books, so that it passed into an undeserved obscurity. 

Such were Meissner's conclusions. They were promptly 
challenged by Lidzbarski^ who suggested as a more probable 
alternative that the Sjniac legends were a translation of a hook 
already existing before the days of Tobit and employed by the 
writer of that apocrjrphal story ; and lidzbarski thought it was 
more likely that the primitive legend was written in Hebrew than 
in Greek. We shall see presently that this is the true solution. 

Lidzbarski followed up his criticism by publishing in 1896 a 
complete translation* of the Arabic version of the story, and this 
publication is commented upon by Dr James in the second volume 
of his Apocrypha Anecdota. As might have been expected, 
Dr James saw that the story was not only involved in the book of 
Tobit, but that it had also been employed in the New Testament 
(in the Parable of the Wicked Servant), and he at once conceded its 
antiquity. ' This romance,' said he, 'is clearly older than Tobit,' 
and he remarks further, that, ' as the story was clearly popular, 
and is also clearly prae-Christian, it would be no very strange 
thing if the Parable [of the Wicked Servant in Matt. xxiv. 48, c£ 
Luke xii. 45] had borrowed a trait or two from it.' We shall see 
that its influence upon the New Testament is even stronger than 
Dr James had imagined*. 

Last of all, a discussion of the legend, with a fresh translation 
from the Syriac, was given by Dr E. J. Dillon, in the Contemporary 
Review for March 1898. Dr Dillon does not discuss the question 
of the Biblical Parallels, but he brings forward fi-esh reasons for 
believing that Ahikar is a survival from 'the numerous Hebrew 
writings which, having no direct bearing upon religion, were passed 

1 Lidzbarski's tract wiU be found in Z, D. M. G. vol. 48, pp. 671-676. Zum 
weisen Achikar. 

^ Lidzbarski, Geschichten und Lieder, 

' Since then Dr James has treated the story at some Idngth in a communication 
to the Guardian (Feb. 2, 1898), in which he discusses some further parallels. 

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over when the Canon was formed and nearly all of which were thus 
lost for ever^ 

Such is the record, expressed in the briefest terms, of the 
investigations which have been accumulating with regard to this 
beautiful and interesting Eastern romance. They result in a 
general consent as to the antiquity of the story, and in an inti- 
mation of its close connexion with the Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testaments. 

Having thus briefly described the slow advance of the critical 
wave that has been breaking upon the shore, we will now set down 
in order some of the materials that are available for the restoration 
of the story to its earliest form. 

^ Our own studies of Ahikar were pnblioly announced before the appearance of 
Dr DiUon's article ; we should gladly have left the whole field to him, if we had 
known in advance the labour that he had bestowed on the subject, of which only a 
very small part appears in the article in the Contemporary Review, We are indebted 
to him for many valuable suggestions. 

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The diffusion of the story of Ahikar is so wide, that it requires 
somewhat more than an average linguistic equipment to treat the 
whole of the forms and versions that have come to light. 

We shall see reason to believe that it is a companioiL to the 

book of Tobit, and in a less striking degree, to the book of Daniel ; 

and that it ought to be bound up with other biblical and semi-. 

[ biblical matter of the same kind under the heading of * Ninevite 

j and Babylonian legends.' But if it be such a volume as that 

' title would intimate and belong to the same period which produced 

Tobit and Daniel, then the probability is that it has, like them, an 

original form that was either Hebrew or Aramaic. And we should 

expect, a priori, that this original would give rise to two main 

versions, a Syriac and a Greek. We must apply critical methods 

to test this hypothesis, just as we should do in the case of Tobit. 

When we have settled that question it will not be so diflScult 
to determine what subordinate versions depend on the Greek and 
Syriac respectively. That is, we should naturally expect that the 
Slavonic version would come from a Greek base, even though we 
have not succeeded in actually recovering such an underlying 
document. The case of the adaptations which pass as * lives of 
Aesop' will require a separate treatment. On the Oriental side, 
there will probably be little diflSculty in deriving the Arabic 
version from the Syriac and the Ethiopic from the Arabic. But 
the problem of the origin of the*Armenian version will be more 

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difficult. Whether there are other lost versions is another point 
that must be reserved for further study. It is quite possible that 
the story may have passed into India by way of the Old Persian, 
in which case it may perhaps be still lurking amongst the Parsee 
literature. Benfey went so far as to attempt to connect the story 
with the earlier Indian literature and to recognize A^ikar in the 
wise Vizier Qakatala of the (Jukapasati legends, but his suggestion 
has not been favourably received. 

We shall be satisfied if we can find sufficient evidence for an 
underlying Hebrew or Aramaic text, and if we can throw some 
light upon the early Greek and Syriac texts in their relation to 
this lost primitive and to one another. 

But in order to open the discussion on these points, we must 
describe the sources fi*om which our extant versions are derived 
and fi*om which they may be emended. 

(1) The Syriac version. 

Of the Syriac, properly so called, there is not much extant. 
We have, however, a fragment in the British Museum, a copy in 
the Cambridge University Library and a copy at Berlin. 

(Si). The fragment in the British Museum is a single leaf in 
a Nestorian MS. of the 12th or 13th century : it is numbered 7200 
amongst the Additional MSS. and the leaf that contains Ahikar is 
the 114th. It is a good deal water-stained and is consequently 
difficult to decipher. We have printed it separately, as the text 
appears to be good. 

(Sa). The Cambridge MS. belongs to the collection that was 
formerly in the possession of the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge, and is now numbered Add. 2020 in the University 
Catalogue. The following is the description of it in the 
Catalogue : 

Univ. Cant. Add. 2020. 

Paper, about 12 in. by 8 : 190 leaves, of which several are 
soiled and mutilated, especially f. 158. F. 190 is blank. The 

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quires were originally twenty in number, but the first and second 
and one leaf of the third have been lost, and their place is taken by 
the modem supply flF. 1 — 5. The remaining quires have 10 leaves, 
except CD P]i -\; [22] and .^^ [5]. There is a lacuna after 
f. 184. The writing (27 to 30 lines in a page) is a good Nestorian 
serta of the year 2009 = A.D. 1697. 

This volume contains 

1. Histories of saints and other matters chiefly theological. 

5. The proverbs or history of Ahikar the wise, the scribe of 
Sanherlbh, king of Assjrria and Nineveh f. 66*. 

6. A short extract from the maxims of Solomon f 78*. 

7. Fables of the wise Josephus (Aesopus) f. 78*. 

10. Other fables of Josephus (Aesopus) f. 105^ 

etc. etc. 

(Sg). The Berlin MS. is Cod. Sachau. 336. I am sorry not to 
have been able to collate it. 

(S4, S5, S«). While these pages are passing through the press 
w6 have come to the knowledge of three more copies in the 
possession of the American Mission at Ooroomiah. All of them 
are modem transcripts, but one of them (S4) is said to be made 
from an exemplar of an early date. 

(2) Arabic and Karshuni texts. 

We have given especial attention to the Arabic text as pub- 
lished from a Karshum* MS. by Salhani (Contes Arahes : Beyrout), 
and to certain copies in the University Library at Cambridge and 
in the British Museum. 

(Ki). Of these the most important is a Cambridge MS. (Add. 
2886), formerly in the collection of the Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge. It is a very late Karshuni text, on paper. 
The story of A^ar begins on f. 81* and goes to f. 106*. 

(K2). Next to this comes a B£S. in the British Museum from 

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the collection of Claudius J. Rich, and numbered Ad4. 7209. It 
is a Karshuni MS. on paper and contains the story of Ahikar on 
flf. 182^— 213^ 

(Ks). We have not examined the Qotha MS. 2652 which 
contains on flF. 47^ — 64^ a Karshuni text of the legend. The No. 
of this MS. is given by Comill, Btich der weisen Philosophen p. 32, 
as 589, but by Kuhn in Byzantin. Zeitschrift i. 129 as 2562. The 
text of the sayings of Ahikar was printed from this MS. by 

(K^). A similar MS. appears to be described by Assemani as 
No. XXXII. of Syriac Mss. from Aleppo; and 

(K5) Meissner appears to have another of the same type from 
the Sachau collection at Berlin. This MS. seems to be a later 
acquisition than those described in the Kurzes Verzeichniss der 
Sachau'schen Sammlung, It is written in a Neo- Aramaic dialect ; 
and if we rightly understand Lidzbarski (Geschickten und Lieder 
p. X.) it is a translation made from the Arabic by the deacon Isaiah 
of Kullith in the Tur-Abdtn. On this MS. (?) and on the printed 
text of Salhani, Lidzbarski bases his translation. 

Of Arabic texts proper, there may probably be found examples 
in the library at Copenhagen and in the Vatican Library. 

(A,). Copenhagen. Cod. Arab, ccxxxvi., written in 1670, and 
containing on flf. 1 — 41, 'historiam fabulosam *Haiqllri, Persici 
philosophi, qui San'hartbi aetate vixisse fertur.' 

(Aa). Assemani notes Cod. Arab. xi. (written in 1766) from 
the collection of Pope Innocent XIII. : 

(A3) and Cod. 55 amongst the Arabic MSS. in the Vatican. 

(3) Aethiopic. 

Next in order comes the Aethiopic text of the Sa3dngs of 
Ahikar, which has been published by Comill in his Btich der 
weisen Philosophen. 

(Aci) (Aca). Cornill has two MSS., one from Frankfort and the 
other from Tubingen, which he designates by the signs F and T. 

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We have not ventured to print the Aethiopic text, but have made 
some use of Comill's rendering of it. 

(4) Armenian version. 

Of this version Mr Conybeare gives us the following de- 
scription, including both copies and printed texts. 

(Arm J = Bod.). A MS. in the Bodleian Library, not yet 
catalogued or numbered. This is a paper MS., in a rare form 
of notergir or small cursive. The first page of Khikar has been 
torn out in such a way as to leave the beginnings of the last 
six lines on recto and verso. 

(Arm2 = Ven.). No 482 in the Library of San Lazaro in 
Venice, written in holorgir or large cursive, on parchment, 
undated, but of the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century. 

(Arm8 = Paris 92). In the Bibliothfeque Nationale of Paris, 
Ancien Fonds Arm^nien No. 92, on paper. In this MS. only the 
last half of Khikar is contained from p. 141 of the printed text to 
the end. The scribe has added at the end of it the date 1067 of 
the Armenian era = A.D. 1619. The hand is a peculiar one, and 
the piece begins on fol. 179. 

( Arm4 = Paris Supp. 58). Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Arm. 
Supplement No. 58. On paper, in notergir or small cursive, ill- 
written in the I7th century. The text occupies fol. 253 to end 
of the MS. but is incomplete, and breaks oflf at p. 141. 

(Arm 5 = Paris 131). Biblioth^ue Nationale, Anc. Fonds Arm. 
No. 131, contains the text on foil. 213 — 228, written on paper, 
probably late in the seventeenth century, in an untidy notergir 

(Arm6 = Paris 69). Bibliothfeque Nationale, Anc. Fonds Arm. 
No. 69. A large quarto, well-written in large holorgir or cursive, 
on charta bombycina in the seventeenth century. The text of 
Khikar begins with the precepts, the prelude being absent. 

(Arm, = Bod. Canon). Bodleian Library, Ms. Canon. Ori- 
ent 131 ; written in large clear holorgir or cursive on charta 

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bombycina. Khikar occupies foil. 1 — 36^. This codex was written 
in New Djulfa or Ispahan A.D. 1697 by Hazrapet the priest for 
the use of a person named Israel. 

Khikar is followed by the Romance of the Seven Sages and by 
the story of Barlaam and Jpsaphat. 

(Arm8=Edjm.). In the Library of Edjmiatzin, No. 2048 in the 
new Catalogue, a small well-written codex, in notergir or small 
cursive, on charta bombycina of about A.D. 1600. Of this codex 
Mr Conybeare transcribed in the year 1891 the exordium and the 
first eighteen precepts. 

To the foregoing may be added the following copies contained 
in catalogues or otherwise known to exist : 

In the catalogue of the library of Edjmiatzin printed in Tiflis 
in 1863, 

Nos. 1633 [A.D. 1604] 

H all on paper in small cursive. 

1995 [A.D. 1605] 
1986 [A.D. 1623] 
51 [A.D. 1642] ; 

Recently acquired by the British Museum, a small cursive MS. 
on paper, written in the 1 8th cent. The Berlin Library contains 
(see Dr Karamian's catalogue of Arm. MS.) a MS. of Khikar (No. 
83 = MS. Or. Peterm. i. 147) of the year 1698, which contains the 
precepts on ff. 1 — 26'. In this MS. as in Bodley Canon. Or. 131 
Khikar is followed by the History of the Seven Sages. 

It should further be noticed that the Armenian Khikar has 
been three times printed at (^nstantinople. Details of the three 
editions are given in the Armenian Bibliography issued at San 
Lazaro, Venice, in 1883. The first was printed in 1708 under the 
title 'The Book of the History of the Brazen City, and the 
Questions of the Damsel and Youth. And the History of Eiikar 
and of king Phohloula and so forth, which is a picture of the 
world/ The editor was one Sargis. 

The next edition was in 1731 under the title, ' The Book of the 
History called the Brazen City. And the instructive and helpful 
sayings of the wise man Khikar, with other profitable sayings.' 

L. A. d 

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Printed in the year of our era 1106 (= A.D. 1731) in the press of 
the humble Astouatsatour. 

The third edition was in 1862 at the press of R. J. 

(5) Z%6 Oreek version. 

(Aes.). For the elucidation of this version we have printed 
those parts of the legends of the life and death of Aesop which 
appear to be an adaptation of the story of Ahikar. Our text is 
taken from Eberhard, Fabulae Ramanenses Oraece conscriptae. 
The part that corresponds to the story of Ahikar begins on p. 285, 
cxxiii, and continues to p. 297, end of cxxxii. There is a good 
deal of variation in these Aesop legends. 

(6) The Slavonic version, 

(SI.). Our text of this version is a translation from the 
German of Jagi6, printed in Byzant Zeitsck i. pp. 107 — 126. No 
attempt has been made to follow up the Russian investigations of 
the subject. 

These, then, are the chief authorities for the text and its 
tradition. The editions of the Arabian Nights, and especially 
the translations, are hardly to be taken as authorities, on account 
of the freedom with which they handle the matter. 

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We will commence our investigation into the primitive legend 
which underiies all the versions described above by enquiring into 
the tradition of the names of the chief personages in the story, 
with the view of determining the proper forms of those names, 
and of finding out anything further about the leading characters. 
First of all, with regard to the spelling of the name of the hero of 
the legend. We have found him described as Haykar [Heykar, 
Hikar] in the Arabic story : from two Karshuni MSS. which 
contain the story (Kj and Kg) we have the spelling Ahikar and 
Hikar. The Syriac MS. in the British Museum has Ahikar, and 
so have the Cambridge and Berlin Syriac MSS. The Armenian 
text has Khikar which does not agree perfectly with any of the 
forms quoted, nor with the transliteration of 'A;^ta;^apo9 in the 
Armenian Tobit. 

The evidence suggests a Syriac form Ahikar from which the 
Arabic, Karshuni and Aethiopic are derived. The Slavonic form 
is Akyrios which can hardly be primitive. 

Now let us turn to the book of Tobit. The book exists in two 
Greek recensions and in Aramaic: of the two Greek recensions, 
that found in the Sinaitic MS. dififers so radically from the text of 
the Vatican and Alexandrian MSS. that the Cambridge editors 
have felt obliged to print it separately at the foot of the text 
which is based on the Vatican MS. We must, then, examine 
carefiiUy the evidence that is furnished by the two recensions 
when they may happen to diflfer. The passages to be examined 
are as follows: 

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Tobit i. 
VcOioan text. 


avrov avT avroO, Koi h'o^fp ^Axiaxopov 
TOP 'AyafjK viov rov AbcXifxtv fiov cVl 
nao-av rrjv tKkoyurT€iav rrjs /SacrtXcuv 
avTov icai cVl iraaav ttjw Hftoinjauf, icoi 
rj^ma-tv *Axioxapot irept tfiovj nai ^Sov 
€h Ntvcvi;. ^Axtax<ipot dt ^v 6 olvoxoog 
Koi em rov dtucrvkiov koi dionofnis koi 
cieXoyion;;, koi KOTianiafv avrop 6 

2aX(piov6s, vlo9 CK d€VT€pQt' ^v di 

c. u. 
Koi hroptvdriv npos larpovg, koi ovk 
»<l>€kfj<rav fU' *Axiaxapos de crpc^cF 
fic €»s ov €irop€vOriv els rr^p 'EXXv/xaido. 

c zi. 
Koi iyivtro x^P^ iraai roU iv Nivcv^ 
ddcX0oif avrov. koi rrapeyivero 'A^ta- 
Xapo£ Kol Naa-pas 6 i^ddeXilios avrov. 

c. xiv. 
reiofoVj Tdc rt enoitja-ep 'Ada/i *Axui- 
Xap^ T^ 0p4}frapTi avropy m €K tov 
<li(OTog rjyayep avrop eh to (tkotos koX 
6a-a avTairebiOKev avr^' koi 'Axiaxapov 
fA€P €a-»(r€P, €K€ip(j^ dc TO avTtiirodo/ia 
dncBoBi], Ka\ avTot Karifiif els to aicoros* 
Mava<r<rTJs €7roif)<r€v iXcrjfioavvriVy koi 
eadOr) €K TrayiBos Oavarov ^s cnrj^tp 
avT^j 'Adafi dc epirrtatp els rrjp iroy/da 
KoX dv»k€TO, 

Sinaitic text, 

Kol ifiturikrvo'ep 2axtp^opos vlos 
avrov ficr' avrop^ Kal era^tp 'Axctx^pov 
rop 'Aya^X rop rov dif\<l>ov putv vlop 
€irl ircurap rrjp cieXoyiormv rrjs fiaxn- 
Xctar avTOVy kou. avros elxtP rrfp i^ovviap 
€ir\ vaxrop rrip HftoUtjaip, ror* rj^iwrep 
*Ax€ixapof ir€p\ tfiov, koi KarrjXOov €ls 
Trfv Niycvi;. 'Ax^i'x^P**^ 7^ ^^ ® 
dpxioipoxoos Koi itrl rov dtucrvXiov koi 
dioucrjrris Kal cieXoyfor^r cirl Sfwax^/- 
pct/i j3a<rcX^a>f ^Aaavpiavy Kal Kareon/o'cv 
avrov 2ax*pdopos €K dtvrtpas. ^p dc 
€$alli€\<t>6s fwv Koi €K Trjs avyy€pias 

Koi cVt 2apx<dovos /Sao-cXcox.... 


Kal €nop€v6fii)P irpos roiis larpovs Btpa- 
n€v0TJvaiy Kal oc^ tV€Xpioadp fjL€ ra 
<f>dpfuiKa^ roaovTn^ yJoKkop €^€rv<l>\ovpTO 
ol 6<l>0ciKfioi fjLov rois XevKcifuurip fiixpi 
rov dfroTv(l>\»6ffpaL koi tjp,f)p ddvporos 
ro2s d<l>6aXfju)is trr^ rco-o-cpa. Koi iravrts 
ol dd€\<f>oi fwv iXvjTovPTO trcpi €fJkoVf koi 
'Ax€idxapos €Tp€<f}4p fi€ enj dvo irpo rov 
avTOP Padia-cu tls rrfp 'EXvfuxida. 

17, 18. 

«p TJ VP-^P^ ^ovT.ji ty4p€To xopa ncurip 
Tois *lovSaiots Tols ova-w iv NiFcvif. koX 
irap€y€Popro ^Axfucap Kal NajSad ol i^d- 
b€\<fioi avrov xf^f-popres irpos Tcu/Sfiv. 

7dc, iraibiop, Saa Nada/3 eiroirfO'ep 
'Ax^iKop^ r^ €K0p4\l/aPTi avrop, ovxl 
(ap Korripix^ ^h rrjp yrjp; Kal dwedciK€P 
6 Ocos rriP drifjLiap Kara irp6a-»frop avrov • 
Kal fffjKBfP €ls ro <t>m ^AxUapos, Kal 
Nadaj9 ilaijXBep els ro o'kotos rov ampos 
on i{jjrr)a'tp dnoKTtipai 'Axciicapov. ip 
r^ voirja-ai /*€ tXerjpoirvvrjv i^ijXdep €K 
rrjs nayibos rov Baparov fjp CTn/fcv aiJr^ 
Nabdfiy Kal Nado^ ryrco'cy els rrfp nayida 
TOV Baparov Kal dir(iok€<r€P avrop. 

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c. ?iv. 16. 
Koi ^Kov(r€v nplv fj awoOaveiv avrov kcu cIScy Koi 7JKOv(r€P npo rov atro- 

rffp dfrcaXuxv Niycv^ rjp ixiuLk€OTia'€P 0av€iv avrop rrjp airtaXiav Nwcvif, Kal 
'Safiovxo^voirop kcu *A(rvrjpog, €ld€P rrjp atxfAakao'iap avTfjg ayoyAprip 

tU Mridfiop fjp 27Xf^*^*^^ 'Axudeopor 
6 Paatktvs rfjs Mi/dtar. 

It will be noticed that while the Vatican MS. has 'A^mC- 
X^po^ and once, by some extraordinary confusion, Mai/aa-aij^;, 
the Sinaitic has 'Ax€ix^P^^> ^ ^X^^^X^P^^^ ^-^X'^X^P^^* 'A^^ee/ca/!}, 
^Axi/capo<i, and '"Kx^Uapo^i ; and in three cases the Sinaitic text 
of Tobit has the form which is equivalent to the Syro- Arabic 
tradition of the legend of Ahikar. Moreover the same form 
appears in the versions of the book of Tobit, which are derived from 
the Greek of Tobit. Thus the Peshito as edited by Lagarde has 
IcxiiMf^, and iffvi.M?^^ of which the former is a scribe's blunder 
for iiiAMf^. The Old Latin has the same form Achicarus, and 
the Vulgate, which has corrected this by means of a Chaldee text, 
has fallen, in the single case in which it has preserved the 
references to the legend, into the same error that we detected 
in the Peshito, viz. Achior^ 

Of the other forms in which the Tobit legend occurs we do not 
need to speak at length. 

It is suflScient to have shown that the evidence for the spelling 
A^ar is very strong, as far as regards the Septuagint and the 
versions that are dependent on it. 

Turning to the nephew of Ahikar, we find the texts in sad 

confusion, both as regards his relationship to the chief character, 

and the spelling of his name. The Vatican text treats us to 

Nashas and Adam. Of these it has been suggested that the 

former is meant for the younger brother of Nadan : the latter 

arises out of iiroirfa-c NaSa/A by a wrong division of the words. 

The Sinaitic MS. on the other hand varies between Na^SaS and 

NaSa^S of which the latter is the proper form to edit. We have 

thus two related forms NaSa/A and NaSa^S to set over against the 

1 From this Meissner conjectures that the Chaldee of which Jerome speaks was 
the Peshito. 

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NaSai; of the Syro- Arabic Ahikar. It is not necessary to decide 
which form has the priority in a case where the modifications are 
mere phonetic variations. As for the versions of Tobit, they show 
the same variants, plvs ao occasional independent variation in the 
transcription. The Old Latin has Nabal and Nahad and the 
Vulgate the equivalent Nabath, The Peshito reads n\\ and 
^aX which are Syriac blunders for Nadab and Nadan. The 
Slavonic version of Ahikar reads Anadan, The two names, then, 
can be restored in the LXX. of Tobit into close agreement with the 
Sjo'o- Arabic forms of the legend of Ahikar. And there can be no 
residuum of doubt that the same persons are intended. 

There is, however, much confusion in the tradition of the 
Septuagint. According to the legend of Ahikar, Nadab is his 
sister's son, and the whole story turns on this relationship. 
But in the Vatican' Tobit, we are first told that Ahikar is the 
son of Tobit's brother, then that he is his ef aSeX<^09 ; then that 
Nasbas (Nadab ?) is efaSe\<^09 to Ahikar, and finally that Ahikar 
is Nadab*s foster-father. We thus have, if we may strain the 
meaning of €faS€\^09, a table of consanguinity as follows : 


Ana«l Tol 


Ahikar Sister 


The Sinaitic text of Tob. xi. 18, on the other hand, supported 
by the Vulgate (Achior et Nabath consobrini Tobiae), will have it 
that both Ahikar and Nadab are i^dS€X<f)oc to Tobit, but this 
looks suspiciously like a case of a plural misread as a singular. 
Removing Tobiae from the Vulgate, and restoring the singular 
Ciynsobrinus (j= e^dh€K<\>os:) in the sense of nephew, we are in 
harmony with the Syro- Arabic legend: and the names of the 
leading characters are now practically settled. 

We pass on to notice briefly the names of the other personages 
involved, and to ask whether there is any supplementary knowledge 

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to be obtained concerning the wise Ahikar and his fortunes or 
misfortunes. The only characters that are clearly identified as 
common to the Tobit and Ahikar legends are Ahikar and his 
nephew and the king of Assyria. According to Tobit the his- 
torical setting of the story is as follows : 

Enemessar leads the Israelites of the northern kingdom 
into captivity (c. L 2): 

Upon his death 'A;^i7p6t\ his son rules in his stead 
(c. i. 15). 

He is slain by his two sons, and Xax€pBov6(i his son rules 
in his stead (c. i. 21). 

Xax€pBov6(i appoints Ahikar his prime minister and the 

latter brings Tobit into court fevour. Moreover Xa^epSovo^ 

had appointed Ahikar to fill the chief offices, being himself a 

son by the second wife^ (o 2a;^€/)Soz/09, vlo^ ix Sevrepa^ 

c. I 21, 22). 

And at the close of the story (c. xiv. 15) we are informed that 

Tobias the son of Tobit lived to see the desolation of Nineveh by 

Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus. Such is the story as told in the 

Vatican text; it is much confused both in the conception and in the 


Enemessar is certainly Shalmaneser IV., who came up against 
Samaria in the 7th year of Hoshea king of Israel. 

'A^iy/oe/X is a pure blunder arising from the dropping of a 
repeated syllable in 


from which we see that Sennacherib is intended as the successor 
of Shalmaneser. It should have been Sargon. The oversight is 
due to the fact that the writer of Tobit is following the record of 
IL Kings where Sargon is not expressly mentioned. According to 
the same record (c. xix. 37) we find that Sennacherib is slain by 
Adrammelech and Sharezer his sons, and that Esarhaddon his son 
reigned in his stead. He is the ^ax^pBciv or ^ax^pBovo^ of the 

^ Which should probably be corrected io b 2ax«/>^ot vl6t, iK Sevripas, i.e. the son 
of ^ax^pdiiy appointed him the second time. 

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book of Tobit, which definitely alludes to the murder of Senna- 
cherib by his sons, and has evidently been using the Biblical 

The period of history covered by Tobit and his son Tobias 
ranges as follows: 

Sbalmaneser IV. 727— 722B.C. 

Sargon 722—706 

Sennacherib 705 — 681 

Esarhaddon 681—668 

Assurbanipal 668—626, 

to which must be added that the fall of Nineveh to which Tobit 
refers is assigned to the year 606. This last event is regarded as 
due to the action of Nebuchadnezzar and Ahasuerus; from which 
we may identify Ahasuerus with Cyaxares, king of Media, and 
where we must substitute for Nebuchadnezzar his father Nabo- 
polassar, unless we prefer to argue that one of the two kings of 
Babylon was general for the other, in which case Tobit's statement 
might pass muster : for the fall of Nineveh was due to a combined 
attack of Medes and Babylonians. 

As the book assigns an age of 125 years to Tobias and 128 to 
his father Tobit, the period of history referred to would be fairly 
covered by the two long lives in question. So that we must at 
least credit the author with an attempt at historical accuracy. 

The account given in the Sinaitic MS. will be found more correct 
in the names: it gives Sennacherim for Sennacherib, and for 
Esarhaddon has once Xap^eSoiv which is very near to the Assyrian 
form. (The spelling ^ax^pSdv of the Alexandrian MS. should also 
be noticed.) In the closing passage of the book the Sinaitic MS. 
makes the captivity and fall of Nineveh the work of ' A;^ta;^a/!}09 : 
this I should take to he a pure blunder, caused by the omission of 
Nebuchadnezzar, and the confusion oVK.av'qpo^ with the frequently 
recurring ^ k')(^Ldxapo^. 

Now let us turn to the legend of Ahikar. The versions agree 
in referring the story to the days of Sennacherib, the son of 
Sarhadum, king of Assyria and Nineveh. There can be no doubt 

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that Esarhaddon is meant, and that the order of the kings is the 
reverse of the historical order as given in Tobit. We should 
naturally conclude that the mistake is primitive, for all these 
Mesopotamian legends are weak in history and chronology : and in 
that case, the blunder would be corrected in Tobit, who has 
evidently tried to be historical, by reference to II. Kings. 

It may be suggested that perhaps the original draft of Ahikar 
ran as follows : ' in the days of Sennacherib and in the days of 
Esarhaddon, kings of Assyria ' ; and that this would explain why 
Tobit says that Esarhaddon made Ahikar Grand Vizier the second 
time. But a reference to later passages in the story in which 
Sennacherib speaks of Ahikar*s fidelity in the days of ' my father 
Elsarhaddon ' shows that the mistake runs right through the story, 
the whole of which is laid in the reign of Sennacherib. 

So we suspect that it is this same blunder which Tobit is 
trying to correct when he says that Esarhaddon vlo^ e/c BevTepa^ 
appointed Ahikar. He had before him a statement that * the son 
of Esarhaddon made Ahikar vizier the second time,' i.e. that he 
restored him to his original dignity ; this has been badly corrected 
into * Esarhaddon, a son ck Bevrepa^,' The awkwardness of the text 
of Tobit is due to his direct dependence upon Ahikar, whose 
historical details he is trying to correct. We shall allow, then, the 
existence of the blunder in the order of the kings, in the earliest 
form of the legends 

The other names which occur in the story of Ahikar do not 

appear in the book of Tobit; careful enquiry must be made 

whether they belong to the primitive form of the legend. They 

are (i) the name of Avar's wife, (ii) the name of Nadan's 

younger brother, (iii) the name of Ahikar's friend the executioner, 

(iv) the name of the king of Persia with whom Nadan intrigues, 

(v) the name of A^^ikar's slave, who is set to watch the imprisoned 

Nadan, (vi) the names of two bo}^ who are trained to ride on 

^ The proposal to replace 'Laffxriddiv by Sargon is another suggestion for evading 
the difficnltj. There are, however, too many places to be treated to make the 
correction likely : we most say ^ith Sir Isaac Newton {Chronology, p. 282), ' Asser- 
hadon called Sarohedon by Tobit.' 

L. A. e 

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eagles and build a castle in the air, (vii) the name of the criminal 
substituted for Ahikar at the time of execution. 

(i) In the latter part of the story of Ahikar, the sixty wives 
of the opening sentences are reduced to a single dominant figure 
of a very clever woman, who shares her husband's counsels and 
assists his schemes. We are inclined to think that she does not 
belong to the original draft of the story. She is called in Syriac 
Ashfegani, ^I^jkk': and in Arabic ^yJiMJ^\ or ^^JUL2rt which 
appear to be equivalent to the Syriac form. The Armenian has 
Abestan and ArphestaUy and the Slavonic drops it altogether. 

(ii) Nadan's younger brother appears in Syriac as Nahu- 
zardaUy a correct Assyrian form, which may however be derived 
from II. Kings xxv. : in the Arabic we find Benuzarden which is 
a mere corruption of the foregoing, and Naudan. In the Vatican 
text of Tobit, there is a remote probability that he appears as 
Nasbds, but the identification is very uncertain. 

(iii) The executioner is known in Syriac as YaJmsemakh, which 
is a corruption of Nabusemakh (the meaning of which may be 
' Nebo has supported *), with which we may compare Ahisamakh 
in Ex. xxxi. 6. The Arabic and Karshuni texts sometimes give 
the original form Nabusemakh, and sometimes show corruptions 
of it, as Ibn Samikh, or Ibn Samikh Meskin Kanti, where Meskin 
may have arisen out of Samikh, and Kanti may stand for an 
original Syriac %^\l^ = my colleague. The Armenian has, in fact, 
* Abusmaq, my comrade.' In Slavonic he is simply ' my friend/ 
which supports the explanation. 

It appears both from this case and the preceding one that 
the name of an Assyrian deity is involved: this may also be 
seen in the Aesop story, which makes the name of the exe- 
cutioner Hermippos ; Hermes is, in fact, the Greek equivalent of 
Nebo. C£ Abulfaraj, Hist Dynast ill., *His name is Nebu- 
chadnezzar, i.e. Hermes speaks.' We have here a powerful argu- 
ment against the priority of the Aesop legends. 

(iv) The king of Persia is called, in Sg, Akhi bar Hamselim, 
*>»>\fw>**i|T> %-a »^f^^ which the Arabic makes into 'Achish, 

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the son of Shah the wise ' ; I hardly know how to explain this 
curious form: perhaps the original reading was Ahasuerus, He 
is said in the Arabic to be the king of 

i.e. Persia and the Barbarians : Meissner had already conjectured 
that this should be corrected to Persia and Elam^; and in fact 
the Cambridge Syriac has Elam. 

This is further confirmed by the Slavonic version, which reads 
'the king of Persia, Nalon/ an independent corruption of the 
same phrase. The expression ' King of Persia and Elam ' cer- 
tainly has an archaic look. The trait is lost in bhe Armenian. 

(v) The name of the slave who writes down the reproaches 
which Ahikar pronounces over his nephew has also undergone 
a good deal of mutation. The Slavonic Nagvbil has a primitive 
appearance, especially when we compare it with the biblical 
Ahednego which is supposed to stand for * servant of Nebo ' ; and 
the suggested equivalence of Nego and Nebo is confirmed by the 
Arabic readings Nebuhel and Nahuhal, 

In Armenian he appears as Biliar, 

We have, however, the suspicion that here also the name 
of the Assyrian deity is involved. 

(vi) The two boys who are trained to ride on eagles and 
build a castle in the air are called in Arabic copies Na- 
huhail and Tahshalom ; other copies omit them. The S3aiac (Sg) 
has Ubael and Tabshalam. In the Armenian they are absent 
and so in the Slavonic. Of these names the first seems to be 
added on the hypothesis that it is one of the flying boys that 
is set to watch Nadan. The second name is also suspect, as 
not belonging to the original draft of the story. For it appears 
to be borrowed from the Arabic version of the stories of Kalilah 
and Dimnah, where it has the form Dabshalim, and although the 
name has a Semitic cast, it is of Indian origin. It appears in 
the Syriac Kalilah as Dahshararriy and Benfey has conjectured that 
this goes back to a Sanskrit Devofarman*, Burton, also, was 

^ p. 177, and cf. Lidzbarski, p. 13 note. 

^ See Keith-Falconer, Book of Kalilah and Dimnah^ pp. 270, 271. 

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struck by the similarity of these fonns, and says * The sound bears 
a suspicious resemblance to Dabshalim in c. 1 of the fables of 
Pilpay (i.e. Kalilah and Dimnah*). 

It is, of course, quite conceivable that the episode of the 
flying boys may belong to the later developments of the story. 

(vii) The Cambridge Syriac gives a name to the slave who 
is executed in the place of A^ikar; he is called Manziphar. 
The Armenian gives this as Seniphar, The meaning of the name 
is not clear, nor is it certain that it is primitive. 

On reviewing these proper names, we shall be struck by the 
prominence of Assyrian influence, especially in the recurrence 
of the name Nebo. It is even possible that to the instances 
given above we should add Nadom as a worn down. form of 
Nahudan, And the occurrence of such Assyriasms is the more 
remarkable in view of the feet that in Tobit all the names, or 
almost all, are compounds of El and Yah. We have also in 
A^ikar some significant allusions to the great god Bel, which 
should be set side by side with the references to Nebo. 

It may be asked, What are the actual deities referred to in 
A^dkar ? In spite of the suggestion of Tobit that Ahikar is a 
relation of his, and therefore, presumably, a Jew, the suspicion 
which arises from the comparison of the versions inter se is that 
he is a polytheist: and that, just as the later forms of the story 
have reformed its revengeful ethics, so they have improved the 
theology of its hero. 

We find that in the Arabic version, the sage consults as- 
trologers, wizards and learned men, with regard to his childless 
condition, and is directed to pray to the gods. No special gods 
are named, but when we turn to the Armenian text we find 
that Ahikar 'enters to the gods with many offerings, lights a 
fire, and casts incense thereon and presents offerings and sacrifices 
victims.' Then he kneels down and prays to the gods, as follows : 
* O my lords, Belshim and Shimel and Shamin, command 

and give me male seed/ 

1 See Burton, p. 17. 

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Here it certainly appears as if there had been revision, on the 
part of the Sjrriac, in the interests of monotheism. The names, 
however, in the Armenian are perplexing: they do not seem to 
be bona-fide Assyrian deities, in spite of the appearance of Bel 
in composition. And this is the more remarkable because, in 
the Egyptian episodes, which one would be tempted on some 
accounts to regard as later developments, the Assyrian Bel is 
not only mentioned, but he is also very well defined. 

Thus we find in the Arabic that Haikar compared his master 
Sennacherib to the Qod of Heaven (having previously compared 
Pharaoh and his nobles to Bel and his priests, and to the month 
of Nisan and its flowers). He (the God of Heaven) has power 
to prevent Bel and his nobles from going through the streets 
and sends storms which destroy the glory of Nisan. Lidzbarski 
has suggested that we have here an allusion to the procession 
of the statues of Bel and the other gods on the Assyrian New 
Year's Day: an event which is commonly recorded on the Assyrian 
monuments, and in unauspicious times appears in the form * Bel 
came not forth.' If this allusion is rightly recognised, the matter 
must be early, and this part of the Egyptian episode is justified. 
It has an earlier flavour than most of the biblical apocryphal 
allusions, and is so far removed from the puerilities of *Bel 
and the Dragon' as to deserve to be assigned to an earlier 

One must not, however, assume of necessity that the allusions 
belong to the time of Nineveh or of Babylon. Bel and Nebo 
may occur at a much later date than that to which we refer 
the composition of the legend. Such names might be introduced 
by a story-teller, who knew the worship of Bel and Nebo as it 
continued to exist long after the fall of the great Mesopotamian 

Thus we find in the Doctrine of Addai that the people of 
Edessa were converted to Christianity from the worship of Bel 
and Nebo ; e.g. p. 23, * Who is this Nebo, an idol which ye 

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worship, and Bel whom ye honour?^' p. 32, *They threw down 
the altars upon which they sacrificed before Nebo and Bel their 
gods*; p. 48, 'Even the priests of Bel and Nebo divided with 
them the honour at all times.' It seems to be admitted in this 
composition that the worship of Bel and Nebo had not been 
wholly expelled from Edessa by Christianity ^ 

Still, on the whole, there are allusions in the story of A^kar 
to Assyrian deities, which seem to have an early form and to 
betray a close acquaintance with Ninevite worship. The diffi- 
culty is in explaining the Armenian names; for we have in the 
two places to which reference has been made, in the account 
of Ahikar's Egyptian visit, the following contrasts : 

Syriac. Arabic. Armenian. 

Bel. The idol Bel. The diq (or daemons). 

(Erased.) The god of heaven. Belshim. 

Perhaps the confusion arises from the removal of the name of 

Bel, and the substitution of some more general or more orthodox 

name; is it possible that Belshim arises out of an attempt to 

correct Bel into 'Lord of Heaven'? If so, we should have to 

restore the name of Bel in two places in the Armenian, and this 

would also have the effect of restoring it in the Syriac and Arabic 

parallels. The story would, then, be definitely polytheistic, not 

only in the Egyptian episode, but from the very commencement ; 

and we should have a better reason for the non-canonisation of 

the story than the imperfection of its ethics. But even if, as 

seems probable, Belshim be allowed to stand in the second passage 

of the Armenian, and be equated with the ' god of heaven,' there 

is still a polytheistic element left in each of the versions in the 

first of the passages referred to : nor is it easy to see how the 

charge of polytheism is altogether to be evaded. 

1 The New Testament, also, has an allusion to Nebo in the name of Barnabas, 
and makes a spiritual translation of the name to suit the new faith. 

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We now propose to enquire whether anything is known of 
Ahikar in Greek literature, and whether such allusions to him 
as can be detected imply a knowledge of the legend. 

The most important passage is undoubtedly one in Clement 
of Alexandria, who tells us that the Greek philosopher Demo- 
critus had made a study of the Babylonian ethics, and had 
incorporated with his own writings a translation of the pillar 
of Akikar. As the passage is generally understood, Clement 
is taken to say that we can convict Democritus of plagiarism by 
observing the way in which he prefixes ' thus saith Democritus * 
to his own writings : meaning, as I suppose, that the appropriated 
matter can be isolated from Democritus' own ethical collections. 
He goes on to speak of Democritus' pride over his travels and 
his visits to Babylon, Persia and Egypt. In these travels he 
came across and translated 'the pillar of Akikar.' But here is 
the passage itself for reference* : 

^rjfjLOKpiTo^ yap Toif<: 3aj3v\(oviov<; X6yov<i rjdiKov^ TreiroiT^rai, 
Xeyerai yap Trjv ^AKCKcipov arrfKrjv epp/qvevdelaav, toI^ 
IBloi^ a-vprd^ac avyypdfjbfjbaai, Koa-riv eTnarjp/rivaadaL irap 
avTOV, TaSe Xiyec AfjfjLO/cpiro^, ypd<f)0VT0^* xal firjv Kal irepl 
avTOv, y a€fjLvvv6fJbev6^ (fyrjal ttov iirl t§ iroXvfiaffia, 

1 Clem. Alex. 1 Strom, ed. Potter, i. 356. 

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Now it is not easy to find out what Clement means by this. 
How could Democritus have made Babylonian discourses ? And 
who is Akikar from whose pillar he translated and stole ? And 
how is the composition or transference of the ethical discourses 
indicated by Democritus? 

It seems clear from the whole trend of Clement's argument 
on the theft from barbarian philosophers by the Greeks, whom 
a wise man described to Solon as 'aye children/ that he is 
charging Democritus as well as Solon and Pythagoras with appro- 
priating the ideas and language of other races and teachers. 

But can ireTrolrjTai bear this meaning? It is not easy to 
admit that it can. It therefore seems to us that, (if we do 
not emend to irepiTroieiTai), either rjdi/cov^ is an error of the 
text for iBiKov<;, or that some word like ISikov^ has dropped 
out after i^0ikov^. So that it means 'Democritus has made the 
Babylonian [ethic] treatises [his own], for he incorporates the 
column of Akikar with his own writings and prefixes the words 
'Thus saith Democritus.' Such a proceeding is certainly 'flat 
burglary/ to be classed along with the Greek thefts from Moses. 

The objection to this reconstruction of the passage^ would 
seem to lie in the fact that it has already been quoted by 
Eusebius from Clement in the Praeparatio Evangelica in the 
words KoX Arjuo/cpiTO^ Se en irporepov tov<; ^a^vXcDvlov^ Xoyov^ 
YjOiKov^ irerroirjaOai, Xeyerac* : so that the error would have to 
be older than Eusebius. Probably we can overrule this objection 
by admitting the antiquity of the error ; and then we find that 
we have made excellent sense of a difficult passage by the 
suggested restoration. Since the writings of Democritus are 
certainly ethical, we incline to believe that a word has dropped 
after rjOiKov^;. The sajdngs of Akikar might well be described 
as \ir/oL Ba^vKdvioc rjOiKol, and then we identify readily the 
Akikar of Clement with the hero of our legend. 

^ I see that my suggestion has been in part anticipated by Cobet, who proposes 
to replace 'f/BiKo^s by lULovs, 
2 lib. X., 0. 4. 

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^!Sam^Wh •.=T^n^PiiTfrr,r.m:igriiwnhninrr-i;iTi^ 


It is a remarkable fact that not only Clement, but also Theo- 
pbrastus and Strabo, seem. to know something of a man or a 
book which is in singular agreement with the name of the hero 
of our tale. Thus Diogenes Laertius^ tells us that Theophrastus 
composed inter alia a book which is called 'A/tftx«po9 : and Strabo 
in recounting famous persons of antiquity who had 'mantic' 
gifts enumerates *rrapa to?? Boo-TTopai/oi? ^ P^xaiKapov, The names 
are closely related to the name in the book of Tobit ; and we are 
inclined to think that they represent one and the same person, 
and that the story and teaching of Ahikar had early penetrated 
into Greece*. 

But how, it will be asked, could so early a writer as Demo- 
critus be thought to have borrowed ethical precepts from an 
Assyrian sage, unless we were to assign an extraordinary antiquity 
to Ahikar, and give a reality to the romance concerning him and 
to his ethical precepts which is not warranted either by the 
document itself or by the character of the Apocryphal products 
with which it is associated? 

But the error in this case lies in the other direction, viz. in 
taking Democritus too seriously. Of the writings which circulate 
under his name, and of the sajdngs ascribed to him, many are 
falsely inscribed. It was easy to refer ethical precepts to the 
greatest of the Greek ethical teachers. We must not assume 
that, because Clement of Alexandria assigns a work to Demo- 
critus, he was necessarily responsible for it. All that we are 
entitled to say is that certain works, especially collections of 
gnomic sayings, passed under his name. Clement, indeed, may 

* Lib. V. 0. 60. 

^ It will be objected (a) that Bwnropwht is not a proper description for Ahikar : 
(5) that there is no mention of any pillar upon which his sayings were inscribed, in 
any of the versions that have come to light. The force of these objections may be 
diminished by remarking, (a) that Bocnropavots is probably corrupt, (&) that 
although there is no mention of any pillar in the eastern forms of the story, the 
Aesop legends represent king Lykeros as ordering a golden statne to be erected to 
Aesop, and they also say that after Aesop had been killed by the Delphians, the 
oracle required them to propitiate the gods by setting up a pillar to his memory 
((rHiKtiv ap4ffT7i(rap). 

L. A. / 

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affirm that amongst these sajdogs are certain passages taken 
by Democritus from the column of Ahikar, but that is merely 
Clement's criticism of the work. 

In any case the modem philosophical writers do not regard 
the ethical work referred to by Clement as a genuine work of 
Democritus. Natorp, who is the best editor of the Democritean 
Fragments, says of the book in question that it is certainly not 
genuine, and he refers for confirmation to Miiller, who in his 
Fragments of Greek Historians had expressed a similar view. 
There is, therefore, no reason why the question of the relative 
dates of Democritus and Ahikar should preclude us from iden- 
tifying the hero of our legend with the writer on ethics to whom 
Clement, Strabo and Theophrastus refer. Ahikar is certainly, 
for the ancient world, a great teacher of ethics. As a result of 
the increasing intercourse between East and West, his precepts 
as well as his story penetrated into Greece. All that we really 
want is a little more evidence that sayings like his passed 
current in Greek collections, and that there are traces of their 
circulation under the name of Democritus. 

In this direction, our first inspection of the Greek gnomic 
collections, and of Democritus in particular, is likely to be dis- 
appointing, for the sajdngs of Ahikar are Biblical in character and 
Semitic in tone, whilst those of Democritus are fundamentally 
Greek. But a little closer study finds some curious points of 
contact between the two systems. 

We observe that Democritus frequently appears in collections 
of gnomic sayings as Democrates, and that, from similarity in the 
names, the latter often appears in the form Socrates\ 

In the Aethiopic Book of the Wise Philosophers we have a 
collection of sayings, translated from the Arabic into the Aethiopic, 
with names of authors attached. This Arabic collection is based 
either wholly or in part upon a Syriac collection which underlies 

1 e.g. ComiU*s Book of the Wise Philosophers from the Aethiopic contains an 
unknown Greek (?) proverb, which in his Frankfort Codex is ascribed to Socrates, 
bat in the Tubingen copy to Demokrates : see Gornill, p. 34. 

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it. For it opens with a long preface, of which the first words 

' In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful, in whom 
is our confidence and our help, we begin with the help of 
our Lord Jesus Christ to write the book of the wise 
philosophers etc.' 

Here it is easy to see that a Moslem formula has been 
superposed upon the common preface of the Syrian scribes, as it 
occurs in hosts of Mss. ; the collection is, therefore, either wholly 
or in part, from a Syriac base. 

Amongst the sayings we find fifteen sayings of Ahikar to 
Nadan, which the reader will find printed below : they agree 
closely with those in the edited stories and may all be accepted as 
belonging to the ethics of Ahikar. 

The second of these sayings will be found ascribed to De- 
mocrates in Shahre8tani\ 

The thirteenth of the sayings nins as follows : ' It is better to 
stumble with the foot, than with the tongue; and do not utter 
any discourse with thy tongue before thou hast taken counsel 
with thyself* The first half of the saying is ascribed to Socrates 
in the collections of Maximus^ 

It is not improbable that the saying has found its way into 
the Parallels of Maximus from a Democritean collection. But as 
it occurs in the sayings of Ahi^, in Ethiopic and in Syriac, in 
Arabic and Slavonic, we have a suspicion that there is a coincident 
ascription of the saying both to Democritus and to Ahikar, and 
that in the proverbial wisdom of the latter it is one of the 
primitive elements. 

While, then, we have not suflScient evidence to decide finally 

1 Ed. Careton, p. 306, the proverb in question being, * the tail of a dog gives 
him meat, his voice gets him blows.' 

^ No. 940. In the ooUeotion of Pearls of Babbi Solomon Ibn Gabirol, the 
saying is given in an anonymous form, as foUows: 

No. 357. 'He was wont to say, A slip of the tongne is more dangerous than the 
slip of the foot, for the slip of the tongne may cost thy head, whilst the slip of the 
foot may easily be cured.* 

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the question of Democritean thefts from A^ikar, enough has been 
said to establish some probability that Clement of Alexandria did 
actually refer to sajdngs of Ahikar, which he found paralleled in a 
pseudo-Democritean collection. The supposition has the merit of 
simplicity and explains most of the obscure allusions in the Greek 
writers referred to above. 

But this must not be taken as suggesting that A^^dkar was a 
real person. The circulation of the story in which he is the 
leading figure, and the separate circulation of his maxims, are 
sufficient to explain his celebrity. He is as substantial as Tobit, 
but not more so; the two creations stand or fall, historically, 

Origen, also, seems to have known something about Ahikar, 
though we are not able to affirm that his allusions go beyond the 
references in Tobit. In his famous letter to Africanus, on the 
question of the canonicity of the story of Susanna, in reply to 
critical objections made by Africanus, he urges that the captive 
Jews may really have become wealthy and influential, as they are 
represented to be in Susanna, for we have the parallel cases of 
Tobit and Achiacar. Here he seems to be referring to the book 
of Tobit. The question, however, will arise, whether in the context 
he betrays any knowledge of Ahikar outside the book of Tobit ? 
I think not. Yet it is certainly curious that, a little earlier in his 
argument, he tries to explain the punishment of the Un&ithful 
Servant in the Gospel (which we shall presently show to have 
been influenced by Ahikar), with its perplexing ScxoTOfjuijaet 
avTov, and says that this punishment is inflicted by angels in the 
next world. As we shall see it is this very story in the Gospel 
that is so remarkably illustrated by the Ahikar legend. But 
Origen appears to have been led to it by the language in Susanna 
(ax^ci o-e), and not by any reflection upon the coincidences 
between Ahikar and the New Testament. We cannot, then, 
affirm that the knowledge of Ahikar which Origen had goes 
beyond that which is contained in the book of Tobit. 

Before leaving this part of the subject, we draw attention to 

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two further references to A^itar, one from the West, and the 
other from the East. The first consists of certain allusions in the 
recently published Miscellanea Cadnese. The passage occurs in a 
tract entitled Inventiones nominum from a St Gall codex, No. 130 
(Saec. viii.). 

Duo sunt Nadab, unus est Nadab filius Aaron, alius Nadab 
Tubia qui vivum obruit Achia Caroneum qui se nutrierat. 

Correct the text to Nadab in Tvbia (cf. Azaria in Tvbia which 
occurs a little later); and for Achia Caroneum read Achiacarum 
eum. There is nothing in this passage that goes beyond the book 
of Tobit, and it is to Tobit that the writer expressly refers. The 
Latin of Tobit actually has vivum deduxit and qui eum nutrivit. 
It does not, therefore, appear that any fresh source of information 
has been combined with the book of Tobit. 

The Eastern reference is in the Lexicon of Bar Bahlul, and 
does not seem to depend directly upon Tobit, but upon the 
Syriac and Arabic versions of Ahikar. A copy of this lexicon 
in my possession contains not only the ordinary Sjrriac and 
Arabic glosses, with some added ones, but it has also a series of 
Armenian glosses in Syriac characters^. In this MS. we have a 
Syro-Armenian gloss to the effect that Ahikar (iaujf^) is the 
vizier of a king named Haikar (io^**). Here the Syriac legend, 
as well as the Arabic, has been drawn upon : as is shown by the 
double spelling and by the allusion to his position as vizier to the 

We shall now pass on to discuss the relations between Ahikar 
and the books of the Old and New Testaments. 

^ This is the first ms. I have ever seen of Armenian written Syriacd. 

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We now proceed to examine how the legend of Ahikar stands 
in relation to the books of the Old and New Testaments, so as to 
give it its proper chronological position amongst them, and to 
determine from what books, if any, it makes quotations, and by 
what books it is itself quoted. We have in part anticipated this 
enquiry in the discussion of its connexion with the book of Tobit. 
Let us take up the thread of the argument again at this point. 

The main reasons for assuming the priority of the story of 
Ahikar to that of Tobit are, briefly, as follows. 

It has been shown, by a study of the names, that the same 
persons are intended in the two legends ; and it is clear that the 
allusions in Tobit to Ahikar and Nadan imply that the legend of 
Ahikar was known to the author of Tobit, and the only question 
is whether this legend was in its written form or in a traditional 
and oral dress. 

Now it is very difficult to see why Tobit should have thrust in 
these allusions to Ahikar, which do not really affect his story and 
are not involved in it by any link of necessity, unless the story 
had been before the mind of the author of Tobit as a literary 

Does the placing of the two stories side by side justify us in 
believing that one of them was the model of the other, and that 
they are almost a pair of companion pictures ? 

We may answer this question by pointing to the remarkable 

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parallels in structure in the two books and to cases in which 
obscurities in Tobit are explained by the parallels in Ahikar. 

Each story has a moral purpose (as all good stories ought to 
have), Tobit serving to prove that almsgiving is one of the highest 
virtues, and pays the highest dividend, while Ahikar is written to 
show how evil comes to him that evil devisea 

In the story of Tobit, the departure of the young man to go 
to Media is made the opportunity for a little treatise on ethics : 
the section begins c. v. 5, as follows: 

*A11 the days do thou remember the Lord our God; and 
transgress not His commandments' 

and it ends c. v. 19, 

*And now, my child, remember my commandments and let 
them not be blotted out of thy heart/ 

The parallel section in the ethics of Ahikar begins, 

' My son, listen to my speech, follow my opinion, and keep 
my words in remembrance \ 

The parallelism in the treatment is suflBciently evident. But 
there is a closer parallel in the fact that there is common matter 
in the two ethical sections referred to : we may compare 

Tobit iv. 17 with Ahikar, 

* Pour out thy bread on the graves * My son, pour out thy wine on the 

of the righteous, and do not give it to graves of the righteous, rather than 
sinners 2.' drink it with evil or common men^' 

^ In the Annenian the injunotion is at the end of the ethical tract as it is in 
Tobit, and runs thus: 

* Son, receive into thy mind mj precepts, and forget them not.' 

In the Arabic it stands at the head of the section, as in the Sjriac given 

* O my son, hear my speech and foUow my advice and remember what I say.' 

3 A number of authorities for the text of Tobit have the advice in the form 
*Pour out thy bread and thy wine,* which is perhaps an attempt to correct the 
incongruity in the language of Tobit. Ball suggests an original Hebrew, * Portion 
out (which might he misread pour oat) thy bread and thy wine in the midst of the 
righteous ' ; which restoration is condemned by the parallel in Ahikar. 

' The Armenian drops the reference to the ' graves of the just,' but the Syriac 
and Arabic texts support it, and it must certainly be retained. 

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The comparison between the two texts shows the sense in 
which Tobit is to be taken. The sentence in Tobit looks like a 
senseless modification of the corresponding one in Ahikar. For 
the word 'pour out' is not proper with 'bread/ though it is 
justified by the parallel in Ahikar. 

In the last words of Tobit, we find him telling his son that 

Tob. xiv. 10. * Nadan went down into darkness. Manasses [1. 
Ahikar] did alms and was saved from the snare of death 
which Nadan laid for him. Nadan, however, fell into the 
snare and perished.* 

Turn back to Tobit*s famous and much-disputed ethical 
precept : 

Tob. iv. 10. * Alms doth deliver from death, and will not sufier 
thee to come into darkness.' 

A comparison between the two passages shows that the ethical 
precept of Tobit is deduced from and confirmed by the experience 
of Ahikar and Nadan. The kejmote of the Tobit legend is found 
already struck in that of Ahikar. Thus the intimate connexion 
between the two books is brought out. The ethics of Tobit 
presuppose the experience of Ahikar, just as we have shown above 
that they presuppose his teaching^ 

Perhaps it will be objected at this point that there is no reason 
for Tobit's crediting the good Ahikar with the virtue, the saving 
virtue, of almsgiving, when the extant legends of Ahikar say 
nothing on the point. 

If the omission in the romance of the detail which Tobit 
suggests were really established, one thing would at all events be 
clear, viz. that Ahikar was not written to explain the allusions in 
Tobit: for in that case the leading sentiment in the book has been 
neglected. So that we should not have banished the theory of 
the priority of Ahikar by granting the fact of the omission 
referred to. It could still be held that the prominence which is 
given to the virtue of almsgiving in Tobit has been artificially 

^ The argnmeiit of Tobit that ' ahns deliver from death and darkness ' becomes 
generalised in Siraoh zxiz. 12, * Alms...shaU deliver thee from aU affliction.* 

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projected back upon the earlier story, and the doctrine of charity 
has been made the link between the two compositions. Such 
literary artifices are common enough and would suffice to explain 
the apparent omission in what is suspected to be an eariier 

But is it so certain that there is no reference to almsgiving in 
Ahikar ? The allusions of Tobit to his story contain a number of 
details which are evidently parts of a well-established tradition. 
'Remember how Nadab handled Ahikar/ &c. And it may be 
questioned whether we have a right to detach the statements 
concerning almsgiving and say of them that these are due to the 
literary invention of Tobit while the remainder are taken from his 

The true solution of the difficulty lies in the denial of the 
preliminary assumption that there is no mention of almsgiving in 
Ahikar. May not almsgiving have been replaced by some other 
term? The students of the New Testament are aware of the 
confusion which exists in the early texts of the Gospel over the 
word iK€r)fjLoavpi] ; such, for instance, as gives rise to the variation 
in Matt. vi. 1 where iXer^fwavvrj is the equivalent of an Aramaic 
UpDt (= alms or righteousness). 

Now in the Old Testament it is only slowly that the equiva- 
lence of alms and righteousness becomes sensible. It may be 
detected, however, in Ps. cxii. 4, * He is gracious and full of com- 
passion and righteous,' i.e. charitable. And in the book of Daniel 
(which belongs to the same period as the two romances which we 
are discussing) we have the perfect equivalence, 'Break oflF thy 
sins by righteousness and thy iniquity by showing mercy to the 
poor' And we cannot say that the Greek translation of HpTX by 
i\€r)fioavvrf belongs to a later age than that of Tobit, seeing that 
the rendering is found in the Septuagint, in the Pentateuch, which 
is probably as old as Tobit itself. And in the text of Tobit we 
have the convincing proof that ikerj/ioavvr} really means alms, as 
in such passages as ' Give alms of thy substance * iv. 7 ; * If thou 
hast abundance, give alms accordingly' iv. 8; 'Alms is a good 
L. A. g 

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gift ' iv. 11 ; ' It is better to give alms than to lay up gold * xii. 8 
(which verse immediately precedes the statement that ' alms doth 
deliver from death *). In Tobit, therefore, we have, in all probability, 
an equivalence between the primitive HpTX and eXeiy/Aoo-vi^*. 

The equivalence being established, we have now to examine 
whether in any passage of Ahikar there is a suggestion of a 
confusion between 'righteousness* and 'alms/ 
The Syriac tells us as follows : 

' My son, I set thee upon the seat of honour ; and thou hast 
dragged me down from my seat ; but as for me my righteotis- 
^^^^ (i^CLiT^^) saved me'. 
And again : 

*My son... thou didst beat my servants who had not done 
foolishly : and according as God kept me alive on account of 
my righteousness (|4iCLlKtJi)» so he will destroy thee on 
account of thy deeds.' 
We have only to imagine that this translation is meant to 
represent a Hebrew HpTX and then we have the complete explan- 
ation of what Tobit meant in his references to Ahikar; and we 
may be confident, in view of the proved consanguinity and 
contemporaneity of the two stories, that Tobit has given the right 

The parallel between ' alms doth deliver from death ' and ' God 
kept me alive on account of my almsgiving ' would be so close that 
there would be no residual obscurity in Tobit's references. 

If further proofs were wanted of the literary parallelism 
between the two stories, we might draw attention to the fact that 
each of the two tales is an autobiography. 'I Tobit' is the 
nucleus of one tale, ' I Ahikar ' of the other. Some of the forms 

^ Onoe or twice in Tobit, we actually have a double translation of the original 
Hebrew : e.g. xii. 9, o2 voiovrrei i\€iffM(r6vas xal diKouoaiivas ; and cf. xiv, 11, tderc ri 
iKeniMxrivrj iroieT xal diKaioai^pff ^Cercu : where, if the text be right, there should be a 
strong stop after diKcuwr^vif, Cf. also Tob. ii. 14, iroO eltriv cd iKerjfAoc^ou ffov xal ai 
SiKaioaf^ai crov; 

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of the latter story obliterate the peculiarity, but it can readily be 
restored by a comparison of the different versions. 

At the close of the book of Tobit the story adds a hymn of 
praise which Tobit wrote (^ayfrev wpoaevxv^), ai^d this, with 
some ethical advices from Raphael the angel, and a few supple- 
mentary counsels of father to son, ends the book. 

At the close of A^iikar, we have a series of anathemas on 
Nadan, which are also to be committed to writing ; * Write every 
word that I shall say to the foolish Nadan.' The parallelism is 
not, however, as close at this point as might have been expected. 
It is characteristic of compositions of this kind to insert a psalm 
or a prayer or an ethical tract ; such parts of the story need not be 
original, provided that they can be handled so as to be picturesque. 
Compare, for example, Jonah's prayer in the belly of the fish, 
(probably a psalm older than the book of Jonah,) or the song of 
the Three Children, which is a similar adaptation of earlier matter. 
One desiderates something of the kind in Ahikar. There ought 
to have been a prayer of Ahikar when he was in the pit, to match 
Tobit's prayer. It should have been, in structure, something like 
one of the imprecatory Psalms. We shall see, presently, that 
there are linguistic parallels between Ahikar and certain of the 
Psalms, which go far to invite the suggestion that an actual 
prayer of Ahikar may possibly be extant in the Psalter. For the 
present it is sufficient to say that it would add greatly to the 
proved consanguinity of Tobit and Ahikar, if such a document 
could be found and restored to the text. 

Reviewing our examination of the literary structure of the two 
books, we may say that we have proved them to be a pair of 
companion pictures, and we have given a good many reasons for 
believing that Ahikar is the earlier work of the two. 

A residual difficulty lies in the apparent reference on the part 
of Tobit to experiences of Ahikar which are not recorded in our 
recovered texts. Tobit says that, in his blindness, Ahikar main- 
tained him until he went to Elymais. Dr Dillon suggests that the 
Hebrew of Ahikar contained a word meaning 'hiding-place* 

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(D7y = to hide), which has been misunderstood as the name of a 
place. It certainly would be a much better reason why A^dkar 
left oflf his care of Tobit, if he were in a hole underground, than 
if he had merely gone on a journey from Nineveh to Elymais. 
We may accept this explanation for the presents 

1 At the same time I am not quite easy on the point May not Ahikar have 
taken a long journey, which may have been the first occasion on which Nadan 
began to misbehave and to beat the men and the maids ? It will be noted that the 
Gospel, in a passage certainly inspired from the story of Ahikar, prefaces the 
beating of men and maids by a statement of the absence of the lord of the house 
on a journey and the assumption on the part of the wicked servant that his master 
delays his return. If such an incident once formed a part of the earlier sections in 
Ahikar, we might agree with Tobit in sending Ahikar to Elymais, and find one 
more phrase caught up from the legend in the Gospel. But here, perhaps, we are 
in the region of pure speculation. So, for the present, let Dr Dillon's ingenious 
explanation hold the field. 

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Assuming then that the previous investigations have rightly 
classed Tobit and A^ar together, and have rightly given the 
earlier place to the latter of the two books, we must examine 
into the general relations that subsist between Ahikar and the 
books of the Old and New Testaments. It is generally conceded 
that the book of Tobit was written not later than 100 B.a, and 
perhaps as early as 150 B.C. So that we can hardly place Ahikar 
later than 150 B.C., and may have to set it even earlier. What 
books would most likely have influenced a legend produced at such 
a time and in such a quarter ? If we may judge from the case of 
Tobit the answer would be readily given; for Tobit is under 
the influence of the prophets. Amongst his references to them 
will be found direct quotations from Amos, a direct allusion to 
Jonah's prophecy over Nineveh, and some passages on the future 
splendour of Jerusalem which go back to Isaiah. It is curious to 
remark that in Ahikar the coincidences are chiefly with the 
Sapiential books ; the general resemblance between the ethics of 
Ahikar and Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Sirach has been observed 
by earlier students. The form into which the ethical precepts are 
cast, each sentence of the teaching beginning with a tSkvov fiov, 
is the same as is found in Sirach, and in the Teaching of the 
Twelve Apostles. It is the old-world way of teaching amongst 
the Jews. It will be a question whether, in all the cases referred 

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to, the borrowing is on the side of Ahikar. In the case of coinci- 
dences with Sirach, for example, it is a question whether the 
priority is not with Ahikar. Take, for instance, the case referred 
to above, where Sirach teaches that 'alms will deliver from all 
affliction/ The form is a modification of what we find in Tobit, 
to the effect that alms delivers from death and darkness, and 

I these terms refer to the experience of A^kar. 

i What seems certain is that there is common matter in Sirach 

and A^iikar. For instance, in Sir. iv. 26 we have firj l3cd^ov povv 
TTora/iov, for which the Sjrriac of Sirach has 'do not stand up 
against a fool ' : the critics advise us to read, not 733, a fool, but 
7H3, a river. In Ahikar we have the precept 'not to stand 
against a river in its fulness.' 

More striking still is Sir. xxil 14, 15, * What is heavier than 
lead, and what is the name thereof, but a fool ? Sand and salt 
and a mass of iron is easier to bear, than a man without under- 
standing.* This finds a parallel in Prov. xxvii 3, ' A stone is heavy 
and sand weighty : but a fool's wrath is heavier than them both.' 
But a much nearer parallel is found in Ahikar, who tells us, ' My 
son, I have carried salt and have removed lead : and I have not 
seen anything heavier than that a man should pay a debt that he 
did not borrow. My son, I have carried iron and have removed 
stones, and they were not so burdensome to me as a man who sits 
in the house of his father-in-law.' It is difficult to settle priority 
in such cases: nor are we much helped by the parallels in the other 
versions, besides the Syriac from which we quoted above. The 
Armenian has, ' Son, I have eaten endive and I have drunk gall, 
and it was not more bitter than poverty. I have lifted salt and I 
have lifted lead, and it was not heavier than is debt. I have 
lifted iron and I have lifted stones upon my shoulders, and it was 
better for me than to dwell with the ignorant and the foolish.' 
Of this sentence the first part is preserved in the Arabic in the 
form, ' O my son ! I have eaten a colocynth and swallowed myrrh, 
and I have found nothing more bitter than poverty and scarcity*.' 
^ The exchange of myrrh and gall can be illustrated from the Gospels. 

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But the latter part of the saying is wanting in the Arabici 
The Slavonic, however, preserves both parts in a somewhat 
simpler form. It does not, then, seem likely that these sentences 
have come into Ahikar through copyists : they must be primitive : 
and the only question will be which of the two, Sirach and 
Ahikar, has influenced the other. Perhaps it will be better to 
leave the question open, until we have more light on the first 
form of the sayings of Ahikar : he might reasonably object to our 
laying on him the burden of a debt to Sirach which he did not 
really owe. The parallelisms, however, should be carefully noted. 

A similar coincidence of thought and expression between 
Ahikar and the book of Proverbs should also be remarked : most 
of those who have written on Ahikar's gnomic sayings have drawn 
attention to it. This parallelism becomes peculiarly striking in 
the closing words of Ahikar's teaching. For at this point we 
appear to strike a fresh stratum of sayings: the text contains 
sentences in the manner of the prophecy of Agur in Prov. xxx., 
in which the characters, persons and things are arranged in 
numerical groups: e.g. in Prov. xxx. 21, 'For three things the 
earth is disquieted and for four which it cannot bear' : and Prov. 
xxx. 24, * There be four things which are little upon the earth, 
but they are exceeding wise, &c.' Compare with this the follow- 
ing sentences from the Cambridge Syriac: 'There are four things 
together, which no king can stand'...; 'there are four which 
cannot remain hidden.' 

These sentences do not occur in the Armenian, but in the 
place of them we find a number of similar groups such as, ' Four 
things increase the light to men's eyes ' : ' four things bring tears to 
the eyes': 'four things improve a man's banquet': and what is 
remarkable in these groups is that they are expressly said, in the 
Armenian, to be taken from a separate collection, entitled 

' The questions of the king's sons and the answers of Khikar.' 

The king's sons are named, they are Houday and Baliayn, and 
here we are able to throw light upon the mysterious Ithiel and 
Ucal, who are spoken of in Prov. xxx., to whom Agur addressed 

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his epigrams. Evidently they are two inquisitive young gentle- 
men, who serve to bring out the wisdom of the sage and are 
probably a king's sons. Viewed in this light, we can get rid of 
some of the perplexities which ancient and modem translators and 
commentators have found in the passage. Agur himself is a kind 
of double of Ahikar, and the compositions referred to may be 
classed together. It seems likely, then, that the extant versions 
of Ahikar present us with fragments from more extended col- 
lections. And of the consanguinity of such collections with the 
Biblical Proverbs there can be no doubt*. 

Another difficult question is the connexion between Ahikar 
and certain of the Psalms. In the present day, when the Psalter 
is in process of critical disintegration, and its authorship is being 
redistributed, we are able to apply a freer criticism to the matter 
of the Psalms, and to allow a longer chronology to the whole 
collection. David no longer divides the authorship with Moses 
and Asaph. There is, therefore, nothing unreasonable in a sug- 
gestion made above that amongst the Psalms there may be a lost 
Psalm or prayer of Ahikar. We are, to be sure, in the region of 
pure conjecture, and all that we can say with certainty is that 
there are a number of Psalms, of a vindictive type, which are 
singularly appropriate to the condition of Ahikar in the pit, and 
one or two which are curiously coincident with his language in 
the legend that has come down to us. And these coincidences, 
while they do not suffice for more than suggestions of the literary 
fitness in the story of a Psalm or prayer of the distressed sage, are 
abundantly sufficient to prove the Hebraistic character of the 
original document from which our extant versions are derived. 
So that we gain something, even by the perilous practice of 

1 Jerome takes Agar to be the equivalent of compiler, and renders the word 
* Gongregans.' If we could only be sure that he was right, wq could use the 
interpretation of Hebrew names, which makes the same translation for Asaph. 
We should then be able to connect Agur and Asaph together, as we shall 
presently be obliged to do with Ahikar and Asaph. But this is again mere specu- 

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The best way of studjdng the parallels in thought and lan- 
guage between Ahikar and the Psalms, is to take a special Psalm^ 
say the 141st, and read it in the light of the recovered legend. 
We may compare as follows: 

Psalm cxli. 4. Ahikar, 

' Incline not my heart to any evil * O my son, be not neighbour to 

thing, to prj\cti8e wicked works with the fool, and eat not bread with 
men that work iniquity, and let me him.' 
not eat of their dainties.* 

Psalm cxli. 5. Ahikar. 

* Let the righteous smite me : it * my son, let the wise man beat 

shall be a kindness : and let him thee with a rod : but let not the fool 

reprove me : it shall be an excellent anoint thee with sweet salve.' 
oil which shall not break my head.' 

or comparing the text of the LXX., 

*The righteous shall chastise me 
in mercy, and confute me : but let 
not the oil of sinners anoint my head.' 

Psalm cxli. 10. Ahikar, 

' Let the wicked fall into their own *For he who digs a pit for his 

nets, whilst that I withal escape.' brother shall fall into it ; and he 

who sets traps shall be caught in 

Whether, then, the Psalms contain an actual memorial of 
Ahikar or not, the coincidences in thought and expression are a 
very strong argument for a belief in the original Hebrew structure 
of the story. 

We will now leave the discussion of the connexion between 
the legend of Ahikar and the Sapiential books and the Psalms, 
having established that there is between them a good deal of 
common matter and a good deal of similar expression. We turn 
now to a book which appears to belong to the same time and to 
the same region as Ahikar, in search of more exact coincidences. 
We refer to the book of Daniel. 

First of all there are a good many expressions describing 
Assyrian life, which appear also in Daniel and may be a part of 
the stock-in-trade of an Eastern story-teller in ancient times. I 
L. A. h 

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mean such expressions as, * O king, live for ever ! ' * I clad him in 
byssus and purple ; and a gold collar did I bind around his neck/ 
(Armenian, p. 25, cf. Dan. v. 16.) More exact likeness of speech 
will be found in the following sentence from the Arabic version, in 
which Ahikar is warned by the * magicianSy astrologers and sooth- 
sayers' that he will have no child. Something of the same kind 
occurs in the Arabic text, when the king of Egypt sends his 
threatening letter to the king of Assyria, and the latter gathers 
together his 'nobles, philosophers, and wise men, and astrologers.' 
The Slavonic drops all this and says, ' It was revealed to me by 
Oody no child will be born of thee.* * He caused all the wise men 
to be gathered together.' In the Armenian it is, 'there was a 
voice from the gods'; 'he sent and mustered the satraps.' The 
language, however, in the Arabic recalls certain expressions in 
Daniel : e.g. 

Dan. ii. 2, ' The king sent to call the magicians, the astrologers, 
the sorcerers and the Chaldeans.' 

So in Dan. ii. 27 : in Dan. v. 7, * astrologers, Chaldeans, and 
soothsayers,' &c. 

It will be seen that the expressions in Daniel are closely 
parallel to those in the Arabic Ahikar. 

Again, when the king of Assjrria is in perplexity as to what he 
shall answer to the king of Egypt, he demands advice from 
Nadan who has succeeded to his uncle's place in the kingdom. 
Nadan ridicules the demands of the Pharaoh. ' Build a castle in 
the air! The gods themselves cannot do this, let alone men!' 
We naturally compare the reply of the consulted Chaldeans in 
Daniel ii. 11, 'There is no one who can answer the matter before 
the king, except the gods, whose dwelling is not with flesh.' 

When Ahikar is brought out of his hiding-place and presented 
to the king, we are told that his hair had grown very long and 
reached his shoulders, while his beard had grown to his breast. 
*My nails y he says, 'were like the claws of eagles and my body had 
become withered and shapeless.' 

We compare the account of Nebuchadnezzar, after he had 

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been driven from amongst men (see iv. 30) ; * until his hairs were 
grown like eagles' [feathers] and his nails like birds' [claws]/ 

The parallelism between these passages is tolerably certain; 
and the text in Ahikar is better than that of Daniel. The growth 
of the nails must be expressed in terms of eagles' talons, and not 
of the claws of little birds : and the hair ought to be compared 
with wild beasts, as is the case in some of the Ahikar versions. 

There are also some curious linguistic parallels between 
Ahikar and Daniel, which will be noted later on. 

It seems, then, to be highly probable that one of the writers in 
question was acquainted with the other; for it is out of the 
question to refer all these coincidences to a later perturbation in 
the text of Ahikar from the influence of the Bible. Some, at 
least, of them must be primitive coincidences. But in referring 
such coincidences to the first form of Ahikar, we have lighted 
upon a pretty problem. For one of the formulae in question, that 
namely which describes the collective wisdom of the Babylonians, 
is held by modem critics to be one of the proofs of late date in the 
book of Daniel. 

Accordingly Sayce says^ "Besides the proper names [in Daniel] 
there is another note of late date. ' The Chaldeans ' are coupled 
with the ' magicians,' the ' astrologers ' and the * sorcerers,' just as 
they are in Horace or other classical writers of a similar age. The 
Hebrew and Aramaic equivalent of the Greek or Latin ' Chaldeans ' 
is Kasdim (Kasd&yin), a name the origin of which is still uncertain. 
But its application in the earlier books of the Bible is well known. 
It denoted the Semitic Babylonians... After the fall of the Babylo- 
nian empire the word Chaldean gradually assumed a new meaning became the equivalent of * sorcerer' and magician.... In the 
eyes of the Assyriologist the use of the word Kasdim in the book 
of Daniel would alone be sufficient to indicate the date of the 
work with unerring certainty." 

* Higher Criticism and the Monunients, p. 6iJ3. 

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Now it is certainly an interesting fact that in the story of 
Ahikar the perplexing Chaldeans are absent from the enumeration. 
This confirms us in a suspicion that Ahikar has not been borrow- 
ing from Daniel, either in the first form of the legend or in later 
versions. For if he had been copying into his text a passage 
from Daniel to heighten the narrative, why should he omit the 
Chaldeans? The author had not, certainly, been reading Prof 
Sayce's proof that they were an anachronism. The hypothesis is, 
therefore, invited that in Ahikar we have a prior document to 
Daniel : but we will not press the argument unduly, because we 
are not quite certain as to the text of the primitive Ahikar^ 

And now let us leave the Old Testament, and pass on to the 
coincidences between Ahikar and the New Testament. It has 
been already remarked that there is a suggestion of an acquain- 
tance with the story of Ahikar in the parable of the wicked 
servant. I believe it was Dr James who first drew attention to 
this point'*. He expresses himself to the following eflect : 

" Our Lord's parable of the wicked servant who begins to be 
drunken and to beat the servants, and is finally * cut in sunder ' by 
his master on his sudden return (Matt. xxiv. 48), finds a striking 
parallel in the career of Nadan, the nephew of Achikar. This 
young man, we read, when he had treacherously got rid of his 
uncle, gathered his disreputable friends together and began to 
' eat and to drink,' and took the men-servants and maid-servants 
and scourged and tormented them : and, finally, when Achikar 
had unexpectedly emerged again, swelled up on a sudden and 
burst. As the story was clearly popular and is also clearly 
pre-Christian, it would be no strange thing if the parable had 
borrowed a trait or two upon it." 

Now, if Dr James is right, as we do not doubt that he is, the 
conclusion is capable of being expressed in a stronger form. It is 
not the Parable that has borrowed, but the Parabolizer; and a 

1 Also we are not blind to the fact that the Society for Promoting Christian 
Knowledge has hung a Damocles sword over all who meddle with the Daniel- 
problem. In a foot-note attached to the xith chapter of Prof. Sayce*s book, we 
are informed that ' some of Prof. Sayce's views are not shared by other authorities ' I 

2 Apocrypha Anecdotal ii. p. 168, note 1. 

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new volume has accordingly been added to our Lord's library. 
Moreover it is not a question of a trait or two. The whole idea 
of the parable of the bad servant whose master unexpectedly 
returns is borrowed from the legend of Ahikar, just as truly as the 
sign of the prophet Jonah is appropriated in another oracular 
passage. We might almost head the parable to which reference 
has been made with the words, * The sign of the sage Ahikar.' 
The coincidences, then, which have been noted by Dr James are 
of the highest value. 

And there really seems no doubt, in this case, that the 
passage of Ahikar referred to belongs to the first form of the 
story. The unexpected return of Ahikar (as if from the dead) 
is necessary to the moral action of the drama and cannot be 
omitted : the beating of the men and maids is two or three times 
alluded to in the story. It is a fundamental thought of the 
narrative. And the 'eating and drinking with the drunken* of 
which the parable speaks has its exact parallel in the account 
of Nadan's gathering worthless fellows together, who begin to 
eat and drink and dance and sing. So we need have no hesi- 
tation in making the parallels. The superior antiquity of the 
legend to the parable comes out also in the punishment that 
is meted out in the two cases. The form in the legend appears 
to have been modified in the parable. The account as it stands 
in the Gospel is a part of the * double tradition ' of Matthew and 
Luke. It stands as follows in the edited Greek Testament 
(W. & H.). 

Mt. xxiv. 48—61. Lu. xii. 45, 46. 

*£av dc tiTTjj 6 KaKos bovXos iKcivos *£ai/ be €trr]j 6 dovXos cKtlvos iv r^ 

€v TJ Kapbia avTov, Kpovi^ci fiov o Kapbiq avToVj Xpovi^ci. 6 Kvpios fxov 

KvpioSf Ka\ ap^rjTai Tvrrrfiv tovs avvbov- €px€<r3aiy koi ap^rjrai rvTrreiv rovs Traibas 

\ovs avToVy ea-dirj be Koi irivrj ^lera r&v kol rai naibia-Kas, eaBleiv re Koi niveiv 

fieBvovraPf ^^ei 6 Kvpios rov bovXov koi p.eBvo'Kea-dai^ jj^tt o Kvpios tov 

eKeivov eif ^tiepq, § ov npoaboKq, Koi bovKov eKeivov ev ijfiepq S ^^ irpotrboKq, 

ev ©pci ^ ov yivda-Keiy koi bixoTop.rfcei koi ev <opa § ov yLPoia-Kei, koi bixoTOfjLi]<r€i, 

avTov Koi TO p,epoi avrov fiera rSv avrbv koi to p.epos avTov fACTO. Toiv 

xmoKpiT&v Oriaei.' eKei earoA 6 KkavBfAos dmarap dija-ei. 
Koi 6 fipvyfws Tav obovTiau. 

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The two accounts clearly proceed from a coramon source. But 
Luke is more true to the source than Matthew, for he has pre- 
served the 'young men and maidens' from the Ahikar story, 
instead of the less correct 'fellow-servants/ 

But what shall we say of the peculiar Sixorofitjaei which 
certainly comes from the source ? It looks as if we had here a 
modification of the oflfensive details in the death of Nadan. 

The story suggested the consequence 'and he will split 
asunder [or burst] ' : the Gospel modifies this to * and he will 
split him asunder.* The modification was probably an easy one 
to make, though, when made, it has caused great perplexity to 
commentators. It had probably already been made in the 
common source from which Matthew and Luke derive. 

The concluding part of the Parable sums up the punishment 
of the wicked servant in the world, ' and he will appoint him his 
portion with the hypocrites (infidels).' What this means is clear 
from what follows in Matt., that 'there will be wailing and 
gnashing of teeth,' i.e. Nadan goes into darkness. We may com- 
pare a similar expression in Matt. xxv. 30 (cf. Matt. xxii. 13); 
* Cast the worthless servant to the outer dark ; 
There will be wailing and gnashing of teeth.' 
And this agrees with Tobit's version of the recompence of Nadan : 
'Nadan went down to darkness' (Cod. B), which the Sinaitic 
Codex makes to be eternal darkness. It is probable that the 
first form of the story contented itself with the statement that 
Ahikar came out to the light, and Nadan went down to the 
dark. The extant versions make the same eschatological ex- 
pansion as the Tobit MSS., and certainly in our Lord's time the 
story was not limited in its denouement to the fact that Nadan 
was thrown into a dark place and that he subsequently burst 
asunder. So that if the first form wanted something in the 
shape of future punishment, as distinct from present retribution, 
the omission was rapidly repaired. Observe further that the 
original story has certainly undergone contraction as well as 
expansion; for the versions and later adaptations either modify 

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or get rid of the objectionable details of Nadan's bursting asunder. 
This theatrical proceeding is in itself a mark of early date. It 
probably was a conventional ending for objectionable men and 
animals: since we find that the dragon in Bel and the Dragon 
dies in the same manner, and so does the poisonous snake in 
one of the stories in the Acts of Thomas^ But the Ahikar 
legends show that it had a tendency to disappear : the Slavonic 
drops it entirely, no doubt because the details were offensive to 
Greek readers. The Aesop story has also simplified the matter 
of Nadan's ending : one recension makes Ennos (Nadan) so smitten 
in his conscience by the teaching of Aesop (Ahikar) that he dies 
not many days after : (rjj olKeia avvethrjaei old. rivi jSeXet TrXrjyel^; 
rrjv "^irxriVy fi€T ov 7roWa<; rifiepa^ top fiiov fierrfWa^ei^). Ac- 
cording to another recension he is so smitten by remorse that 
he hangs himself*. 

We have now shown that the parallel passages in the Gospel 
to the Ahikar legends are so close as to imply an actual acquaint* 
ance with the latter on the part of the former, and we have 
found that the modification of the original story involved in 
the Evangelical * cutting in sunder' is only one out of a number 
of similar attempts to get rid of the coarseness of the first form 
of the legend. 

But these statements with regard to the primitive form of the 
account of Nadan's death need a closer study on account of an 
important parallel case in the New Testament. 

As is well known, the story of the end of Judas Iscariot has 
come down to us in a variety of forms. In the first place it is 
not easy to reconcile the account in Matthew xxvii. 5 which ends 
Kal direXOcov nirtiy^aTo with the passage that is let into the middle 
of Peter's speech in Acts i. 18, 19 (o5to9 fih oiv eKTriaaro ;^a)/>toi^ 

1 Bat in this case the parallel of the snake with Jndas is suggested ; for he says 
' There was a great pit in the place where the poison of the snake fell. And Judas 
Thomas commanded to fiU up that place and make in it houses, as places of 
entertainment for strangers.* The language reminds one of Matthew, and the 
bursting of the snake of Acts. 

2 So Benfey, Kleinere Sckriften, p. 191, foUowing Westermann's text. 

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eK fiiaOov T^9 ahiKia^ koI Trprjvrj^ y€v6fi€vo<; ikaxTjaev fii(TO(;, kol 
i^c'X^vOr) irama to, (Tir\arf')(va avTov). Nor does this last passage 
agree with the account of the purchase of the Field of Blood in 
the Gospel. Then we have an extraordinary account from Papias 
which relates how Judas swelled up to such an extent that he 
could hardly walk about and was finally crushed by a passing 
waggon which he was unable to avoid (irprjadeU yap eVl roaovTov 
rrjp aapKa, Sare fi^ SvvaaOac St€\0€iVf dfid^r)^ paStco^ hiep^o- 
fievrj^y viro t^9 dfid^7)<; eiriiaOrff &aTe tcl eyxara avTOv iKKevay- 
0rjvai). And this account is so opposed to that in the Gospel 
and to that in the Acts of the Apostles, that even the most subtle 
of harmonists would despair of finding a reconciliation. Nor is 
it easy to see how Papias who gives such an account can be 
credited with an acquaintance with the Gospel of Matthew. The 
story, as Papias gives it, is in a certain sense apologetic : he is 
explaining away a miracle, viz. the swelling up and bursting 
asunder of Judas. The former is a gradual process, the latter 
the result of an accident. Behind Judas there appears the figure 
of the wicked Nadan. But if we imagine in the Acts of the 
Apostles the awkward Trprjvrjf; y€v6fjL€vo<; replaced by irprjaOel^^ 
we have the same features, and the two accounts become closely 
related. Moreover the account in Matthew is seen to be one 
more attempt to get rid of the first form of the story, precisely 
as in one of the lives of Aesop, in which Ennus is so smitten 
by remorae that he hangs himself. The suggestion, therefore, is 
offered that the original statement concerning the end of Judas 
was to the effect that he swelled up and burst asunder. The 
account of his death is an imitation of the death of Nadan. 

And certainly the characters in question are sufficiently alike 
to provoke a reaction from one story to the other. The in- 
gratitude which is the cardinal sin of Nadan is also the worst 
part of Judas' treacherous conduct. As Strauss remarked in 
dealing with the quotation from the Psalms, 'He that eateth 

^ As in the Armenian and Georgian Versions and in the Arm. Comm. of Ghry- 
Bostom (F. C. C). 

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bread with me hath lifted up his he^l against me/ '* the expres- 
sion 'which doth eat of my bread' indicates a relation of de- 
pendency, a bond of gratitude violated by the unfaithful friend/' 
and this certainly is as good a summary of conduct in one of the 
cases before us as in the other. So we need not be surprised if 
Ahikar should furnish the key to the genesis of the Judas legends. 

There are several other places in the Gospels where a reference 
to expressions in Ahikar has been detected, but they are largely 
illusory. For instance, an attempt has been made to connect 
Ahikai*'s parable of the unfruitful tree planted by the water 
with the denunciations of John the Baptist ('Every tree that 
bringeth npt forth good fruit' &c.), or with our Lord's parable 
of the barren fig-tree. The latter reference is much nearer to 
Ahikar than the former on account of the expressions * Its master 
was firm to cut it down '...'Let me alone this year... If I do not 
bear fruit, cut me down/ and it is just possible that the supposed 
references may justify us in inferring dependence upon the 
Ahikar legend. Much more doubtful is the attempt made by 
a writer in the Revue Bihlique for Apr. 1898 to connect with 
the ethics of Ahikar the remark of the Pharisee who entertained 
our Lord at the time when the sinful woman anointed him mth 
costly ointment. For it is said that the reason of the remark 
'This man, if he had beeti a prophet, would have known what 
kind of woman touched him; for she is a sinner/ lies in the 
precept 'Let the wise man beat thee with a rod, but let not 
the fool [ie. the sinner] anoint thee with sweet salve.' The 
suggestion that Simon the Pharisee had in his mind the precept 
of Ahikar is ingenious enough, but it detracts from the natural- 
ness of the conversation at the table. To assume an implied 
expansion of Simon's remarks by the words ' For it is written, 
Let not the fool anoint thee with sweet salve* would indeed 
emphasise the respect in which Ahikar's precepts were held, but 
it would be at the expense of the simplicity of the story. 

A much more likely case of transference will be found in one 
of Ahikar s parables which appears to be referred to in 2 Pet. 

L. A. i 

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ii. 22. The following reproach upon Nadan is found in the 
Karshuni texts and with some modifications in the Armenian 
and in the Syriac. 

'My son, thou hast behaved like the swine which went to 
the bath with people of quality, and when he came out, 
saw a stinking drain, and went and rolled himself in it.' 
Here we find the explanation of the Petrine proverb, 

^9 Xova-afiivf) €t9 KvXia-fiov ^op^opov, 
where the parallel in Ahikar helps us to translate v<; XovaapAvq 
not as * the sow that was washed,' but as ' the sow that went to 
the bath.' 

The question will arise whether this parable of Ahikar is to 
be credited to the first form of the story; and on this point 
the following considerations are of importance : 

(i) The parable is very appropriate to Nadan, who has been 
well educated, but whose disposition is not changed. 

(ii) The second epistle of Peter knows that it is a proverb, 
'a true proverb,' and in these literatures proverbs are found in 
collections. We have to allow for the early existence of some 
such parable as Ahikar's bathed pig in order to explain the 
allusion in 2 Peter. 

(iii) Democritus who is charged by Clement with having 
pilfered from Ahikar has something very like the same senti- 
ment. For according to Clem. Alex. Protrept p. 75 ^€9 yap 
(fyrja-iv ^Sovrai /3op^6p<p fidWov ^ xaOaptp vSari /cat iirl ^opvr^ 
fiapyalvovai Kara ArjfioKpiTov, 

But to this last point there is the objection that perhaps only 
the second half of the sentence belongs to Democritus and that 
the first half may be a popular proverb without an author's name. 
This view is confirmed by Plutarch, De Sanitate 14, where there 
is a reference to 

avalv €7rl ^opm£ fiapyavovaai,^, «9 eifyr) AfjfjL6KpiT0<;, 
Upon the whole, there is something to be said for the antiquity 
of the proverb, and for its adaptation from Ahikar into the 
second epistle of Peter. And reviewing the cases of parallelism 

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in thought and language to which we have drawn attention, we 
may say that the Ahikar legend is employed in the following 
books of the Old and New Testaments, viz. 

(a) Tobit (certainly). 

(fi) Daniel (doubtfully). 

(7) Parable of the Wicked Servant (certainly). 

(S) In the Judas legends (Biblical and extra-Biblical) (pro- 

(e) In the parable of the Barren Fig-tree (probably). 

(f) In the second epistle of Peter (doubtfully). 

Other suggested references we have discarded. There are 
perhaps a few other parallels in the New Testament to which 
a certain degree of attention is due. Abikar's statement that 
'God is with the weak that he may astonish the strong* should 
be compared with 1 Cor. i. 27, ' God hath chosen the weak things 
of the world that he may confound the strong.* It does not occur 
in the Cambridge Syriac. And the proverb that one should ' visit 
the poor in his affliction and speak of him in the Sultan's presence 
and do one's diligence to save him from the mouth of the lion* 
furnishes an excellent illustration of 2 Tim. iv. 17, 'at my first 
answer no man stood by me... but the Lord stood by me and 
strengthened me, and I was delivered from the mouth of the 
lion.* The parallel is not quite as strong in the Syriac, which 
simply says ' My son, help thy friend before the ruler, that thou 
mayest help him from the lion.* 

Another curious parallel will be found in 1 Cor. v. 11, where 
the Apostle directs the Corinthians that 'if one that is called 
a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, 
or drunkard, or rapacious, with such an one not even to eat* 
(t^ ToiovTtp fjLtjSe avveaOUtv). Here we should compare the 
sentence of Ahikar : 

* My son, with a man that is shameless, not even to eat bread! 

A few more references may be gleaned from the margins of 
our translations. It is not necessary to allude to them more 

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We have sufficiently established the antiquity of the legend 
of Ahikar, its priority to the New Testament, and its literary 
position amongst a certain group of books of the Old Testament. 
And this is as far as we can hope to take the matter in a 
preliminary investigation. 

Observe now how the foregoing analysis of the Biblical and 
semi-Biblical parallels in A^ar helps us to understand the 
relatively late period of the Aesop legends. For the peculiarities 
to which we have made reference have either wholly disappeared 
from the Greek account, or have been so changed as hardly to 
allow of recognition. There is no common matter, worth speaking 
of, between Tobit and Aesop. 'My sister's son, Nadan' has 
become a young gentleman of good birth and breeding whom 
Aesop adopts. A similar state of things holds on comparing the 
Evangelical parallels with Aesop: there is, in the latter, no 
beating of men and maids, no revelry and no riot. Judas does 
not find a parallel, for the young man dies of remorse and takes his 
time about it. There is no beating for him, no black hole, and 
no bursting asunder. There are none of the characteristic ex- 
pressions of Daniel, for Aesop who has been hidden away in a 
tomb is brought before the king without the growth of eagle's 
talons and only — very dirty {avxt^wv kol pvirwv). And even 
the pig that went to the bath has disappeared! 

When we add to this the remark that the scene has been 
shifted from Nineveh to Babylon, which implies a later historical 
standpoint, and that the Pharaoh of Egypt has been named 
Nectanebus, after the very last of the Pharaohs, which again 
suggests a much later time than Nectanebus if we are to allow 
sufficient historical parallax to make him appear as a contempo- 
rary of Sennacherib, it is difficult to understand how Meissner 
could have arrived at the conclusion that the Aesop story was 
our earliest representative of the legends of Ahikar. 

Perhaps we ought to say a few words before leaving this 
part of the enquiry, in extenuation of the offence which we 
may be held to have committed in putting an almost unknown 

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composition into a position of quasi- Biblical dignity. We are rightly 
inclined to treat questions of Canon and authority in a spirit of 
conservatism, and this leads us to hesitate before we declare a 
canonical writing to be apocrjrphal or an apocryphal writing to 
be canonical. A slight intensification of the same sentiment may 
lead to an objection to the admission of an unknown stranger 
even into the ranks of the Apocrypha. 

But we must be on our guard against irrational prejudices. 
The study ^ Church History reminds us that few things have 
made the Church more ridiculous than its struggle to retain in 
the Canon works which, on any intelligible theory of a Canon, 
required a separate classification. If we may not struggle to 
retain books in the Canon which belong elsewhere, neither 
may we determine to reject books from a place either in the 
Canon or amongst the deutero-canonical books, except as the 
result of a scientific investigation. The Church, not many cen- 
turies since, made a desperate effort to retain Tobit in the 
Canon: they would have fought equally hard to prevent its 
inclusion, if it had been outside the Canon. That is, the Church 
would, in either case, have acted irrationally from an impulse 
of conservative caution*. 

In England, moreover, the Church was not only absurdly 
conservative in the matter of the Canon, so as to abandon the 
freedom of criticism practised by Luther and Calvin, but it 
became positively reactionary. A spirit arose which insisted on 
the reversal of scientific verdicts, and at the Restoration the 
Savoy Conference crushed Puritanism, as it supposed, by * carrying 
it for Bel and the Dragon.' In crushing Puritanism it created 
the English Nonconformist movement. How ridiculous such an 
attitude of mind looks at the present day ! 

1 Whitaker, De Sac. Litt. lib. i. p. 79. **Et quidni etiam Aesopi fabulas in 
Ganone reponi dixerim, si id Ecolesiae vestrae visum fuerit ? Si enim Scriptura ab 
Eoolesia authoritate deserta non magis yalet, qnam Aesopi fabulae, ut vester 
quidem non obscure affirmat, quidni fieri etiam posse existimemus, ut Aesopi 
fabulae in Canone reponantur, si modo Ecolesiae vestrae authoritas acoesserit?" 

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It IS right to admit, on the other hand, that both sides 
discussed the Canon too much in the light of the burning theo- 
logical disputes of the day. Tobit does not become uncanonical, 
as so many of the Puritans supposed \ because it detracts from 
the honour due to Christ by making an angel oflfer up Tobit's 
prayers to God, nor because the maxim that *alms deliver from 
death' was reckoned to be antagonistic to the doctrine of sal- 
vation by faith in Christ alone. One would have supposed that 
a little exegetical freedom would have got over such difficulties. 
It is doubtful, however, whether they would have succeeded in 
moving Tobit out of the Canon by merely critical questioning. 
By the time the critical spirit has been completely developed, the 
majority of the books of the Bible have become more or less 
apocryphal, and the gulf between Canon and Apocr)rpha has 
filled up again. So we will not be too hard on the reformers 
for using their tools sometimes inartistically : they at all events 
saved, and in that sense, made for us the English Bible; and 
by their sharp criticism of the Canonical Scriptures at their 
weakest points, they postponed the day of their more thorough 
criticism until, by the grace of God, we should be better able 
to bear it. 

Nevertheless it is difficult to avoid a little cynicism as we 
reflect on some of the points that were contended. 'Do alms 
deliver from death, or do they not ? ' An obscure novelist of the 
first or second century before Christ reads in, or reads into, a 
story of slightly earlier date than his own the maxim that 
Providence is on the side of the heaviest subscribers. He tells 
us that a mythical character, named Ahi^:ar, escaped from im- 
prisonment and death because his name was in the benefaction 
lists of Heaven. The sentences which tell us this become Oflfertory 
sentences, and the general statement becomes a burning theo- 
logical question. The whole Church, from the second century, 
endorses Tobit and Tobit's soteriology, and the Councils take up 

1 Cf. Bainolds, Cemura lib, apoc. 

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the wondrous tale and put their imprimatur on a gloss of the 
Arabian Nights, In this way our theology is made for us. 

Bearing in mind, then, the habitual perversity which has 
marked the line of theological progress, let us not be too adverse 
to Ahikar and his wonderful experiences. We only propose to 
put him, as we have said, into the penumbra of the Biblical 
literature, and to make him what opticians call a ragged edge 
in the general field of view. 

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We pass on, in the next place, to point out that the legend 
of Ahikar was known to Mohammed, and that he has used it 
in a certain Sura of the Koran. 

There is nothing d priori improbable in this, for the Koran 
is full of Jewish Haggada and Christian legends, and where such 
sources are not expressly mentioned, they may often be detected 
by consulting the commentaries upon the Koran in obscure 
passages. For example, the story of Abimelech and the basket 
of figs, which appears in the Last Words of Baruch, is carried 
over into the Koran, as we have shown in our prefiice to the 
Apocryphon in question. It will be interesting if we can add 
another volume to Mohammed's library, or to the library of the 
teacher from whom he derived so many of his legends. 

The 31st Sura of the Koran is entitled 

and it contains the following account of a sage of that name. 

* We heretofore bestowed wisdom on Lokman and commanded 
him, saying, Be thou thankful unto God : for whoever is thankful, 
shall be thankful to the advantage of his own soul : and if any 
shall be unthankful, verily God is self-suflBcient and worthy to 
be praised. And remember when Lokman said unto his son, 
as he admonished him. 

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O my son, Give not a partner unto God, for polytheism is 
a great impiety. 

♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ 

O my son, verily every matter, whether good or bad, though 
it be of the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, and be 
hidden in a rock, or in the heavens, God will bring the 
same to light: for God is clear-sighted and knowing. 

O my son, be constant at prayer, and command that which 
is just, and forbid that which is evil, and be patient under 
the afflictions that shall befall thee: for this is a duty 
absolutely incumbent upon all men. 

♦ ♦♦#♦♦ 

And be moderate in thy pace, and lower thy voice, for the 
most ungrateful of all voices surely is the voice of asses.' 

♦ ♦♦#♦♦ 

Now concerning this Lokman, the commentators and the 
critics have diligently thrown their brains about. The former 
have disputed whether Lokman was an inspired prophet or 
merely a philosopher and have decided against his inspiration: 
and they have given him a noble lineage, some saying that he 
was sister's son to Job, and others that he was nephew to 
Abraham, and lived until the time of Jonah. Others have said 
that he was an African: slave. It will not escape the reader's 
notice that the term sister's swi to Job, to which should be added 
rtephew of Abraham, is the proper equivalent of the €f aSeX^o? 
by which Nadan and Ahikar are described in the Tobit legends. 
Job, moreover, is singularly like Tobit. That he lived till the 
time of Jonah reminds one of the destruction of Nineveh as 
described in the book of Tobit, in accordance with Jonah's 
prophecy. Finally the African slave is singularly like Aesop 
(ravTov yap AlaoDTTo^ r^ AlOio-rrt as Planudes says) who is a 
black man and a slave in. the Aesop legends. From all of which 
it appears as if the Arabic Commentators were identifying Lok- 
man with Ahikar on the one hand and with Aesop on the other ; 

L. A. k 

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i.e. with two characters whom we have already shown to be 

The identification with Aesop is confirmed by the fact that 
many of the fables ascribed to Aesop in the west are referred to 
Lokman in the east: thus Sale says: — 

'The Commentators mention several quick repartees of 

Luqman which agree so well with what Maximus Planudes 

has written of Aesop, that fi:om thence and from the fables 

attributed to Luqman by the Orientals, the latter has been 

generally thought to be no other than the Aesop of the 

Greeks. However that may be (for I think the matter may 

bear a dispute) I am of opinion that Planudes borrowed 

a great part of his life of Aesop from the traditions he met 

with in the east concerning Luqman, concluding them to 

have been the same person, &c.* 

These remarks of Sale are confirmed by our observation that 

the Aesop story is largely a modification of the Ahikar legend, 

taken with the suggestion which we derive from the Mohammedan 

commentators, who seem to connect Lokman with Tobit on the 

one hand and with Aesop on the other. 

Now let us turn to the Sura of the Koran which bears the 
name Lokman, and examine it internally: we remark (i) that 
he bears the name of sage, precisely as Ahikar does : (ii) that he 
is a teacher of ethics to his son, using Ahikar's formula ' ya bani ' 
in teaching him : (iii) although at first sight the matter quoted 
by Mohammed does not appear to be taken from Ahikar, there 
are curious traces of dependence. We may especially compare 
the following from Ahikar : ' O my son, bend thy head low and 
soften thy voice and be courteous and walk in the straight path 
and be not foolisL And raise not thy voice when thou laughest, 
for were it by a loud voice that a house was built, the ass would 
build many houses every day.' 

Clearly Mohammed has been using Ahikar, and apparently from 
memory, unless we like to assume that the passage in the Koran 
is the primitive form for Ahikar, rather than the very forcible 

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figure in our published texts. Mohammed has also mixed up 
Ahikar's teaching with his own, for some of the sentences which 
he attributes to Lokman appear elsewhere in the Koran. But 
this does not disturb the argument. From all sides tradition 
advises us to equate Lokman with Aesop and Ahikar, and the 
Koran confirms the equation. The real diflSculty is to determine 
the derivation of the names of Lokman and Aesop from Ahikar^ 

Some of the Moslem traditions referred to above may be 
found in Al Masudi c. 4 : 

' There was in the country of Ailah and Midian a sage named 

Lokman, who was the son of Auka, the son of Mezid, the 

son of Sar<!Ui : he was a Nubian, the freedman of Lokain, 

the son of Jesr. He was bom in the tenth year of king 

David : he was a virtuous slave to whom God granted the 

gift of wisdom : he lived, and did not cease to give to the 

world the example of wisdom and piety, until the days of 

Jonas the son of Mattai when he was sent to the people 

of Nineveh, in the district of Mosul.' 

Other writers connected him with Balaam, and this form of 

the tradition as to his historical place passed into the west and is 

found in the Disciplina Clericalis of Petrus Alphonsus, amongst 

whose collections from the Arabic will be found the following 

sentence* : 

' Balaam qui lingua Arabica vocatur Lucaman dixit filio suo : 

fili, ne sit formica sapientior te, etc.* 
Of the five proverbs which are given in the Disciplina as from 
Lokman, I do not think any are current in the Ahikar legends. 

The identification with Balaam proceeds, like that of Asaph, 
from a desire to find a place for an inspired prophet in Biblical 
Chronology; and it leads, perhaps, to the geographical location 
of the prophet in Midian : although this may be merely a mis- 
understanding for Media. 

^ The MS. Mas. Brit. Arab. 644 contains on ff. 189-193 a Testamentum 
Lulpmani sapienHs ad filium. There does not seem to be any coincidence with 

a SeeMigne, P.L. 167. 

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Another curious point in connexion with the Moslem tradi- 
tions is the discussion whether Loqman was or was not a prophet. 
This discussion cannot have been borrowed from a Greek source, 
for the idea which is involved in the debate is a Semitic idea. 
But it is a discussion which was almost certain to arise, whether 
Lo^an of whom Mohammed writes so approvingly had any special 
&me as a prophet, because Mohammed is the seal of the prophets. 

And it seems from what Sale says on the subject, that the 
Moslem doctors decided the question in the negative; Lokman 
* received from God wisdom and eloquence in a high degree, which 
some pretend were given him in a vision, on his making choice 
of wisdom preferably to the gift of prophecy, either of which was 
offered him.' Thus the Moslem verdict was that Lokman was a 
sage and not a prophet. 

On the other hand it should be noticed that there are reasons 
for believing that he was regarded in some circles and probably 
from the earliest times as a prophet. The fact of his teaching in 
aphorisms is of no weight against this classification: for the 
Hebrew Bible has two striking instances of exactly similar cha- 
racter, in both of which the sage appears as prophet. Thus Frov. 
XXX. begins : 

* The words of Agur the son of Jakeh, even the prophecy* 

and Prov. xxxi begins : 

*The words of king Lemuel, the prophecy that his mother 
taught him.' 

Both of these collections appear to be taken from popular 
tales*, and they are strikingly like to the sentences of Ahikar. 
We need not be surprised then if Al^i^ar's sa3rings were regarded 
as prophecy. Then we have direct Moslem evidence on the 
point ; for in the Bibliographical Lexicon of Mustafa ibn Abdullah 
we find the following enumeration of special prophets* : 

^ It will be seen that we do not accept the interpretation which makes Agar and 
Lemuel inhabitants of a mythical Moisa. 
« iii. 478, tr. Fluegel. 

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*In libro MisMh el-raml Jeguntur haec: 

Haec vaticinandi ars in miraculis numerator a sex prophetis 

peculiariter editis ab Adamo scilicet, Idriso, LocmanOy 

Yeremya, Shaya, et Daniele/ 

Of these six prophets, all except Lekman are confessedly 
Biblical, for Idris stands for Enoch, and Shaya is clearly Isaiah. 
If then Lokman does not owe his place in the list to his Biblical 
position, it is diflBcult to avoid the conclusion that he and the 
others are taken out of some kind of Biblical Chronology or 

This opinion is confirmed by Al Masudi's statement, that he 
was bom in the 10th year of king David, which almost implies 
the use of a Chronicon. And when we turn to the Arabic History 
of Djnaasties of Abul-faraj, which is based upon Eusebius* Chro- 
nicon in which the prophets and sages are arranged under their 
respective kings, we find Lokman thrust into a place amongst the 
great philosophers of the world, who have their beginning in tke 
time of David, Accordingly, Abul-faraj says*: 

'Ejus tempore (sc. David) fuit Empedocles sapiens, unus e 
quinque columnis Philosophiae. Ilium autumo, Pytha- 
goram, Socratem, Platonem et Aristotelem....Ait alius, 
Primum qui philosophiae operam dedit, fuisse Pythagoram. 
Asserunt etiam Islamitarum nonnulli, Primum qui a sa- 
pientia denominatus sit, fuisse Locmannum, qui tempore 
Davidis claruit, et ab illo accepisse Empedoclem/ 

' Lokman, then, has found his way into a Chronicon in which he 
was placed in the reign of David. 

But according to Al Masudi, we may date him even more 
closely than this; for he is said to have been bom in the tenth 
year of David. Why the tenth year ? On turning to Eusebius' 
Chronicon, fi:om which most of the Syriac Chroniclers derive, we 
find against the ninth year of David in the Armenian version, and 

1 Pocooke, HUU Dynast, p. 33. 

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against the eighth year of David in the Latin version, the state- 

Prophetabant Gad, Nathan et Asaph. 

May we not fairly suspect that Lokman, who is known to be 
equivalent to the Greek Aesop, has here been equated with Asaph ? 
Fabricius^ indeed, says that such an identification has already 
been proposed : ' non defuerunt qui Assaphum prophetam, Davidis 
itidem aequalem, propter nonnullam nominis convenientiam con- 
funderent cum nostro Aesopo, absurde profecto/ No doubt the 
identification would be absurd, if we were looking for a real 
historical equivalence, but there is nothing absurd in the supposi- 
tion that some one may have tried to find a place for Aesop the 
philosopher in a chronicle ; and since the Flanudes legends ^ as 
well as the Sjrriac fables, show him to have been identified with 
Josephus, there is quite a possibility for a further speculation 
which should give the fabulist a place in the reign of David : for 
Asaph and Joseph are not so &r apart. 

That Lokman was black appears clearly in the Arabic tradition 
about him; thus Ibn Ehallikan in his Biographical Dictionary 
tells us that Al-Eddi ar-Rashtd was black in colour ; and to this 
allusion is made by the poet and Katib AbA-1-Fath Mahmiid Ibn 
E&dtls in these satirical verses : 

thou who resemhlest Lokman^ but not in wisdom ; 
Thou who hast lost thy learning, not preserved it; 
Thou hast stolen every man's verses, 
And may est be called the blctck thief; 

where the point of the comparison turns on the assumed blackness 
of Lokman. 

The same thing is involved in the statement of Al Masudi 
that Lokman was a Nubian slave. 

1 Bibl Or. ii. c. 9. 

' Planades has a tale of a trick which the Delphians played on Aesop by hiding 
a cup in his baggage, which must have arisen from some reminiscence of the story 
of Joseph in the book of Genesis. His Aesop is, therefore, a disguised Joseph. 
And our Cambridge ms. of Ahikar contains also a collection of Aesop fables under 
the title of Josephus. 

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How closely this is reproduced in Planudes may be seen from 
the following references: 

p. 228. fiiKa^ — iOev teal tov ovofiaro^ ^'''vx^' ravrov yap At- 

a-miros r^ AlOioirt, 
p. 238. dav/jA^etv Stt©? to fiefieXavdfievov avOpwirtov vovpexia-- 

T€pa irdvTODv lirpa^e. 
p. 241. rjpeTo' irorairo^ el; 6 Si' fiiXa^, (fyrja-L 

Planudes' Aesop agrees, therefore, in this respect also with the 
Moslem traditions. 

The legend of Ahikar has also had an influence upon other 
books of a similar type, where story-telling and the enforcement 
of ethical maxims are combined. Such a case is the Story of 
Syntipas the Philosopher, a late Greek translation of a Syriac 
text, of which the date of composition is uncertain, as also 
whether it was primitively composed in Syriac or in some other 

There was an Arabic form of this story extant as early as 
956 A.D., and the diflfusion of the collection of tales is phenomenal 
in later times. 

The opening of the story is as follows : 

'There was once a king whose name was Cyrus. He had 
seven wives; but had become old and had no son. Then 
He arose and prayed, and vowed a vow and anointed himself. 
And it pleased God to give him a son. The boy grew and 
shot up like a cedar [m BevSpov apiarov in the Greek 
version, which appears to be a mere blunder for xiSpo^ 
dptarr}]. Then he gave him over to learn wisdom and he 
was three years with his teacher, without however learning 

The opening of the story is common matter to an Eastern 
novelist, but there are allusions which betray the use of a model 
of composition. To put Ahikar into the form Cyrus was not 

^ Cf. Sindban oder die Heben WeUen MeUter ed. von Fr. Baethgen. 

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diflScult in view of the Slavonic Akyrios for the same name; 
'seven wives' is the modification of a later age on the original 
* sixty wives ' of Ahikar ; but what is conclusive for the use of the 
earlier legend is the remark that the king's son ' shot up like a 
cedar.' Thus we have in the Arabic version, 'Nadan grew big 
and walked, shooting up like a tall cedar,' and in the final re- 
proaches of the sage, ' My boy ! I brought thee up with the best 
upbringing and trained thee like a tall cedar.' So that Ahikar is 
as truly a model for Syntipas as he was for Tobit. 

At the conclusion of the Syntipas legends, when the young 
man is solving all the hard ethical problems that his father 
proposes to him, we again find a trace of Ahikar, for he speaks 
of the ' insatiate eye which as long as it sees wealth is so ardent 
after it that he regards not Grod, until in death the earth covers 
his eyes.' And amongst the sayings of Ahikar we find one to the 
efifect that * the eye of man is as a fountain, and it will never be 
satisfied with wealth until it is filled with dust.' Dr Dillon points 
out that this is one of the famous sayings of Mohammed, and if 
that be so, we have one more loan from Ahikar in the Koran. 
Cf Sura 102, 'The emulous desire of multiplying [riches and 
children] employeth you, until ye visit the graves.' 

There is one of the later similitudes of Ahikar which has found 
its way into early French poetry. Whether it is a part of the 
primitive collection of Ahikar's sayings and doings may be left 
uncertain, but it can hardly be doubted that the story of the 
Wolf who went to school is responsible for the following extract 
firom the Poisies de Marie de France^ : 

A, dit li Prestres ; A, dist li Leux, 
Qi mult es fel et engingneux. 

B, dist li Prestres, di od mei ; 

B, dist li Leus, la lettre vei 

C, dit li Prestres, di avant; 
0, dist li Lox, a-il dune tant? 
Li Prestres feit, o di par toi ; 
Li Loz respunt jeo ne sai qoi. 

1 Boquefort, Poesies de Marie de France. Vol. 2, No. 82. 

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Di ke t'en samble et si espel; 
Respiint li Lox, aignel, aignel. 
Li Prestres dist, que vert^ tuche 
Tel en penss^, tel en la buche. 

It is somewhat strange, in view of the wide circulation of the 
book in Armenian, that there are not more traces of it found in 
the Armenian literature. Perhaps this is due to the lateness of 
the version. Mr Conybeare has made some enquiry on this point 
and reports as follows : 

" The date of the Armenian version is hard to ascertain. The 
Venice MS. 482 is the oldest I know of, and may be ascribed to 
about the year 1500. The version itself, however, must be much 
older. For this MS. already shows a text that must have had a 
long history. It is the best exponent of a group of MSS. mostly 
written in the seventeenth century and descended from a common 
archetype. But this archetype already contained profound modi- 
fications of the text, from which the copy that is the ancestor of 
Bodl. Canon 131 was free. We must then assume a tolerably long 
history for the text previously to about 1500. On linguistic 
grounds I should refer the version to the twelfth or thirteenth 

Perhaps reminiscences of the book are to be found in 
Armenian which would postulate an earlier date for the version, 
but I know of none. Lazar of Pharb, indeed, writing towards the 
close of the fifth century, appears to have an acquaintance with 
one proverb in the Wisdom of Khikar, but not necessarily with an 
Armenian version. He is writing from Amid in Mesopotamia, 
and, referring to the ' national heresy ' of his compatriots, quotes 
the sajdng, 'Her that married a swine, befits a bath of sewer- 
water.* The allusion of course is to the preference of the 
Armenian baptists for running water over a font." 

L. A. 

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We will now add some considerations which throw further 
light upon the first form of the legend and upon the language 
in which it circulated. 

It has already been suggested that the original document was 
probably coeval with Tobit, with which and with other books 
of the Old Testament (such as Daniel and Sirach) it has much 
consanguinity. So that there is a prejudication in favour of 
the hjrpothesis of a Hebrew original, for it is generally conceded 
that Tobit was originally written in Hebrew or Aramaic, and 
the actual Hebrew text of Sirach has recently come to light in 
an unexpected manner. 

We can largely clear the ground for the discussion of this 
question by reducing the multiplicity of the versions, as by 
referring the Ethiopic texts to an Arabic base, and the Arabic 
to a Syriac origin, while the Slavonic texts are only a disguise 
for a Greek version. We should then have to discuss the mutual 
relations of Greek, Syriac and Armenian texts. In this case 
the Greek is, however, not the Greek of Planudes, but a hypo- 
thetical Greek which explains the existence of the Slavonic and 
is itself lost. Of the Armenian version Mr Conybeare reports 
that in the oldest forms of the legend which he has examined 
there is a good agreement of the Armenian with the Syriac and 
some signs of Greek influence. Apparently the last stage of 

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the enquiry would be one of priority between an existing Syriac 
version and a hypothetical lost Greek text. We are still in the 
preliminary stages of such an enquiry, and must express ourselves 
cautiously as to the final solution of the problem involved in 
the linguistic rivalry. 

But we may at least say that there are signs of an immediate 
derivation of the existing Syriac from a lost Hebrew or Aramaic 
original. Amongst these signs there are a number of Cases of the 
conjunction of the infinitive with the substantive verb. Such cases 

•4jL&x.f^ CUii^xM.1 ocD vy f^ = as if he had really found them. 

t^.icri^ •ica^sn rtll&f^o = he made no memorial of me 

at all. p. ,<|i 

Ai^^nT, .^^T^ r^ocD r^ = did I not certainly hear? 

p. rdflo 
Auis. r^LuLSQ = thou art gone clean mad. 

pp. .^uso, ^sjo 

Now it is difficult to believe that these pronounced Hebraisms 
have arisen in the Syriac, which is a translation from some lost 
original, except by the method of literal translation. 

Another curious case of linguistic coincidence will be found 
in the use of vD^H in the sense of ' palace.' This use occurs in 
the Old Test., e.g. in 1 Kings xxi. 1, 2 Kings xx. 18, &c., but 
it is especially noticeable in Daniel, whose relations with A^kar 
have already been pronounced suspicious, e.g. Dan. iv. 4, 'I 
Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in my house, and flourishing in my 
palace' (= v^^HS); cf. Dan. vi. 18, etc. We find it frequently 
in the latter part of Al^ikar : e.g. ' let the doors of the palace be 
covered with red hangings,' *I bored five holes in the eastern 
wall of the palace,' The word in the Syriac must be translated 
in this way, and not in the sense of 'temple.* The usage is 
exactly parallel to that in the book of Daniel. 

A very strong confirmation of this theory of a lost Hebrew 

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original lies in the supposition that Ahikar's teaching of his son 
was in the old-fashioned Hebrew style which is based upon the 
successive letters of the alphabet. If this supposition can be 
verified the demonstration will be complete. And there is some- 
thing to be said for it. The author of the legends makes in his 
parables a lesson for a wolf: they bid the wolf say, according to 
the Armenian version, ayp, hen, gim (Le. the first three letters 
of the Armenian alphabet), and the wolf said AyU, bouts, garhn 
{le, goat, kid, lamb). Clearly the Armenian is preserving a trait 
from the original, in which the wolf, learning his alphabet, names 
animals which he has eaten, according to the method of a child's 
picture-blocks, only that the material of the illustration has to 
be gastronomic. The point of the parable is lost in the Arabic, 
which makes the wolf say for his A and B, * lamb and goat in 
my belly * : but the words in Arabic do not respond to the sug- 
gested alphabet. That feature has disappeared. In the old 
French the wolf, in despair at the length of the lesson, proceeds 
to say it his own way, ' Aignel, Aignel,' and here the first letter 
is preserved, though the translation appears to have broken down 
on the second letter of the alphabet. For he gives nothing more 
than lamb to his wolf. The S3Tiac rendering is as follows : ' the 
teacher said to him, " (Say) Aleph Beth" ; but the wolf said " Kid, 
Sheep " * : on which Dr Dillon appropriately suggests that ' the wolf 
pronounced the words beginning with the first two letters of the 
alphabet which best expressed the thoughts of his mind.' 

Will this sort of jesting go back into Hebrew and is it in 
harmony with Hebrew thought, generally, to teach by meand of 
alphabetically arranged words and sentences? The lamb and the 
kid may very well be NTDX *lamb' and NHJ 'kid,' but what 
stood under the letter D ? Was it the Chaldee Km3 which in 
the Targums stands for a goat ? 

As to the general question of the propriety of alphabetic 
lessons, we have an exact parallel in the lessons given to king 
Lemuel by his mother, who praises the Good Woman from Aleph 
to Tau. 

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Another curious case of the kind occurs in a couple of little 
tracts on ethics attributed to Ben Sira which were published 
with a translation into Latin by Fagius\ Of these the shorter 
one deserves mention because there are some sentences in it 
which throw light on Ahikar. It is a dialogue between Jesus 
Ben Sira and his teacher, in which Ben Sira (at an abnormally 
early age) is called on to say Aleph Beth, much in the same way 
as the boy Jesus is called on in the Apocryphal Gospels. He 
replies with pregnant sentences, forming an alphabet of ethics. 

Thus Aleph begins with ...jnn ?N (ne nimium sollicitus sis) 
and the sentences which follow are rich in advice against the 
desolating influence of ornate and guileful woman, much in the 
style of Ahikar. 

Of. the following advice, 'absconde (07^!!) oculos tuos a 
muliere formosa, ne forte te capiat rete ejus* with the parallel 
sentences in Ahikar, and note hovir unsuitable they are to a five- 
year old child. The alphabet of Ben Sira appears to have used 
some earlier collection. 

This appears also under the letter X where the child replies 
*absconde (}*lSX) mi fill divitias tuas in vita tua, atque heredibus 
tuis ne dederis usque ad diem mortis tuae/ Here we find a 
child of tender years addressing his Rab with the introductory 
formula that we find in Ahikar ! He must have been borrowing 
from some earlier collection of proverbs like that in our legend. 

When we come to the letter B^ we find the child repeating 
'audi, mi domine (^inN X^DE^), verba mea et auribus percipe 
sermones meos. Da operam ne in contentionem venias cum 
vicinis tuis. Et si animadverteris in sociis tuis rem malam, ne 
illam temere di£fames.' 

Here we remark not only that parallel advices can be found 
in Ahikar, but the opening sentence in Ahikar is almost exactly 
reflected here, in the first clause of the child's reply. And it 
is to. be remarked that the Armenian version has this sentence 

^ Sententiae Morales Ben S3rrae...ex Hebraeo in Latinnm per I^aolnm Fagium, 
Jenae, 1542. 

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not at the beginning of the sayings but, almost as in Ben Sira, 
at the end. But this is not all, the word ^3*ni< comes from some 
previous document, for we found in our Syriac version when we 
were editing this actual introductory clause the words 

We omitted the bracketed word as a scribe's error, but we 
half suspect from its occurrence in the parallel sentence in Ben 
Sira that it should have been edited and that it belongs to the 
ancestry of the sajdngs. 

Thus it becomes increasingly likely that the original legend 
of A^i^ar followed in its precepts the order of the Hebrew 
alphabet. Is there any way of testing this point ? 

We are probably not in a position to make a final and com- 
plete demonstration, but the following suggestion may be helpful. 
Let us take the proverbs of Al^^ar in the Armenian and Arabic 
forms and compare them. In the Armenian there are a hundred 
such proverbs, of which one is a doublet. The Arabic, as edited 
by us, divides into 67 proverbs. It need hardly be said that we 
have no expectation to carry back either the 99 proverbs or the 
66 proverbs into the original nucleus, from which the sepai*ate 
versions have been evolved. How much, however, of these .two 
collections is common matter? I think it will be found that 
22 of the Armenian sajdngs correspond to 25 of the Arabic 
sajdngs. The nucleus of these two versions is suspiciously sug- 
gestive of a number of sayings arranged according to an alphabet 
of 22 letters. 

Whether this suggestion can be verified by an actual recon- 
struction of the alphabetic sentences is too diflScult a question 
at this early stage in the study of the book, but it should at least 
be kept in mind. It is certain that alphabetism is a favourite 
form of Jewish ethical teaching. 

Another question which will have to be discussed from a 
comparison of the extant versions is the determination of accre- 
tions which have attached to the primitive draft of the legend. 

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We have already alluded to this in the matter of the proverbs, 
by ruling some of them not to belong to the first form. But 
the whole story needs to be treated in the same way. 

Our first thought, for example, with regard to the incident 
of the flying boys, is that the matter does not belong to the 
first form. It seems to be characteristic of a later time than 
Tobit. It goes along with the rest of the silly questions and 
trifling answers that pass between Pharaoh and Ahikar. Set the 
latter to build a castle in the air, and he sends up boys to ask 
from the backs of eagles for stones and lime, because they are 
ready to begin. Ask him to sew together the pieces of a broken 
millstone, and he begs for strips fi^om a neighbouring stone to 
sew with, as he has left his tools and thread at home. It can 
hardly be called 'excellent fooling' and it has not as great an 
appearance of antiquity as seems required. But, as it occurs 
with some modification in the Aesop legends, as well as in the 
best versions, it cannot be discarded fi'om the story. 

Another suspicious piece is the story of the pillar on which 
is planted 12 cedars, each with 30 twigs, &c. The writer who in- 
serted it almost admits that it is an ancient and venerable riddle, 
when he makes Ahikar say that every ploughboy in Assjrria knows 
it. And certainly it turns up in all sorts of comers of Eastern 
romance. For instance it occurs in a story to which we have 
already drawn attention, the one to which Burton gives the 
name of 'the Linguist Dame, the Duenna and the King's Son.' 
It is one of the puzzles set to the king's son by the over-educated 
young lady who is occupied with his ruin, and no doubt was a 
fashionable conundrum in the best Arabian society. 

One would feel disposed to reject such a story from the 
legends of Ahikar, if it were not that in the MSS. from which 
lidzbarski edited his translation the question occurs in a very 
early form indeed. Here we have a pillar composed of 8736 
stones, bound together by 365 bricks, on which are planted 12 
cedars, each cedar having 30 twigs^ and on each twig pairs of 
fruits, one of which is white and the other black. This is 

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interpreted, of course, to mean the year. Now clearly 8736 is 
meant to disguise 364 x 24, the number of hours in the year. 
That is, it is not a year of 365 days, but one of 364. The 
reference to the 365 bricks is an interpolation. 

But where shall we find a solar year of 364 days ? Such a 
reckoning cannot be modem. We can easily find a lunar year 
of 354 days, by taking months alternately 29 and 30 days in 
length. But this is not what the writer means. 

A case of the kind will be found in certain chapters of the 
book of Enoch. Thus we have in c. 74, 'all the days which 
belong to one of those five full years amount to three hundred 
and sixty-four days ' : c. 75, ' the harmony of the course of the 
world is brought about through its separate 364 world stations * : 
c. 82, 'the year is completed in 364 days* 

If then any MS. or version of Ahikar describes the year as 
consisting of 364 days, this is a genuine early reckoning, belonging 
to the period of the book of Enoch, i.e. to pre-Christian times. 
For this reason, this part of the legend is not lightly to be 

There remains much to be done in comparing the versions 
inter se, but enough has perhaps been said by way of introducing 
the new book to our readers. Under their criticism, and by the 
light of their investigation, we shall soon know much more with 
regard to the time and place of production, and the primitive 
contents of this charming little tale. 

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Translated firom the German of Professor V. Jagi6. 

SiNAGRiP was King of Assyria and of the land of Nineveh. 
At that time I, Akyrios, was his minister (a learned scribe). 
And it was revealed to me by God : " No child shall be bom to 
thee." I owned more wealth than all men ; and I had married a 
wife ; my household was well-ordered, and I lived for sixty years 
without a child. Then I erected altars, and kindled fires and 
said : " Lord my God ! if I should die without an heir, what 
will men say? 'Akyrios was a just man, he served God truly. 
When he dies, there will be no male oflfspring to stand at his 
grave, and no female oflfspring to shed tears for him, and he will 
have no heir.' Therefore I beseech thee, O Lord my God ! give 
me a male oflfspring, that he may strew dust on my eyes after my 
decease." And the Lord hearkened unto my voice. A sound 
came down from Heaven: "0 Akyrios! I will fulfil all thy 
requests, but thou must not ask for a child. Behold, thou hast 
a nephew (a sister's son) Anadan, take him instead of a son." 
When I perceived the voice of the Lord, I said: "0 Lord my 

I took my nephew Anadan instead of a son. He was still 
very young. I had him brought up at the breast, and fed him 
with honey and wine, and I clothed him in silk and purple. 
After he had grown up, I instructed him in every kind of wisdom 
and learning. Then the King said to me : " O Akyrios ! my 
u A. ' A 

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counsellor, when thou shalt die in a good old age, where shall 
I find another such counsellor ? " And I replied : " I have a son, 
whom I have instructed in every kind of wisdom and learning." 
The King said: "Bring me thy son, that I may see if I like 
him : then I will dismiss thee, that thou mayest spend thine old 
age at home." 

I took my son Anadan and brought him to the King. When 
the King perceived me, he said : " Blessed be this day, Akyrios, 
which has brought thee to me in good health." I bowed before 
the King and said : " Thou thyself knowest how truly I have 
served thee. Be patient a little longer, till thy favour be shewn 
to my old age and to the youth of Anadan." When the King 
heard that, he said : " Because of thy former deserts none other 
(save Anadan) shall take thy place." 

I, Akjrrios, kept the son with me, and after I had fed him with 
good lessons, as with bread and water, I said to him : 

1. My son, hearken to my words; receive all instruction with 
pleasure and be obedient all the days of thy life. 

2. If thou hearest aught in the King's presence or if thou 
seest aught in his house, let it remain shut up (rot) in thy heart 
and share it with no one. But if thou share it, it may fall on 
thee as burning coals ; thou wilt get blame to thyself and rue it 

3. My son, relate to no one what thou hearest, and reveal to 
no one what thou seest. Untie not a bound cord, and tie not 
a loosened one. 

4. And let this be said to thee, my son: Look not on the 
beauty of a woman. Even if thou sacrifice all thy wealth to her, 
thou wilt at length reap reproach and fall into sin. 

5. My son, be not hard, like the bones of men, nor soft as 
a sponge. 

6. My son, let thine eyes look on the ground and thy voice 
be soft. If it were a loud voice alone that decided the event, the 
ass could build two houses in a day with his braying. 

7. My son, it is better to roll stones with a wise man, than 

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to drink wine with a fool. Carry on no nonsense with a sensible 
man, and reveal not thy wit to a senseless one. 

8. My son, be not over sweet, lest they eat thee up, nor 
over bitter, lest thy friends run away from thee. 

9. My son, if thou hast a wound on thy foot, step not forth 

10. My son, the rich man's son swallowed the serpent. Some 
said : "From hunger"; others said : "As medicine."' 

11. My son, when a man distinguishes himself, worry him 
not ; if a mishap occur to him, rejoice not over it. 

12. My son, keep what is thine own ; seek not what belongs 
to others (or thus: give of what is thine own, but borrow not 
from others). 

13. My son, venture not on the road with a man who will not 
accept advice, and sit not down at the same table with a deceiver. 

14. My son, when a man' more highly placed than thyself 
falls, exult not above measure ; betray not thyself in thy speech 
before others who might communicate it to him, for he might 
spring up again and be revenged on thee. 

15. My son, approach not a shameless woman, and glance 
not at her beauty. 

16. My son, if a friend should have a grudge at thee, or blame 
thee, make him welcome to thy bread and wine. 

17. My son, the man who despises the law goes towards his 
fall, but the just man will rise higher. 

18. My son, withdraw not thy son from chastisement : when 
a son is chastised, the water is being poured over the vineyard 
(the vine?). 

19. My son, hold thy son with a bridle from his childhood ; if 
thou hold him not tight, he will make thee old before thy time. 

20. My son, keep not a chattering slave nor a pilfering one 
in the house, lest he eat up thy hoard. 

^ According to another version : The poor man's son swaUowed the serpent, 
and people said: "From hunger." The rich man's son swallowed the serpent, 
and people said : <* As medicine.'' 

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21. My son, hearken not to him who censureth his friend ; he 
will expose thy failings likewise to others. 

22. My son, if some one meet thee and address thee, answer 
him with reserve; an inconsiderate word spoken in haste is re- 
pented of afterwards. 

23. My son, a liar findeth sympathy at fit^t, but at the last 
he is despised and abused. The speech of a liar resembles the 
twittering of birds, only the senseless hearken to it. 

24. My son, honour thy father, for he bequeaths thee all 
his wealth. 

25. My son, draw not on thyself the curse of thy father and 
thy mother, or thou wilt not live to have any joy in thine own 

26. My son, if fierce anger seize thee, say not a word, lest 
thou be called senseless. 

27. My son, go not unarmed by night, for thou knowest not 
whom thou shalt meet. 

28. My son, he who is of low origin is despised by all. 

29. My son, say not : " My master is stupid, I am sensible." 

30. My son, take in good part the admonition of thy master, 
and thou wilt be in favour ; trust not to thiue own wisdom ; how- 
ever much thou mayest have to bear, bear it without uttering evil. 

31. My son, be not talkative, or thou wilt be in fault before 
thy master. 

32. My son, if thou art sent with a message linger not, lest 
another be sent a little while after thee. Let not thy master 
say : " Get out of my way," and thou be sad, but : " Come hither 
to me," and thou be glad. 

33. My son, neglect not to go to church on a holiday. 

34. My son, seek out the houses of the deceased ; visit them, 
and be mindful that thou too must die. 

35. My son, if thou hast no horse of thine own, ride not 
on a strange one ; if it becomes lame, thou wilt be laughed at. 

36. My son, if thou hast no bodily hunger, eat not bread, lest 
thou appear greedy. 

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37. My son, take up no quarrel with a man stronger than 
thyself; thou canst not know how he will pounce on thee. 

38. My son, if thy house be too high, make the walls lower, 
and then walk in. 

39. My son, if thou receive with good measure, sell not with 
scanty measure; say not: "Therein is the gain." That is bad. God, 
who knoweth and seeth all, will be angry with thee, and destroy 
thy house. 

40. My son, swear not in God's name, lest the number of thy 
days be made fewer. 

41. My son, go to the mourner and comfort him with (thy) 
words ; it is worth more than gold and silver. 

42. My son, keep thy tongue from evil report and thy hands 
from theft. 

43. My son, flee from unchastity. 

44. My son, if thou hearken unto a wise man, it is as if thou 
wert thirsty on a hot day, and didst refresh thyself with cold water. 

45. My son, if temptations and afflictions from God befal 
thee, be not vexed. It leads to nothing, thou wilt not overcome 
thereby, but He will hear thy bad temper and respond to it in 
[deed and] truth. 

46. My son, judge uprightly and thou wilt be honoured in 
thine old age. 

47. My son, keep a sweet tongue and open thy mouth to 
speak what is good. 

48. My son, be not fain to trample on thy neighbour, lest the 
like happen to thyself. 

49. My son, say a word to the wise, and he will take it to 
heart ; (but) though thou beat a fool with a staflf, thou wilt not 
bring him to reason. 

50. My son, thou mayest send a clever man without in- 
structing him much: but if thou send a senseless man, thou 
must follow him thyself, lest he bring thee to shame. 

51. My son, prove thy friend first with bread and wine, then 
may he be admitted to something better. 

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52. My son, if one bid thee to a feast, appear not at the first 
summons ; if he call thee the second time, thou wilt see that he 
esteems thee highly, and thou wilt enter his presence with honour. 

53. My son, take no reward (for a right judgment), for a 
reward dazzles the eyes of the judge. 

54. My son, I have tasted gall and bitterness, and it was not 
more bitter than poverty ; salt and lead seem to be lighter. 

55. My son, I have lifted iron and stone, and it seemed 
to me easier than when a man learned in the law carries on 
a suit against his nearest kin. 

56. My son, love thy wife with all thy heart, for she is the 
mother of thy children. 

57. My son, if there be no occasion for such a thing in thy 
house, set not up a commotion in it, lest thou be exposed in thy 
neighbours' eyes. 

58. My son, it is better to listen to a wise man when he is 
drunk than to a noodle when he is sober. 

59. My son, it is better to be blind of the eyes than in the 
heart ; a man blind of the eyes grows apt at tapping about and 
finds his path at last; a man blind of heart will constantly 
decline from the right road and lose himself 

60. My son, it is better for a woman to lose her own son by 
death, than to nourish a strange one ; for whatever good she does 
to him, he rewards her for it with evil. 

61. My son, a loyal slave is better than a disloyal free inan. 

62. My son, a friend who dwells near thee is better than a 
brother far oflF. 

63. My son, a good name is more honourable to men than 
personal beauty ; fame lasts for ever ; the beauty of the face fades 
at death. 

64. My son, a good death is better for a man than a bad life. 

65. My son, a sheep's foot in thine own hand is better than 
the whole shoulder in the hand of a stranger ; better is a lambkin 
near thee than an ox far away ; better is a sparrow held tight in 
the hand than a thousand birds flying about in the air; better 

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is a hempen robe, that thou hast, than a robe of purple, that 
thou hast not. 

66. My son, when thou hast bidden a friend to a feast, welcome 
him with a cheerful countenance, that he too may return to his 
home in a cheerful mood. When thou givest a dinner, appear not 
before thy friend with a gloomy face, lest thy banquet become a 
disgrace to thee, whilst thou art considered to be no good man. 

67. My son, commend not the one man nor condemn the 
other, until thou hast proved the matter ; let thy judgment be 
given only after ripe deliberation. 

68. My son, it is better to lie in fever heat than to live 
with a wicked wife. Hold no consultations in thy house (i.e. in 
presence of the wicked wife) and share not with her the concerns 
of thy heart. 

69. My son, if thou drink wine, speak little. 

70. My son, mock neither at a stupid man nor at a deaf one, 
for they are both God*s creatures. 

71. My son, seek not to belittle a great saying of thy master, 
nor to magnify a trifling one. 

72. My son, if thou desirest to say something to somebody, 
speak not immoderately, but weigh it well in thy heart and then 
say what is needful; for it is better to stumble with the foot 
than with the tongue. 

73. My son, if thou chance to be amongst menials, smile not 
as thou approachest them ; for a smile gives rise easily to a mis- 
understanding, and from a misunderstanding there springs a 
quarrel, and from a quarrel come mutual recriminations and 
scuffles, and scuffles may result in death, and death is the 
fulfilment of sin. 

74. My son, a lying word is at first heavy as lead and at the 
last it floats on the water. 

75. My son, if thou wouldst fain put thy friend to the test, 
3hare a secret with him ; then in a few days pick a quarrel. If 
he betray not thy secret, love him with all thy heart, for he is a 
trustworthy friend ; but if he prattle about thy secret, turn thy 
back on him. 

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76. My son, it is better for thee to be robbed than to rob thyself. 

77. My son, if thou say a good word for thy friend before 
the judge, thou hast snatched a lamb out of the jaws of the 

78. My son, if thou art going on a journey, count not on the 
bread of strangers ; but carry thine own loaf with thee, for if thou 
hast it not, and art yet a wayfarer, thou wilt incur reproach. 

79. My son, if a man who has hated thee die, rejoice not ; it 
had been better for him to live, and for God to have humbled him, 
so that he might have come to thee with a prayer for forgiveness, 
and thou wouldst have granted it, and God would have shown 
thee favour for its sake. 

80. My son, when thou seest an aged man, stand up in his 
presence; if he return not thy greeting, thou wilt receive thy 
thanks ftx)m God for it. 

81. My son, if thou hast bidden any one to a feast, worry him 
not about other matters, lest thou be considered deceitful. 

82. My son, when water runs up-hill, or a bird begins to 
fly backwards, when a Negro or a Saracen becomes white and gall 
is sweet as fresh honey, then will the stupid man learn sense. 

83. My son, if thou art bidden to (the house of) a neighbour, 
spy not out the nooks in his chamber, it is not becoming. 

84. My son, if God has made a man rich, envy him not, but 
shew him respect. 

85. My son, if thou enter a house of mourning, talk not of 
meats and drinks ; and if thou enter a house of gladness, make no 
mention of grief. 

86. My son, the eyes of a man, like a gushing fountain, are 
insatiable and would devour oxen ; but when the man dies, they 
are filled up with dust. 

87. My son, if thou array thyself in a new garment, behave 
thyself decently, and envy not another who owns something else ; 
he whose clothing is gaudy, his speech should be worthy of respect. 

88. My son, whether thou be wealthy or not, persist not in 
sorrow ; what profit can sorrow bring thee ? 

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89. My son, if thou hast wealth, do not allow thyself to be 
tormented by hunger or thirst. If thou diest, another will enjoy 
thy wealth, and thou shalt have toiled in vain. 

90. My son, if a poor man should steal something, make 
allowance for him. 

91. My son, if thou go to a wedding, tarry not too long, lest 
they shew thee to the door before it be over. 

92. My son, if a dog leave its master in the lurch, and follow 
another, the latter will look round, take up a stone, and fling it at 
him ; and just the same (will happen to him) who leaves thee to 
run after another. 

93. My son, if thy neighbour shew himself hostile to thee, 
cease not to meet him in a loving way, lest he carry out a design 
against thee when thou art not aware of it. 

94. My son, when a man who hath a grudge at thee is fain 
to do thee a good turn, trust him not too readily, lest he outwit 
thee and vent his wrath on thee. 

95. My son, if any one is punished for a fault, say not that 
he is punished without reason, lest thou incur the same penalty. 

96. My son, it were better to be thrashed by a wise man, 
than to be anointed by a foolish one; for even if a wise man 
cudgel thee, he will meditate as to how he may comfort thee, 
while the fool will demand gold from thee for one anointing. 

97. *[Let thy first axiom be the fear of God. Then be quick 
to obey and circumspect in answering. Be patient in anger. 

98. My son Anadan, if thy master say to thee: "Come 
near," rejoice not thereat ; and also if he say : " Get away from 
me," be not dejected with grief because of it. 

99. My son Anadan, be not a drunkard ; better is a lunatic 
than a man who is a slave to drink ; for the one raves only when 
it is the new moon, but the other rages continually. 

100. My son Anadan, if thou sittest as a guest at a friend's 

1 The sayings which are enclosed in square brackets appear only in two MSS. 
of Sonth Slavonic derivation, and of the fifteenth century. 

L. A. B 

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table, brood not over something evil about him, lest the bread in 
thy mouth taste bitter. 

101. My son Anadan, when people are seating themselves 
at the table, press not forward, lest thou be pushed out; and 
stay not behind, lest thou be forgotten. 

102. My son Anadan, if a sorrow befall thee, call in a wise 
man to comfort thee: a confused mind cannot utter a single 
clear word. 

103. My son Anadan, it is easier to ride over a broad field on 
a horse without a saddle, than to ask advice from a senseless man. 

104. My son Anadan, if thou seek to cherish thy perishing 
body, and neglect thy soul, thou wilt be like the man who 
leaves a noble wife in the lurch to cherish a slave girl. 

105. My son Anadan, if thou strive after earthly things, and 
neglect heavenly things, thou wilt be like the man who has 
painted a husbandman on the wall, instead of getting him to till 
the land and sow the com. 

106. My son Anadan, if we were to live a hundred years and 
more, it would just be like one day. 

107. My son Anadan, however much it may grieve us to see 
a good man hanging dead from his horse, it vexes us quite as 
much to see a bad spirit in a fine body. 

108. My son Anadan, a just judge may be likened to a good 
sieve ; as a good sieve separates the chaflf from the grain, so a just 
judge separates the wrong from the right. 

109. My son Anadan, if thou wouldst have a large retinue, 
keep a sweet tongue and open hands. 

110. My son Anadan, it is better to dwell in a hut as a just 
man, than in a palace as a guilty one. 

111. My son Anadan, neglect not to nourish thy mind with 
books, for it is said : "As a fence cannot stand against the wind 
without support, so a man cannot cultivate wisdom in his old age 
without books." 

112. My son Anadan, this is the way of the world : if a poor 
man speak prudently, he is not listened to; he is called a fool 

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who is talking nonsense. But if a man is rich, he is listened to, 
even if he talk rubbish. " Be quiet," they say, "for a prince is 
speaking." They treat him as a sage for the sake of his riches. 

113. My son Anadan, trust not a wicked woman. Honey drops 
from her mouth, but afterwards it is bitter and poisonous gall. 
Remember, my son, the wife of Samson, who robbed her husband 
of his hair and his eyes, and delivered him over to his enemies ; he 
dragged down the palace on himself by reason of pain and hurled 
both friend and foe to destruction. 

114. My son Anadan, it is better to be too cautious than 
to be rash. 

115. My son Anadan, if a corpse lie uncovered on thy path, 
cover it not ; if it is covered up, expose it not. 

116. My son Anadan, my soul can suit itself to everything. 
There are only three things that it cannot bear : (1) A faithless man. 
He who is faithless, is disloyal to God, to his parents, to his master, 
to his friend and to his wife. (2) A poor, but proud man. Of 
what is he proud? What does he count on? (3) A man who 
shews his master no respect. If a tom-cat be thy master, thou 
hadst better stroke his beard ; for he who holds the head by the 
crown, can turn it as he listeth. 

117. My son Anadan, what has been unjustly got, will go lightly. 

118. My son Anadan, as water dries quickly oflF the earth, 
so let not a backbiter remain near thee. 

119. My son Anadan, keep thy hands from stealing, thy 
mouth from lying and thy body from lewdness ; above all beware 
of a married woman. 

120. My son Anadan, if thou beg for anything from God, 
neglect not to comfort the sorrowing, to clothe the naked, to feed 
the hungry, to give drink to the thirsty, to cheer the unhappy 
with good and sweet words. A good word is worth more than 
silver or precious gold. 

121. My son Anadan, seek not to have the goods of another; 
in a few days thine own wealth will pass into other hands. 

122. My sou Anadan, it is better for a man to eat green 

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saltless herbs in peace, with joy and happiness, amidst cheerful- 
ness and laughter, than many tit-bits with repugnance and 
wrangling, sorrow and care. 

123. My son Anadan, put not from thee thy first (old) friend, 
lest the new one leave thee in the lurch,] 

124. My son, receive with all thy heart what I have taught 
thee, and repay me with interest from thine own stock and from 

And when I had instructed my nephew Anadan about every- 
thing, I said to myself: "My son Anadan will lay my teaching to 
heart, and I will present him to the King in place of myself." I 
never dreamt that Anadan would give no heed to my words. I 
was burning with zeal to instruct him, and he was plotting my 
downfall and forming plans against me. 

I led him to K^ng Sinagrip, that he might do him service, and 
the Kjng said : " Akjrrios, blessed be thou for bringing me thy 
son to-day. If I am pleased with him, thou shalt be honoured 
in thine old age." I went home and never once dreamt that my 
son had dug a pit under me. 

To wit: Anadan wrote two letters, one to King Nalon: "I, 
Akyrios, send greeting to Nalon, King of Persia. On the day 
when thou receivest this letter, be ready with thy whole army. I 
will deliver over to thee the land of Assyria, and thou shalt get 
it into thy power without fighting." He wrote another letter 
to Pharaoh, King of Egypt, in which he said : " When this letter 
comes into thy hands, be ready on the plain of Egypt, on the 25th 
of August. I will deliver up to thee the land of Nineveh with all 
its cities, and thou shalt possess it without the smallest sacrifice." 

Just at that time the K^ng (Sinagrip) had dismissed his 
warriors, and was abiding alone; but Anadan had traced both 
the letters in my handwriting, and had sealed them with my seal, 
and he waited for the time to put them into the King's hands. 
Then he wrote a letter containing the following: ''From K^ng 
Sinagrip to my counsellor Akyrios. My counsellor, on the day 
when thou shalt receive this letter, assemble all my warriors, and 

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hold thyself in readiness on the plain of Egypt, on August 25th. 
The moment I come, place the soldiers in battle array and 
prepared for fighting, so that the ambassadors of Pharaoh may 
see my warlike might." 

This letter was given by my son Anadan to two young slaves, 
and sent to me, ostensibly as if from the King. 

Then Anadan appeared before the King and shewed bim those 
two letters which he had himself written, and spake thus : " These 
are writings* of Akyrios, my father. I would not follow his advice, 
but brought the documents^ to thee ; for I was eating thy bread, 
and it is not fitting for me to have an evil design against thee. 
Hearken unto me, O King! thou hast distinguished my father 
Akyrios before all thy other chiefs; and see now what he has 
written against thee and against thy realm." And as he thus 
spake, he handed the writings^ to the King. The K^ng was quite 
upset and said : " Lord my God, what evil have I done to 
Akyrios ? why does he cherish so much evil in his heart against 
me and against my kingdom f " Then said Anadan: "0 my King ! 
perhaps he has been calumniated ; therefore thou shouldst betake 
thyself in the month of August to the Egyptian plain and see if 
it be true." The King gave heed to Anadan and came to the 
Egyptian plain, my son Anadan being with him, and he saw that 
I, Akyrios, according to the above mentioned writing, had placed 
the soldiers ready for battle without ever dreaming that my son 
Anadan had dug a pit under me. When the K^ng saw me all 
prepared for fighting, he was seized with a great terror, for he saw 
that what Anadan had said was quite tnie. And Anadan said to 
the King: "Just see! my father Akyrios has done this! But do 
thou go away and return home. I will go to my father Akjrrios, 
frustrate his evil designs, persuade him and bring him to thee. 
Then thou wilt pass sentence on him according to his deeds." 

The King returned home, but Anadan came to me, saluted me, 
and said : *' My gi'eetings to Akyrios my father. The K^ng sends 

^ In the Slavonic text the singular is here used, although two letters have been 
spoken of above. 

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thee word : ' Thou hast won my favour this day, since thou hast 
arrayed my generals before me according to my commands and 
hast distinguished thyself before the ambassadors of Pharaoh. 
But now come to me thyself/ " And in obedience to these words 
I left the army and went with my son to the Bang. When the 
King saw me, he said: "Art thou come to me, Akyrios, my 
counsellor and minister ? I have heaped fame and honours upon 
thee, yet thou hast taken up arms against me." And while the 
King thus spake, he handed me the letters, and I saw that they 
were like my writing and were sealed with my seal. As T unfolded 
them and read, my joints were loosened, and my tongue was tied ; 
I sought for a wise inspiration and could find none, and I was in 
a great fright. 

My son Anadan, whom I had introduced to the King, then 
attacked me suddenly, saying: "O thou senseless old man, why 
dost thou not reply to the King ? Where is thy strength ? where 
is thy wit ? " And he said bo the King : " Tass sentence on him, 
King ! " But the King said : "It is for thee, Anadan, to pass 
sentence on him according to justice and to his deeds/* Then 
said Anadan: "Akyrios, my natural father, thy fate has now 
overtaken thee, according to thy deeds." And my son Anadan 
spake thus to me: "It is the King's command that thy hands 
should be bound, and thy feet laid in fetters ; then thy he^d shall 
be struck oflf, and carried a hundred ells away from thy body." 
When I heard the answer of the King, I fell down before him, 
prostrated myself and said : " O my ruler ! mayest thou live for 
ever ! why wilt thou put me to death ? Thou hast heard no answer 
from my mouth, yet God knows that in nothing have I sinned 
against thy royal power. Now shall thy sentence be accomplished ; 
but if it be thy will, command that I be put to death in my own 
house, so that my corpse may be buried." The King gave this 
command and I was delivered over to a man with whom I had a 
friendship of long standing, and he led me away to be put to 
death. I sent messengers to my house in advance and told my 
wife : " Come forth to meet me and bring with thee maidens and 

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the whole retinue ; let them be all dressed in robes of velvet, that 
they may weep for me, for I am about to suffer death according 
to the King's decree. But first prepare a feast, that when I enter 
my house with the men of my escort, I may pai-take of bread and 
wine and then meet my death." My wife did everything, just as I 
had commanded her. She came forth to meet me, led me into 
the house, and when the table was set before us, the people began 
to eat and drink, and they all got drunk and went to sleep one 
after the other. 

Then I, Akyrios, heaved a sigh from the bottom of my heart, 
and said to my friend who was about to lead me to execution: 
" My trusty friend, look up to heaven, shew in this hour that thou 
fearest God, and remember the friendship in which we lived 
together for a long time. Remember too, how the King once 
delivered thee into my hands to be put to death for a supposed 
crime ; but I saved thee and protected thee as an innocent man, 
till the guilty one was discovered by the King. Therefore put me 
not now to death, when I find myself in the same plight, but be 
gracious to me and preserve me as I once did thee. But thou 
shalt in no wise be afraid of the King. For there is a man lying 
in the prison of the same age as myself, like me in face and well 
deserving of death. Take off my clothes and put them on him, 
lead him out, strike off his head and put it a hundred ells away 
from the body, as the King hath commanded." 

When my friend heard these words, he was inconsolable, and 
said : "Terrible is my dread of the King, how can I turn a deaf ear 
to his commands? Yet from love to thee I will do as thou hast said; 
for it is written : ' Thou shalt give up thy head for thy friend.' I 
will keep thee and preserve thee. If the King detect us, I will 
perish along with thee." And having thus spoken, he stripped off 
my clothes and put them on the prisoner, then he led him out 
and said to the escort : " Behold the execution of Akjrrios." And 
as the people came near to me, he struck off the man's head and 
carried it a hundred yards away from the body. They did not 
know that another person's head had been struck off, and a report 

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was spread through the whole land of Assyria and Nineveh, that 
the minister Akyrios had been killed. Then my friend and my 
wife prepared a dwelling for me underground, four ells broad and 
four ells deep; thither they brought me bread and water: and 
my friend went forth to inform King Sinagrip that Akyrios was 
beheaded, and all the people who heard it wept. 

Then said the King to Anadan : " Go home and weep for thy 
father." But when Anadan went home he had no thought of 
mourning, nor did he brood over his father's death ; but he gathered 
together even jugglers in my house and began to hold great feasts 
and to buffet those of my slaves who had shewn their good-will 
to me ; and demanded that my consort should serve him. But I, 
Akyrios, who was pining in prison, heard all that my son did, 
and sighed bitterly with my whole heart, but could do nothing to 
prevent it. My friend returned and paid me a visit, and stepping 
down to me tried to console me. 1 said to my friend : " Pray to 
God for me, and say 'O Lord thou just God ! have mercy upon Thy 
servant in prison, for Thy servants put their trust in Thee. Lo, 
now is Akyrios buried in the earth, and seeth not the light ; but 
Thou, O Lord my God! let Thy glance fall upon Thy servant, 
lead him up from the deepest of pits and hearken unto his 
prayers.* " 

When the Egyptian King Pharaoh heard that Akjrrios was 
killed he was greatly delighted, and sent a missive to King 
Sinagrip, in which he said : " From the Egyptian King Pharaoh 
to the Assyrian King, greeting ! I desire thee to build a castle 
for me, which shall be neither in heaven nor upon earth ; send me 
clever workmen, who will carry this out according to my wish, 
and answer me likewise a few questions in a wise manner. If 
thou wilt do it as I wish, thou shalt receive a three years' tribute 
from me ; but if these people do not answer to my requirements, 
then thou must cede to me a three years' tribute from thy 

When this missive was read aloud to King Sinagrip he 
gathered together all his wise men and caused the letter of King 

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Pharaoh to be read to them, and said : " Which of you will go to 
the land of Egypt, to King Pharaoh V And they replied to him : 
"O King, thou thyself knowest that in thine own days and in 
the days of thy father, Akyrios managed every matter requiring 
prudence. Now there is his son Anadan, who has been instructed 
by him in all branches of wisdom; let him go there/* When 
Anadan heard this, he cried with a loud voice in the King's 
presence : "Indeed, that is what I cannot manage ! others may go." 
At this speech the King became very sad ; he came down from his 
golden throne, wrapped himself in sackcloth, and began to lament, 
saying : " O Akyrios, why have I killed thee, my wisest counsellor, 
giving ear to a silly boy? I slew thee in one hour, and now I cannot 
find thy peer. Where can I find thee again, O Akjrrios, whom I have 
killed in my rashness?" When my friend heard these words of 
the King, he said to him : "O King, no one ought to transgress the 
commands of his master; but now thou mayest treat me as it 
pleaseth thee. I have saved Akjnios, and he is alive.'* Then the 
King answered and said : *'0 Lord my God! If what thou sayest be 
true, and if I see Akjrrios again, I will give thee one hundred baskets 
of gold." And my friend replied: "On thy word of honour, wilt thou 
do him no harm ?" The King said : "On my word of honour," and 
he commanded that Akjnios should be brought to him. And I, 
Akyrios, appeared before the King, and did obeisance. 

The hair of my head reached down to my girdle; my body (face ?) 
had become changed under the ground : and my nails were like the 
claws of an eagle. When the King perceived me, he burst into 
tears and felt ashamed in my presence, and after a little while 
he said to me : " O Akjnios, it is not I who have sinned against 
thee, but thy son Anadan." And I said : " O my lord ! thou hast 
found out for thyself that I have never ofiended against thee." 
And he sent me to my house, where I remained for twenty days ; 
then I came again into the King's presence, my body being as it 
was wont to be. 

And the King said to me: " Hast thou heard, O Akyrios, what 
sort of a missive the Egyptian King has directed against the land 
L. A. c 

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of Assjnia ? All have been seized with terror, and many people 
have run away from* me." And I said to him : " It was my wont 
in the old days to act thus : if a man was overtaken by any kind 
of calamity, I went and set him free. Now they had heard that 
I was dead, and so they scattered themselves abroad. Do thou 
command that the people be told: * Akyrios is alive.'" The people 
had come together because of Pharaoh's missive, and I, Akyrios, 
said to the King : "Do not be anxious, O King ! I will answer him 
and I will also win the three years* tribute from him and bring it 
to thee." When the King heard this he was greatly delighted, 

and assembled his wise men who were him, and bestowed 

gifts on them. To my friend who had given me back to him, he 
assigned a place above that of all the others. 

Then I, Akyrios, sent word to my own house, saying, "Seek 
out two eaglets and feed them ; command my falconers to teach 
them how to soar ; make a cage and seek out a bold boy amongst 
my domestics; put him in the cage with the eagles and train 
them all to fly. The child must cry: 'Bring lime and stones; look ! 
the workmen are ready.' And tie cords on their feet." And the 
slaves carried out my orders, and the people of Assyria and 
Nineveh returned to their homes. When the eagles were quite 
trained, I said to the King: " Now send me to King Pharaoh." He 
sent me thither and I took warriors with me. And before I had 
yet come to the city of Pharaoh, I made trial with thd eagles^ : 
and I saw that it was all as I approved. Then I proceeded into 
the town and sent a messenger to King Pharaoh : " Agreeably to 
the missive, which thou hast addressed to King Sinagrip, we are 
here." The King gave his commands and appointed me a dwelling, 
then he summoned me before him, and enquired my name ; and I 
did not tell him it, but said : " My name is Obikam (Abesam), I 
am one of his^ grooms." When Pharaoh heard that, he was seized 
with anger and said : " Am I then meaner than thy King ? why has 

^ This is not clear in the original text. Perhaps it is : "I dedded where the 
eagles were to be kept, and I saw that it was all as I approved.*' 
2 i.e. Sinagrip's. 

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he not sent some one better to me ?" And I answered : ** The better 
ones were sent to the better : and I was got for thee with difficulty." 
The King dismissed me to my retinue, saying : " Now go away 
from here, and come back to-morrow to answer my questions. 
If thou dost not answer them, I will give thy body as a prey 
to the fowls of the heaven and to the beasts of the earth." 

On the morrow the King commanded me to be brought before 
him. He sat upon a golden throne, and was dressed in a robe 
of red purple, and his grandees were in robes of many hues. 
He asked me : " Unto what am I and unto what are my grandees 
like ?" I said to him : " Thou, O King ! art like the sun, and thy 
grandees are like the sunbeams." The King was silent for a little 
and then said to me : " Thy King is witty, and so art thou." He 
put some other questions to me : now he was likened unto the 
moon and his grandees unto the stars, and now unto the shimmer 
of the forest and his grandees unto the colour of the grass. All 
these questions and others like them I answered to his satisfaction. 
At last the King said to me: "I sent the ambassadors unto thy King, 
in order that a castle might be built for me between the heaven and 
the earth." Then I caused the two eagles to be brought, and in 
the presence of the King and of his people I let them soar alofb 
with the boy on them. And as the eagles sprang up, the boy 
cried, as he had been taught: "See! the workmen are ready; 
bring lime and stones, that they may not tarry." The King said : 
"Who can climb up to that height?" and I replied: "I have 
brought the workmen up, but you must get lime and stones. But 
if you do not get them, the blame will not be ours." And again I, 
Akyrios, cried: "Carry up lime and stones." But those people 
stood wondering how they could get the stones up. I, Akyrios, 
took a stick and began to beat his noblemen, so that they all ran 
away. Then Pharaoh got angry and said : " Why do you put me 
to this shame? why do you strike my people without cause? 
Who can take stones and lime up there?" I replied to him: 
"Is it you or I who is to do it, seeing that you began it? If 
King Sinagrip wished, he could build two castles in one day." 

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Then he said : *' Go away from me, and let me see thee again to- 
morrow morning." 

I returned and he said to me: "Is it thou, Akyrios? now, 
answer me this : What is the reason that when the asses in your 
country bray, our mares foal?" When I heard that, I ordered 
my servants to catch a live pole-cat and bring it to me. They 
went and brought it. Then I said to them : " Thrash it, so that 
the whole land of Egypt may hear." And they began to strike it. 
When the people heard it, they said to Pharaoh: "Akyrios is 
making merry over our gods." When Pharaoh heard that, he 
summoned me and said : " What art thou about, Akyrios ? " And 
I replied : " This pole-cat has done a great deal of mischief King 
Sinagrip had given me a bird, which I carried on my hand, and it 
sang to me, at whatever hour I wanted; and it waked me up, that 
I might appear before the King at the right hour. Now this 
pole-cat went last night and throttled my cock and returned 
hither again." Then Pharaoh said to me : "I see, Akyrios, that 
thou hast grown old and thy mind is weak. There are a thousand 
stadia between Egypt and the land of Assyria; how could this 
pole-cat have bitten off the head of thy cock in one night ? " I, 
Akyrios, said to him: "And how could any one hear when the 
asses bray in Assyria and thy mares foal here ? since there are a 
thousand stadia between Egypt and the land of Assyria." 

When Pharaoh heard this speech, he was astonished and said 
to me: "Answer me this riddle: What is this? an oak, and on the 
oak twelve pillars, and on each of the pillars thirty wheels, and in 
each wheel two mice, one black and one white." And I said to 
him : "Well, all the shepherds know it in our country," and this is 
how I answered the question : " The oak is the year ; the twelve 
pillars are twelve months ; the thirty wheels are the thirty days 
in the month ; and the two mice, one white and one black, are the 
day and the night." 

Again Pharaoh said to me : " Twist me a rope of sand." I said 
to him : " Command thy slaves to bring one out of thy palace of 
the right shape and I will make it at once." Pharaoh said : 

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" I can give no heed to thy word ; do thou as I have told thee." 
And I, Akyrios, considered in my heart and then I bored through 
the wall opposite to where the sun was, then I took the sand and 
shook it into the hole, and the sunbeam seemed furrowed like a 
rope. And I said to Pharaoh : " Command thy slaves to coil up 
the rope, so that I may twist another on the same spot," When 
Pharaoh heard this, he smiled and said: ''Blessed be thou, O 
Akyrios, for this great wisdom of thine." And he prepared a 
great feast and gave me three years' tribute of the land of Egypt 
and dismissed me to my King. 

When King Sinagrip heard of my return, he came forth to meet 
me with very great joy, and said to me : " What good dost thou 
wish me to do thee ? " I said to him : " Give these presents to my 
friend who saved me, but deliver up to me my son Anadan, who has 
forgotten my teachings, with the former warnings he has had and 
all philosophy." Then they brought him to me and the King said : 
" There is thy nephew Anadan, I deliver him up to thee ; do with 
him what thou wilt." I brought him back to my house, and flung 
an iron chain round his neck and put his feet in the stocks and 
began to beat him and to torture him. I gave him, too, only 
scraps of bread and some water for food, and said to my slave, who 
was called Nagubil : " Write down what I shall say to Anadan." 

My son Anadan, I set thee on the throne of honour and 
thou didst fling me into the mire. Thou wast to me like the 
goat which was feeding on fustic, and the fustic said to it : " Why 
dost thou feed on me, O goat ! with what will they cleanse, thy 
hide?" And the goat said: "I will eat thy leaves off, and thy 
roots will cleanse my hide." 

Thou hast been to me, O my son! like a man who shot an 
arrow up to heaven. The arrow certainly did not reach heaven, but 
the man was guilty of a sin. 

Thou hast been to me, O my son ! like the man who saw that 
his friend was in a fury, and he poured water over him. My son, 
thou hadst the intention of taking my place ; but God would not 
hearken to thy wicked proposals. 

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My son, thou hast been to me like the wolf who met a donkey 
and said: "I greet thee, O donkey!" but it said: "A like greeting 
should be given to my master, who fastened me so badly (Le. so 
that I can get free and run into the open), and now thou wilt 
gobble me up." 

My son, thou hast been to me like the trap to which there 
came a hare and asked : " What art thou doing here V It said 
to him : " I oflfer prayers to God." " What hast thou got in thy 
mouth ?" It said : " A little loaf." The hare came closer and was 
caught : then he said : " Thy loaf is bad, and God accepteth not 
thy prayers." 

My son, thou art like the stag that held his head too high and 
broke his horns. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the kettle for which they 
forged a golden chain while it was never free from soot itself. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the apple-tree that grew 
over the water. How much fruit soever it bore, the water carried 
it away. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the pole-cat to whom they 
said : " Give up stealing." But he said : *' If I had eyes of gold, 
and hands of silver, I could not give it up." 

I have seen a foal destroying its mother. 

My son, I brought thee up. I nourished thee with mead and 
wine, and thou didst not even give me water. 

My son, I anointed thee with precious ointment, and thou 
didst befoul my body with earth. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the mole that crept out and 
lay in the sun ; an eagle came and carried it away. 

Then my son said : " Say no more, my lord ! but have mercy 
on me. Men sin even against God and they are forgiven. I will 
groom thy horses and be the herd of thy swine." 

My son, thou hast been to me as when they said to the wolf: 
" Why dost thou follow the track of the sheep, and let their dust 
fill thine eyes?" But he said: "The dust of the sheep is whole- 
some for my eyes." 

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My son, they taught the wolf his alphabet, and they said to 
him: "Say A, B." But he said: "Buck, kidV' 

My son, I taught thee what is good, and thou didst meditate 
evil against me ; nevertheless God does only good and helps the 
upright to victory. 

They put the head of an ass on a dish and it rolled in the 
ashes, and they said to the head : " Thou art thinking of nothing 
good, for thou dost shun a token of honour." 

My son, it hath been said: "He to whom thou hast given 
birth, call him thy son, the alien is a slave." 

In that hour Anadan died. Yes, my brethren, whoso doeth 
good, shall meet with good; and whoso digs a pit for another, 
shall fall into it himself. 

Here endeth the tale of Akyrios. Glory be unto our God for 
ever and ever. Amen. 

1 See note, page 117. 

A. a L. 

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From the Armenian Version. 

The maxims and wisdom of Ehikar, which the children of 
men learn. In the times and in the reign of Seneqarim King of 
Nineveh and of Asorestan, I Khikar Notary of Seneqarim the 
King took* sixty wives and builded me sixty palaces. And I 
Ehikar was sixty years of age, and I had not a son. Then I went 
in to the gods with many offerings; I lit a fire before the gods 
and cast incense* upon it, and presented my offerings and sacri- 
ficed victims, kneeled down and prayed, and thus spake in my 

O my lords and gods, Belshim and Shimil and Shamin, ordain 
and give to me male seed. For lo, Khikar dieth alive. And 
what say men ? That Khikar though alive and wise and clever is 
dead, and there is no son of his to bury him, nor daughter to 
bewail him. I have no heir after my death. Not even if a son 
should spend ten talents in the last day, would he exhaust my 
riches. But (I ask merely) that he may cast dust with his hands 
upon me, in order that I may not remain unremembered. 

Then there was a voice from the gods and they said : 

Khikar, there is not ordained seed for thee. But thou shalt 
take Nathan', thy sister's son, and bring him up as thy son, and 
he shall pay thee back thy cost of rearing him*. 

^ Can. thus: * acquired me slaves and handmaids and many possessions. I 
builded' etc. 

* Add * of sweet odonr ' 58 and Edjm. 

' So the better Arm. hss. The inferior read Nadan, 

* So Canon. Others have * pay thee back thy name.' See note on Arm. text. 

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And when I heard this from the gods, I took Nathan my 
sister's son; one year old was he, and I clad him in byssus and 
purple ; and a gold collar did I bind around his neck ; and like a 
king's son I decked him out with ornaments. And I gave him to 
drink milk and honey, and laid him to sleep on my eagles and 
doves, until he was seven years of aga Then I began to teach 
him writing and wisdom and the art of knowledge and the 
answering of dispatches, and the returns of contradictory speeches. 
And by day and by night I ceased not to instruct him; and I 
sated him with my teaching, as it were with bread and water. 

Then saith the king unto me: Ehikar, my Notary and wise 
one, I know that thou art grown old ; and after thy death, who is 
there to discharge ably and wisely the affairs of our kingdom ? 
And I am very grieved at this thought. And I said to him : 
O King, live for ever. There is my son, who is superior to me and 
is more clever. And the king says : Bring him unto me, that I 
may behold him. And when I had brought him and stood him 
before the king, he beheld him and said : In his days may Ehikar 
be blessed, because in his lifetime he hath led and stood before 
me his son, and may he himself be at rest. 

I bowed my head to my lord, and taking Nathan I led him into 
my dwelling and thus spake in my teaching^ 

1. Son, if thou hear any word in the royal gate, make it to die 
and bury it in thy heart, and to no one divulge it. The knot 
that is sealed do thou not loose, and that which is loosed do thou 
not tie. And that which thou dost see, tell not; and that which 
thou hearest, reveal it not. 

2. Son, raise not up thine eyes to look on a lovely woman, 
rouged and antimonied. Desire her not in thy heart. For if 
thou shouldest give her all thy riches, thou' dost get nothing the 

^ Canon adds: *give ear to my oonversation and precept. Write it on thy 
seal, and forget it not ; that the years of thy Ufe may he plentiful, and that in 
glory and wealth thou mayest reach old age.* No other Arm. sonrce has such an 
addition, which however distantly resemhles the Slavonic and Syriao. 

2 Bodl. = * thou art not in any way benefited by her more than to he condemned 
by the God of just judgements and by mankind.' Canon = * thou wilt not get any- 

L. A. D 

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more out of her; but art condemned by God and by mankind. 
For she is like unto a sepulchre which is fair on the upper side 
and below is ftill of the rottenness and bones of the dead. 

3. Son, be not like the olive-tree, which is first to bloom and 
last to ripen its fruit. But be like the mulberry, which is last to 
bloom and first to ripen its fruit. 

4. Son, it is better with a wise man to carry stones, than 
with a foolish man to drink wine. 

5. Son, with wise men be not a fool, and with fools be not 
thou wise. 

6. Son, be thou the companion of a wise man, so that thou 
become wise as he is; but do not become the companion of a 
senseless man and of a fool, lest like them thou be called a fool. 

7. Son, pour out thy wine, and drink it not with the senseless 
and with the lawless, lest thou be despised by them*. 

8. Son, be thou not over sweet, so that they swallow thee 
down, nor over bitter, so that they spit thee out. But do thou 
be gentle, tranquil in the works of thy paths and in all thy words. 

9. Son, while the boot is on thy foot, tread down the thorns 
and make a path for thy sons'. 

10. Son, a rich man's son hath eaten a serpent, and they say 
it is medicine for him. A poor man's son' hath eaten it, and 
they say that he ate it out of hunger. Eat thy own portion in 
peace*, and cast not thy eye on that of thy companion ; and with 
one that is without fear go not on a journey; and with the 
senseless do thou not eat bread. 

11. Son, if thou seest thy enemy fallen, do not make a scoff 
at him ; for if he get up again, he requiteth thee evil^ 

12. Son, the lawless man falleth by his evil deeds, but the 
just man is raised by his good deeds. 

thing more than thy own sin and shame from men and judgement from God,' 
omitting the rest. 

^ Canon and Edjm. = ' despised like them.' 

2 So Canon, ordotz : the other mss have otitz * for thy feet.* 

3 Bod. omits * son.* * Yen. and Canon add ' in peace ' : Bod. and 58 omit. 
^ Yen. adds : * and there is continual ill-will.' 

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13. Son, go not near a senseless and backbiting woman, that 
thou be not despised by her ; and thou art made a mock of, and 
she robs thee. 

14. Son, spare not the rod to thy son; for the rod is to 
children as the dung in the garden; and as the tie and seal 
fastening the packet, and as the tether on the foot of the ass, so is 
the rod profitable to the child. For if thou strike him with a rod 
once or twice, dexterously and quietly, he does not die^ But if 
thou leave him to his own will, he becomes a thief; and they take 
him to the gallows and to death, and he becomes unto thee a 
reproach and breaking of heart'. 

15. Son, train thy son in hunger and thirst, in order that in 
humility he may lead his life. 

16. Son, receive not any who shall repeat to thee the (word) 
of an enemy, for they will repeat thy word. 

17. Son', at firat thou art fond of a false man*, but in the 
end he becomes hateful to thee. For a false word is like a fat 
quail; but he that is foolish swallows it down. 

18. Son, love the father who begat thee, and earn not the 
curses of thy father and mother; to the end that thou mayest 
rejoice in the prosperity of thy own sons. 

19. Son, without a weapon go not on a journey by nighty 
lest thy enemy meet thee, and thou be destroyed. 

20. Son, as a tree is enjoyable to see for its fruit and 
branches, and the mountains are wooded with the cedars, in the 
same way are enjoyable to see man and wife* and son and brother 
and kinsman and friend, and all families. 

^ Bod. = * once or twice, he is quieted, but does not die.' I render the Venice 
text which is attested by Canon. 

3 Canon here adds in agreement with the Syriao and Slavonic these two precepts : 
Son, make thy child obedient, while he is small and pliant, lest he come into open 
conflict with thee; and thou be undone by his injury, and win the curses of strangers 
because of his disobedience. Son, acquire for thyself a sturdy ass and a strong- 
hoofed horse and an ox short in neck. And desire not a runaway slave, or one 
petulant of tongue, or a quarrelsome thief. 

^ Paris 58 omits this adage. 

^ So Bod., 58 : yen.=* at first (one) loves a false man.* 

^ Canon adds * by night ' with the Slavonic. The other sources omit with the 
Syriao. ^ Yen. omits ' and wife.' The other sources with Canon add it. 

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21. Son, one who hath not wife or son or brother or kinsman 
or Mend is in the long years despised, and is like unto a tree that 
is in the cross ways, and all who pass by it pluck off her leaves 
and break down her branches. 

22. SonS say not thus: My lord is foolish and I am wise, 
but bear with him in his folly ; and thou wilt keep thyself with 
a wise man, until some other one shall praise thee. 

23. Son, say ill to no one; and be thou not evil-tongued 
in the presence of thy lord, that thou be not contemned by him. 

24. Son, turn not aside the day of thy sacrifice, for fear lest 
the Lord be displeased with thy sacrifice '. 

25. Son, quit not the scene of mourning and repair unto 
the wedding ; for death lies ahead of all, and the punishment is 

26. Son, put not on thy finger a gold* ring which is not 
thine; nor clothe thee in byssus and purple that is not thine. 
Neither mount a horse that is not thine, since the onlookers who 
know it will make mock at thee*. 

27. Son, eat not bread that is not thine own, even though 
thou be very hungry. 

28. Son, if a man be stronger than thyself, have no con- 
troversy with him, lest he slay thee. 

29. Son, crush and consume the evil out of thy heart, and 
it is well for thee with God and man, and thou art holpen by 
the will of God. 

30. Son, if thy doorposts be loftily built to heaven as it were 
seven ells, whenever thou enterest, bow thy head. 

31. Son, take not from others with a big weight and give 
back to them with a little weight, and say : I have made a profit. 
For God gives it not, but will be wroth; and thou wilt die of 

32. Son, swear not false, that of thy days there be no fail \ 

33. Son, give ear unto the laws of God, and be not afi^id 

1 Paris 68 omits this adage. ^ parfg gs adds * which thou offerest.' 

3 Paris 68 adds *or silver.' * Bod. and Paris 68 add *when they recognize it.* 

' Bod. aud Paris 68 add * upon the earth.* 

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of the evil (one), for the commandment of God is the rampart 
of man. 

34. Son, rejoice thou not in the number of thy children, and 
in their deficiency be not distressed. 

36. Son, children and possessions are bestowed by God. The 
rich man is made poor, the poor man is enriched; the humble 
is exalted, and the exalted is humbled. 

36. Son, if lofty be the lintels of thy house, and thy friend 
be sick, say not : What shall I send him ? but go on foot and 
see him with thy eyes ; for that is better for him than a thousand 
talents of gold and silver. 

37. Son, in reward for evil-speaking receive not gold and 
silver, for it is a death-fraught deed and very evil. And shed 
not just blood unrighteously, lest thy blood be shed in return for 
his blood. 

38. Son, keep thy tongue from evil speaking and thine eye 
from immodest glances, and thy right hand from stealing ; and it 
will be well for thee with God and man. For whether it be gold 
or little things that one steals, the punishment and the slaying is 
one and the same. 

39. Son, commit not adultery with thy friend's wife, lest 
God be angry and others commit adultery with thy wife. 

40. Son, take not a widow to wife, for whenever there is 
any word between you, she will say : Alas, for my first husband ! 
and thou art distressed. 

41. Son, if retribution overtake thee from God, flee not nor 
murmur ; lest God be angry and with other harsher stroke destroy 
thee untimely. 

42. Son, love not thy son better than thy servant, for thou 
knowest not which of them will be useful to thee. 

43. Son, the sheep that stray from the flock become the 
portion of the wolves. 

44. Son, pass a just judgement in thy mind, and honour the 
aged ; to the end that thou mayest receive honour from the great 
judge, and that it may be well with thee. 

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45. Son, incline thine eyes and soften the utterance of thy 
mouth, and look under thine eyes ; that thou mayest not appear 
senseless to men, for if a temple were built by hallooings, an ass 
would build seven palaces^ in the day and 

46. Son, boast not in the day of thy youth, lest thy youth be 
thy destruction. 

47. Son, suflfer not thy companion to tread on thy feet, lest 
he should presume and tread on thy neck' as well. 

48. Son, speak not in wrath with thine adversary before the 
judge, lest thou be called senseless' and foolish. But whatever he 
asks thee, answer him with sweetness; and thou wilt heap up 
judgement on his head. 

49. Son, if thou petitionest God for good, first fulfil His will 
with fasting and prayer, and then are fulfilled thy petitions unto 
thy good. 

50. Son, a good name is better than a face that excites longing. 
For beauty is destroyed *, but a good name endureth for ever. 

51. Son, it is better to be blind of eye than blind of mind ; 
for he that is blind of eye is quick to learn the coming and going 
of the road. But the blind in mind forsakes the straight road, 
and walks according to his will. 

52. Son, a side-bone in thy own hand is better than a fat 
lamb in the hand of others. A bird in thy hand is better than a 
thousand fluttering in the air. A kid for sacrifice * in thy own 
house is better than a steer in the house of others. 

53. Son, it is better to gamer with poverty • than to squander 
with riches. 

^ So Yen. which has aparans. The other hss with Canon have darbas, a word 
not given in lexicons, but which must have the same sense. The meaning of the 
word * tchardakhs ' is unknown and I leave it blank. Canon omits it, perhaps 
rightly. Canon has this precept 45 after no. 2 of our series and adds to it in that 
context this : Son, if the oxen by sheer strength drew along, the yoke would not 
diminish from the neck of the cameL 

3 Bod. add < and head.' 

> Bod. : * lest thou appear senseless and unprofitable.' ^ Bod. < passes. ' 

^ So Bod. and Canon: Yen. has 'a fat kid in' etc., where parart *fat' is a 
corruption of patarag, which is the potior lectio and better attested. 

* Canon : * Better is poverty with repose than '... 

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54. Son, curse not thy son, until thou seest his end; and 
reject him not in scorn, until thou behold his latter end and 

55. Son, examine the word in thy heart and then utter it. 
For if thou alter the word, thou art a fawner. 

56. Son, if thou hearest an evil word about anyone, hide it in 
thy heart seven fathoms deep ; so that the evil die and the good 
be fulfilled. 

57. Son, do thou not scoflF frivolously ; for the frivolous scoflf 
is a quarrel, and the quarrel is slaying and death. 

58. Son, the false word and the false conversation is heavy as 
lead ; but after a few days it floats upon the waters, like the leaf 
of a tree. 

59. Son, reveal thy lesser counsel to thy friend, and after 
days irritate him and flout him. And \ if he does not reveal that 
counsel, then reveal to him thy greater counsels, and thou keepest 
him a trusty friend. 

60. Son, in the presence of kings and judges, be helpful to 
thy comrade ; for, as it were from the mouth of a lion, dost thou 
rescue him ; and he becometh to thee a good name and a glory. 

61. Son, if thy enemy come to thee to thy foot, grant him 
paixlon and laugh with joy to his face and receive him with 

62; Son, where thou art not invited, go not unto honour; 
and where they ask thee not, give no answer. 

63. Son, over a river frt>zen and swollen pass thou not, lest 
thou die a sudden death. 

64. Son, ask of a wise man words of advice *, and thou shalt 
be made wise. But if thou ask a foolish man, in spite of many 
words, he is not wise. 

65. Son, if thou sendest a wise man to give any command, 
he himself fulfils the matter. But if thou sendest a fool, he will 

^ Bod. * and see, if ' and below * and keep him ' etc. 
* * words of wisdom * Bod. 

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give the command in the presence of many men. And do thou 
either go thyself or not send him. 

66. Son, test thy son in hunger and thirst ; and if he is able 
to bear it, then give thy riches into his hands. 

67. Son, from the house of invitation and from the wedding 
go first before thy fellow, and return not again* ; that thou mayest 
get a good name * and mayest get no wounds on the head. 

68. Son, a man who has many possessions and chattels, they 
call him wise and virtuous ; but one who has few chattels, they 
call a fool and of no account, and no man honoureth him. 

69. Son, I have eaten endive and I have drunk gall, and 
it was not more bitter than poverty. I have lifted salt, and I 
have lifted lead, and it was not heavier than is debt. For though 
I ate and drank, I could not rest '. I have lifted iron and I have 
lifted stones upon my shoulders, and it was better for me than to 
dwell with the ignorant and the fool. 

70. Son, if thou be poor among thy fellows, reveal it not; 
leJ3t thou be despised by them, and they hearken not unto thy 

71. Son*, love thy flesh and thy wife. For she is thyself and 
the companion of thy life, and even by extreme labour she 
nurtures thy son*. 

72. Son, if thy lord send thee to bring a dunged grape, 
bring it not to him ; for he will eat the grape, yet not let thee 
off punishment for the dung. 

73. Son, the word of a wise man in drink is better than the 
word of a fool that is thirsty or gay •. Better is an upright slave 
than one free but false. Better is a friend near at hand than 
a brother far away. 

* Perhaps the sense is ' and stay not till the last.' 

^ Canon : * that thou mayest be anointed with fragrant oil ' etc. Compare the 

' Canon adds : ' until I repaid the debt. ' 

* This precept. No 41 in the series of Paris 58, is not in Ven. 
B Paris 58 here repeatfl precept 15. 

^ The Armenian text mast be faalty here. 

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74. Son, reveal not thy secret counsel to thy wife. For she is 
weak and small of soul, and she reveals it to the powerful, and 
thou art despised. 

75. Son, if thou drinkest wine, keep thy tongue from evil- 
speaking, and it is well for thee and thou art called wise. 

76. Son, without a schedule and witness, give not up thy 
property, lest the other deny it and thou regret it. 

77. ' Son, forsake not thy friend, lest thou find not another 
sharer of thy counsel and friends 

78. Son, love thy father who begat thee, and incur not the 
curse of thy father and mother, so that thou mayest rejoice in the 
prosperity of thy sons. 

79. Son, it is better if they steal thy goods, than that they 
detect theft in thee. 

80. Son, if God prosper a man in his undertakings, do thou 
honour him. And whenever thou beholdest an aged man, do 
thou rise and stand up before him and magnify him. 

81. Son, oppose not thyself to a wealthy man and to a river 
in flood. For the eyes of a grasping man are not filled ' except 
with dust'. 

82. Son, do thou not bring about a betrothal match, for they 
see the good to be from God and from luck; but the bad is 
traced to thee, and they call thee an intriguing person*. 

83. Son, if the rivers pause in their courses or the sun in its 
career, or if the gall become sweet as honey, or the raven turn 
white as the dove, even so will the senseless man abandon his 
want of sense and the fool become sensible. 

84. Son, go not too often * to the house of thy friend, lest 
he hate thee. 

86. Son, a dog that leaves his master and follows after thee, 
pursue him with ^stones'. 

^ Nos. 77 and 79 are only given in Paris 6S. 

« Paris 69 adds: * with treasure.* » Par. 68 om. 81. 

^ The Armenian is obscure here. 

B Canon adds ' on foot.' ^ Bod. Yen. add : * which is not.' Canon omits. 

L. A. B 

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86. Son, good deeds and a pure offering are pleasing to 
God; and do thou fear shame as thou fearest God. 

87. Son, the taking of an evil counsel into thy heart is the 
antagonism of the dev^; and resistance is the foundation of 
deeds, and the rampart of faith. 

88. Son, that which seems evil unto thee, do not to thy com- 
panion ; and what is not thine own, give not unto others. 

89. Son, love the truth and hate lawlessness and* falsehood. 
Give ear unto the commandments of God, and fear not the evil 
one. For the commandment of God is the rampart of man. 

90. Son, flee from a man that is evil and speaketh falsely ; 
for avarice is the mother of all evils, and all evils are engendered 
of impudence. 

91. Son, love not judgement' ; for even if thou get the better 
of thine adversary, yet be in fear of the judgement of God. 

92. Son, he that is upright in mind is the sun giving light, 
and he that is treacherous in heart is gloomy with darkness ; and 
he that is generous in heart is full of pity. He that is grasping, 
even though he has aught, is nevertheless dull of wit. 

93. Son*, into the house of a drunkard enter not ; and if thou 
enter, tarry not ; for in thy habits thou remainest empty and idle. 

94. Son, malign not thy fellow whether near or at a distance ; 
for evil words will quickly reach the master and lead to quarrels \ 

95. Son, God hath ordained wine for the sake of gladness, 
but in the place of a brothel or in any other low and unsuitable 
place, it is better to drink muck than wine*. 

96. Son, a drunken man thinks in his mind thus : I am 
brave, and everything that I say, I say wisely. He does not 
know that if he meets with a man of courage, he will throw him 
at the first touch of his hands flat on the ground and drag him. 

* Or to the dev^ a Persian word which in old Armenian usuaUy means a demon. 

* Ven. om. 'lawlessness and.' ' Canon adds * of injustice.' 

* Nos. 93-100 are only given in Codex Paris 68 and Venet. 

'^ Codex 58 gives this precept in late and obscure Armenian, and its text is 
clearly faulty. 

^ Yen. adds this : A drunken man is like an arrow in the hollow (lit, palate) of a 
bow, which strikes no one else, but bruises its own head. 

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(97. Son, if thou behold thine enemy fallen, do thou sorrow 
over him, that thou mayest make a friend of him ; but if thou 
mock at him, when he gets up again he will requite thee with 

98. Son, a drunken man thinks that the earth whirls round ; 
in his going he knows not that his head is deranged ; for as the 
earth is the mother of all plants and fruit-bearing things, so wine 
is the mother of all evils, it doth cause men to be sick with divers 
sicknesses, and to slay others without mercy; it deranges the 
man and changes his nature into that of a brute. 

99. Son, flee from guaranteeing ; but if you live a guarantor, 
make up your mind that you must give away out of your purse ; 
and not your purse only, but the hair ofl* your chin \ 

100. Son, be thou not false in speech ; for if they find thee to 
be once false, then when thou speakest the truth, they will reckon 
thee false and will not believe thee *. 

And I say to Nadan : Son, receive into thy mind my precepts 
and forget them not. 

The questions * of the king's sons and the answer of Khikar. 

Houday and Baliayn asked questions of Khikar, and Khikar 
said to Nathan : There are four things that increase the light to 
man's eyes, — to look upon flowers, to tread with naked foot on the 
green, to walk upon the water and to see one's friend. 

Four things are there which make a man fat and keep him 
healthy; — to wear linen and to hear such things as seem to 
him pleasant ; in the house an amiable and healthy spirit and to 
see one's remote (friend) well ofif. And four things are there 
which improve a man's banquet, at all times to converse well, in 
every word to avoid giving oflfence, to live humbly, to talk little, 
modesty in small matters and big ones. And four things are 

^ This precept has already come as No. 11, in almost identical language. 

^ This precept is in bad late Armenian and I give the sense of the last clause 

5 This precept also is in late Armenian. 

* The passage which follows until the resumption of the narrative is written in 
vulgar Armenian. Ven. gives the names thus : Shoutay and Bayilan. 

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there which bring tears (lit, water) to one's foce — domination of 
love, to talk too much and to boast that one knows what one does 
not know, (to conceal everything, to weave a snare and fall into it), 
and^ false-speaking. 

They asked the sage and said: What is the most pleasing 
thing on earth ? He replied : Modesty. He that hath a modest 
face is pleasing. For all evils are bom of impudence and folly. 

And* this was the advice which I taught to Nathan my sister's 
son. All this I taught to Nathan my sister's son, I Khikar, chief 
Notary of Seneqarim the king. And so I supposed in my mind 
that the teaching and advice which I taught to Nathan would 
abide and remain and that he would preserve it in his mind. 
And I knew not that he despised my words, and scattered them 
like the chaff before the wind, supposing in his mind that Ehikar 
his father was grown very old and had arrived at the door of 
his tomb. His mind (he said) is distraught and his thoughts are 
deficient and he knows nothing. 

Nathan began to dissipate my property to its loss, and spared 
not my servants and handmaids. But he tormented them and 
killed them, and cut about my horses and mules, and my steeds, 
and destroyed the very pick of the flock. 

And when I saw Nathan my sister's son, that he was trans- 
forming my affairs, and dissipating my property, I began to speak 

* What follows is in MS Canon given in a form which often more 
nearly resembles the Syriac than do the better Armenian copies, as 
below : 

All this I taught to Nathan my sister's son, thus thinking that 
what I taught he kept in his heart and would live in the royal gate. 
And I knew not that he scorned my words, and scattered them like 
dust before the wind. Forthwith he began to waste my chattels and 
my possessions. He spared not my slaves and maidservants nor even 
my darlings and my friends, but bound and ill-treated them ; woimded 
with violent blows and destroyed my steeds continually. 

When I saw that Nathan counterfeited (or metamorphosed) my 
affairs, then I spared my chattels lest he should ruin them. And I 

^ Yen. omits the words in brackets. 

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with him and I said : Keep away from my property, and come not 
near it, for it is written in the Proverbs that, whereon hands have 
not laboured, that thing his eye spareth not. And I went and 
told Seneqenm my lord. And he called Nathan and said: As 
long as Khikar is alive, thou shalt not touch his property. In 
that season Nathan saw Boudan^ his brother, who had been 
brought up in my house, and said : Khikar my father is grown old 
and his words have lost their wit. And when I heard this, I cast 
him out from all my belongings. But Nathan formed a plan of 
wickedness in his heart. He wrote in my name a letter to 
Seneqerim, the King of Nineveh and Asorestan; and it was as 
follows : 

I Khikar, chief Notary of Seneqerim the king, have sent to the 
King of the Egyptians to this effect : When this writing reaches 
thee, thou shalt muster thy forces, and come to the plain of the 
Eagles on the 25th day of the month Hrotitz, and I will put in 
your power the land of the Asores, and will give the throne of 
Seneqerim into thy hand without trouble, for thee to hold it. 

said to Nathan : Come not near my chattels, for it is said in the wise 
ones, that hands which have not been hard worked, the eye shall not 
spare. And I went and told my lord Seneqarim. And the king 
ordered Nathan and said: As long as thy father Khikar is alive, 
go not near his possessions, but remain in the royal gate, and let 
thy father Khikar remain in his gate, and rest in his old age. 

I Khikar when I saw all this that Nathan did, I said in my heart : 
Alas ! How hath Nathan despised my sweet advice, and all my wisdom 
hath he set at naught and quite despised. 

Then Nathan went into the house of the king and planned very 
great evils for me. For he wrote two letters. One he sent to 
Pharaon, king of Egypt, since he was an enemy of my lord Seneqarim, 
and it was written as follows : 

I Khikar notary of Seneqarim king of Asorestan and Nineveh to 
Pharaon king of Egypt write. Be it in thy cognisance, when this 
dispatch reaches thee, at once shalt thou muster thy forces and come to 
the plain of Eagles on the 25th day of the month Hrotitz, and I will 
lead and make thee king over these without trouble. 

^ In Bodleian ms Baudan» 

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And he had made his handwriting to resemble my hand- 
writing, and had sealed it with my seal. And when the forces of 
the king asked to go home to their homes, Nathan alone remained 
before the king, and said: O King, live for ever. I that have 
eaten bread and salt in thy house, God forbid that I should see 
evils before thee. Khikar my father, who was in honour and 
greatness before thee, hath lied to me and to thee, and hath taken 
the side of thy enemies. And the letter which Nathan had 
written in my words, and had likened his handwriting to my 
handwriting therein, he took, and read the dispatch which he 
himself had sealed, before the king. 

And when the king heard it, he was very much distressed, and 
said : What wrong have I done to Khikar, that he has so behaved 

And again a letter which had this form : 

From Seneqarim king, health {or peace) to KMkar notary of my 
tribunal. When there shall come to thee this dispatch, thou shalt 
prepare my forces which are under thy hand; exactly on the 25th 
day of the month Hrotitz thou shalt come to meet me on the plain of 
Eagles. And when thou comest near draw up face to face against my 
forces, as if it were being prepared against thine enemies. For the 
envoys of Pharaon are come unto me to see our forces and tremble. 

And this letter Nathan sent to me as if by the command of the 
king. And he himself Nathan stood before the king and said : King, 
live for ever. I have eaten bread and salt in thy house. God forbid 
that I should deceive my king. 

For my father Khikar, whom thou didst send unto rest, unto 
honour, unto glory, hath not done according to the command of your 
kingship, but hath played false to God and your kingship. And he 
had given the letter to certain trusty men of the king, and they gave 
it to the sovereign; and the sovereign gave it to Nathan and said: 
Read. And Nathan read it before the king, and the king was sorely 
troubled, and asked those who gave him the letter : Who gave into 
your hands this letter? And as Nathan had charged them, they 
answered with one mind, saying : Travellers that were going into 
Egypt. They had the letter, and we thy servants found them and 
took them by force. And when we asked them : Whence are ye 1 
they answered, We are native slaves of Khikar. 

And the king was troubled and said to the trusty men : What harm 

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to me ? And at once Nathan wrote by the command of the king 
a letter thus conceived : 

When thou readest this writing, thou shalt muster thy hosts 
and shalt come to the plain of the Eagles on the 25th day of the 
month Hrotitz. And whenever thou shalt see me, thou shalt 
draw up in battle array against me. For the messengers of 
Pharaon are come to me to see my hosts. 

He brought the letter to me, and he himself went to the king. 
He stood before the king and said : Grieve not, O ruler ; but come, 
let us go to the plain of the Eagles, and let us see whether this be 
so. Then what thou commandest is done. 

And Seneqerim took his army and came to the plain of the 
Eagles, and found me with my army; and I drew up my forces 
over against him as he had commanded. When the king saw this, 
he was very grieved. Nathan began to speak and said: Grieve 
not, O king, but let us go home. And I will bring my fether 
Khikar before thee. The king said to Nathan : If thou bringest 
Khikar before me, I will give thee very great presents and I will 
set thee in trust over all my affairs. And all the affairs of my 
kingdom shall be transacted by thee with ability. 

And the king returned to his palace, and Nathan my sister's 

then have I done to Khikar, that he hath devised such a snare for 
me ? Wherefore hath he returned evil for good ? Nathan replied and 
said : Be not troubled, O mighty king. But let us go to the plain of 
the Eagles, as is written in the dispatch ; and let us see if it is so, then 
let thy behests be done. 

And Nathan took the king and went to the plain of the Eagles. 
But I, Khikar, when I learned of the setting out of the king, prepared 
my forces and set them over against him, as had been written in the 
dispatch by behest of the king. 

When the king saw my forces, he was sore troubled. The king 
said : If thou bringest Khikar before me, mighty presents will I give 
thee, and all the royal affairs shall be discharged by thee ; for thou 
hast been found a trusty servant before me. And the king went back 
into his palace. 

And Nathan came to me and said: My father Khikar, very 

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k m^ 


son came to me and said : Seneqerira the king hath sent me to 
thee and says : Come to me and let us be jojrful together. And 
when I went, the king said to me: 

Khikar, Notary and wise man, thou wast my counsellor and 
ruler, and giver of commands of the house of the Asores and 
Ninevites ; and thou hast gone over to the side of my enemies. 
And. that letter, which Nathan had written in my* words and had 
likened therein his handwriting to my handwriting, the king gave 
unto me and said: Take and read. 

And when I read it, all my limbs* were dissolved, and my 
tongue was shrivelled up as parchment ; and I was stupeBed and 
became like one of those distraught. I sought for a word of 
wisdom and found no answer to give. Nathan began to speak, 
and said to me : Get out of the presence of the king, grey-haired 
one, perverted and inane'. Give thy hand for the iron and thy 
foot for the fetter. And the king turned away his face from me 
and said to Abusmaq, his nayip : Lead away and slay yon godless 
Khikar, and remove his head afar, about 100 ells. 

And I fell on my face and kissed the earth and said : O King, 
live for ever. Thou hast willed me to slaying, and hast not 
barkened unto my words. And I from my heart know that I 
have not in any way wronged thee, and in my heart there is no 
guile. I am innocent. Therefore have pity on me and order 
that in my own house they slay me and give over my body for 

And the king ordered Abusmaq, that they should slay me in 
my own house. And when I went forth from the king, I wrote a 
letter lamenting to Abestan my wife and said : When this letter 

honourable and pleasing hath seemed to the king this preparing of thy 
cavalry in array. Therefore hath he sent me to thee and saith : All 
thou hast done, thou hast done well and wisely. So then give orders 
to thy forces to go to their place, and do thou come and let us make 
merry together. 

1 Ven. omits 'my.* ^ Bod. =aU the flesh of my limbs. 

> The Arm. word is obscure. 

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reaches thee, do thou send out to meet me a thousand virgins; 
and let them put on apparel of mourning and let them mourn for 
me and bewail me, that I may see with my own eyes even the 
wailers who bewail me in my life-time. But* thou shalt make 
large loaves, to give to my executioners, and dainty viands for 
them to eat and drink. 

And Abestan my wife was very wise and^ fiilfiUed my orders. 
She went out to meet me, and led them into the house, and set 
before them a table ; and fed them, and gave them to drink old 
wine and unmixt, till they were fuddled and were drunk and fell 
asleep. Then I and my wife fell at the feet of Abusmaq weeping, 
and I said to him : Abusmaq, my comrade, look up to heaven and 
behold God with thy eyes; and remember the bread and salt 
which we have eaten together, and remember how that they 
betrayed thee to Seneqerim the king's father; and I took and 
kept thee until the king asked for thee, and how, when I led thee 
before him, he gave me mighty gifts. Now therefore keep me 
and render to me a return of the service I rendered thee, and to 

* The narrative that follows is given in ms Canon in a form more 
closely resembling the Syriac as below. 

And they shall make and prepare a table, adorned with all good 
things, for Abousmaq and the Parthians who are with me. Thou 
shalt go out to meet these and shalt lead them into the house. 

And Arphestan my wife did immediately what I had commanded ; 
and we set out to my house. And Abousmaq and the Parthians 
reclined, and my wife set before them a table, and waited on them. 
And I entered with them to eat bread ; and they were fuddled with 

And I said to Abousmaq my comrade, Look up to heaven and 
discern God with thy eyes and remember the love of our brotherhood. 
And sin not against my blood, for thou knowest that I am innocent. 
But remember also this, that the sire of Seneqarim gave thee into my 
hands for slaying ; and I wronged thee not, for I knew that thou wast 
innocent. And I kept thee until the king made a request ; and then 
I led thee before the king, and the king gave me mighty gifts. This 

^ Paris 92 and 58 alone add the words * was... and.' 

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thee there will be mighty gifts as thy requital, good for good^ I 
have a man in prison, and very like unto me is he. He shed 
blood in my house and is under sentence of death, and his name 
is Seniqar. Take therefore my garments into the prison and 
dress him up in them and slay him; and so thou fulfiUest the 
king's command. 

And when I said this, Abusmaq had pity on me, and did my 
will and what I told him. And the soldiers, fuddled, woke up 
from sleeps at midnight, and slew Seniqar my slave, and removed 
his head from him one hundred ells. And the news went forth 
into the city of Asorestan, that Khikar, Notary and wise man, 
was dead. 

Then Abusmaq my comrade and Abestan my wife made me 
a house dug out under ground, its' length seven ells, and its 
height equal to my head's, hard by the door-posts of my house. 
And they shut me in and placed beside me bread and water, and 
then Abusmaq went off to the king and told him that ' Khikar 
the wise is slain.' And all who heard of my death beat their 
breasts and were full of regret and said : ' Alas for thee, O Notary! 
Who is there to decide the matters of thy kingdom with ability V 

Then the king called Nathan and said to him: 'Go, make 
lamentations for the house and mourning for thy father.' Nathan* 
came, and instead of lamenting he gathered together actors, and 

do thou likewise and slay me not. There is my slave whose name is 
S^niphar, and very like is he unto me. And he is in prison, because 
he is under sentence of death. So then lead uie into prison and dress 
him up in my garments and cast him to the Parthians, for them to 
slay him.... 

* MS Canon has the narrative which follows in a form nearer to 
the Syriac. It is given below. 

And Nathan went off to the house of Khikar, but with him there 

^ Bod. has * wUl be a reqaital from Gk>d * : Paris 92 * wiU be mighty gifts.' I 
render the Yen. ms. 

2 So Yen. and Par. 92 : the rest =* fuddled with wine, woke up at.* 

3 Canon = * its height three eUs and its length seven ells, equal to (or level with) 
the doorposts of my house.' 

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made great cheer; and he very cruelly tormented my servants 
and handmaids. And even for Abestan my wife he had no respect, 
but desired to fornicate with her, that had brought him up. And 
I from my subterranean chamber heard the weeping and groanings 
and the complaints of my servants. And I moreover wept and 
my soul longed for a little bread and a morsel of meat and a cup. 
And I was destitute of all my chattels. And all the inhabitants 
of Asorestan and of Nineveh fled from me. 

When the king of Egypt heard this, of how Khikar the Notary 
was dead, and of the Ninevites and all the land (that) they were 
fled, he was very glad. And the king of Egypt, Pharaon, wrote a 
letter as follows : 

To Seneqerim, king of the Asores. Health be to thy Lordship 
and Kingship. Be it known to thee that I desire to build a 
palace hung betwixt heaven and earth. Look and send unto me 
a true and clever and wise man who can build, and also give 
answer to any question I ask. If however thou shalt neglect this 

was no concern for mourning. And he collected all his dear ones to 
drink wine and made great good cheer, instead of mourning as the 
king commanded. Using force to the dear ones of Elhikar he tortured 
them and had no respect for Arphstan wife of Khikar, nay rather 
desired to fornicate with her. 

And I Khikar was hearing the voice of my stewards whom Nathan 
tortured and illtreated. And I was tortured in the darkness. My 
soul was longing for bread and a morsel of meat. 

And when Pharaon heard that Khikar was slain, he was very glad, 
and wrote a dispatch to the king Seneqarim, riddles. 

And the king called Nathan and said: Write an answer to this 

And Nathan said : Difficult is this matter. Who is able to give 
answer thereto? 

And the king was distressed and said : Alas for Khikar my 
secretary and wise man ! 

And when Pharaon learned, that they could not give an answer to 
his writing, he sent puissant forces and they took tribute from Sene- 
qarim. And as long as Khikar languished in the prison, the burden 
of Pharaon was multiplied on Asorestan and Nineveh. Those who 

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request, then I come and take away thy kingdom and will lay waste 
thy land. When the king heard this he was very grieved, and sent 
and mustered his satraps to ask their advice, sajdng: What shall we 
do ? The^ satraps say : O King, who else can answer this question 
except Nathan who hath learned of Khikar and knoweth his lore 
and hath been brought up in his house ? He will be able to give 
him an answer to this demand which the king of Egypt hath 
written. Then the king called Nathan and shewed him the 
counsel; and he gave him the dispatch, and Nathan read it. 
When he had read aloud the letter, he cried out with a loud voice 
and said : This^ is a matter which even the gods' cannot settle 
or give answer to. How shall I be able to give answer? 

When the king heard, he rose from his golden throne and sat 
in the ashes, and with his own hands he smote his face and 
plucked out his beard and said: 'Alas for thee, Eiiikar, Notary 

were under the hand of Seneqarim also were much impoverished 
and all the land laid waste, and the chambers of the royal treasury 
were emptied. 

And the king said : Alas for Khikar, secretary and wise man. One 
who should give thee to me alive, many chattels would I give him, 
even to the half of my kingdom. 

And Abousmaq revealed it not to the king, that he might be in 
stress and know the value to him of Khikar. 

And Pharaon sent a dispatch to king Seneqarim which had this 
tenour: From Pharaon to Seneqarim health. I desire to build a 

This when Nathan heard, he cried with a loud voice and said : 
King, live for ever. Such a matter as that the gods could not make 
answer to. Surely then not men? 

When the king heard this he was very distressed. He rose from 
his throne and sat on sackcloth, beat his person and said: Alas for 
Khikar, able notary and wise. • On the words of a lying man I slew 

^ Canon: And they perplezt said: To such a matter Khikar would give an 
answer, and now Nathan who is in his place. 

^ Canon : Such a matter the gods cannot answer, much less men. When the 
king heard, he was sorely troubled ; he rose... 

' The Arm, word used is dign, i.e. the Devs, 

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and wise in the conversations of men, I have through the tittle- 
tattle of men destroyed thee. For thou didst aiTange the aflFairs 
of our kingdom. Now if anyone gave thee unto me, I would 
give him whatever he asked of me, no matter how great a treasure 
of gold and silver/ 

When Abusmaq my comrade heard this, he stood before the 
king and said : ' O King, live for ever. He that doeth not the 
king's commands is sentenced to death, for the commands of God 
and of the king are one. Thou didst bid slay Khikar, and he is 
still living.' The king said: 'Speak, Abusmaq, my servant and 
trusty one. If thou canst shew me Khikar alive, I will give thee* 
byssus and purple and bestow on thee mighty presents.' And 
Abusmaq, when he heard this from the king, like a swiftly flying 
fowl, came unto me, and opened the door of my subterranean 
chamber, and led me forth. And the colour of my face was 
changed and my head* was matted and my nails grown like an 

When the king beheld me', be bent his head and was ashamed 
to look in my face ; and hardly looked in my face, his face being 
full of shame ; and * he said to me : O my loved and honourable 

bim. There is none like thee. And there is no successor like thee in 
the royal gate. If anyone gave thee to me, I would weigh him against 
gold and buy thee. When Abousmaq learned the deep distress of the 
king, he said : My lord king, he that contemns the behests of his 
lord and fulfils them not is guilty of death. Now then this word of 
mine is fulfilled in me. For I fulfilled not the behest of my lord. 
Thou didst make behest to slay Khikar, and now he is still alive. 

And the king said: Speak, speak, my servant, well-doing and 
trusty. For thou hast not sinned. But of many good things hast 
thou become worthy. If thou shewest me Khikar, I will give thee 
royal purples and one hundred thousand talents of gold. 

• For the text of MS Canon see below : 

And he sent me to the bath for them to wash and anoint me with 

1 Bod. * wiU array thee in.' ^ Canon : * the hair of my head.' 

' Bod. adds : 'in snoh plight.* 

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brother Ehikar, go to thy house and repair thy person for 40 days, 
and then come unto me. And I did so. And I came back again 
to the king, and the king said : I have sinned against thee, father 
Khikar. Not I is it that has sinned against thee, but Nathan thy 
sister's son, whom thou didst bring up. 

And I fell on my face and kissed the earth before the king 
and said : Forasmuch as I have seen the &ce of the king, I am 
alive, and all evils are turned for me into wellbeing. Forasmuch 
as thy servant Khikar has found grace. 

The king said: Hast thou heard this, O honourable good 
Khikar, to wit, what the Egyptian has sent and that which is 
said, that the inhabitants of Nineveh and Asorestan are fled ? 
And I said to the king : Therefore let a herald proclaim at the 
gate of thy palace, that Khikar is alive ; and all who shall bear 
it will return, each man to his place. And the king com- 
manded a herald to cry, saying: Khikar is alive; and that all 
the dwellers in Nineveh and Asorestan are returned, each man 
to his place. 

And I said to the king Seneqarim: Concerning this matter 
which the Egyptian has sent, do thou not be anxious. I will go 
and give him answer and will bring to thee the tribute from 
Egypt. When the king heard this he was glad, and established 
Abusmaq at the head of the divan. And on the morrow I wrote 
to Abestah my wife and said as follows : — 

fragrant oil (omitting the direct speech of the king on this point). 
And they did so, and brought raiment of great price and clad me in it. 
And the king brought and set me close to him. And all that he had 
promised to Abousmaq he fulfilled amply. 

Then the king brought the letter of Pharaon and gave it to me, 
and said: Read and give an answer to this letter. 

And I took and read it, and said to the king : Send yon envoys 
to go to their place And I will later set out and fulfil the behests of 

And when they were gone, I Khikar secretary sent and had 
brought two eaglets.... 

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'When thou readest this writing, do thou have caught two 
nestlings of an eagle, and two children not yet able to talk, and 
two nursing women to nurse the little ones. And they shall say : 
Clay, lime, mortar, brick. The artisans stand idle. And have two 
ropes spun, the length thereof two hundred ells, and the thickness 
thereof one ell. And cause a carpenter to fit together two cages 
for the children ; and give food to the eagles, every day two lambs. 
And cause the children to be bound upon the eagles, and to make 
little flights, until they form the habit. And in this way habituate 
them until they soar aloft two hundred ells' 

And Abestan my wife was very wise and did everything at 
once which I told her. Then the king commanded me to depart 
to Egypt. And when I reached the gate of Egypt, I brought 
the children's cages, even as they were habituated. And I 
bound them upon the eagles ; they flew up and soared aloft, and 
the children cried out and said : Clay, lime, mortar, brick. The 
artisans stand idle. And I Khikar took a rod, and I went after 
all whom I met and struck them blows (and said): Hurry up, 
give what the artisans ask for. The king of Egypt came up and 
was very astonished, and was glad and bade us make (the birds) 
come down. And he said: Come, rest them from their labours. 
Eat, drink and be merry. And on the morrow he came to me ; 
and when it was dawn the king called me and said : What is thy 
name ? And I said : Abikam is my name. For I am a serf of 
Seneqarim the king. 

And when the king heard, he was grieved exceedingly, and 
said : ' Have I seemed so contemptible in the eyes of Seneqarim 
the king of Asorestan, that he has sent a serf unto me to give me 
answer?' And he said to me: 'Go unto thy house and to-morrow 
come to me,' 

And when on the morrow I went, the king gave command to 
his forces to dress themselves in scarlet Chlamid; and the king 
himself was arrayed in purple raiment, and sat on his throne ; 
and his forces around him. He commanded and called me to 

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him and said : Abikam, unto whom am I like ? Or my forces, 
whom are they like ? I said, ' Thou art like to the diq ^ and thy 
satraps to his priest/ He said to me : Go to thy lodgings, and 
to-morrow come unto me. When I had gone to my house and 
came the next day to him, he had arrayed his forces in linen, and 
he himself was arrayed in scarlet, and he said to me : Unto whom 
am I like, or my forces, to whom are they like? And I said: 
'Thou art like the sun and thy satraps are like its rays.' And 
again he said to me : Go to thy lodgings, and on the morrow come 
to me. And when I went on the morrow, he commanded the 
satraps to array themselves in dyed raiment, and he himself 
arrayed himself in raiment of plumes, and sat on his throne and 
said to me : To whom am I like ? I said : ' Thou art like to the 
green grass* and thy satraps to the blossoms thereof.' 

Then the king was glad and said : Tell me the truth. Sene- 
qarim the king, to whom is he like ? I said : God forbid that 
thou shouldst mention Seneqarim the king, since thou art sitting 
down. But stand up, and I will tell thee. When he had risen 
up, I said : Seneqarim the king is like unto BSlshim, and his 
satraps to the lightnings. When he willeth, he maketh the rain'; 
and he shooteth out the dew on high, he sendeth it forth in his 
empery. .He thunders, and imprisons the rays of the sun. And 
when he willeth, he doth bring hail and grindeth to dust tree, 
green herb and dry; and the dawn breaketh and smiteth the 
shoots of green grass. 

The king said : Tell me, what is thy name ? I said : Khikar is 
my name. He said: Wretch, hast thou come to life? And I 
said : Since I have seen thy face, O king, I am alive. The king 
said : May this day be blessed, for I have seen Khikar with my 
own eyes alive. 

^ i.e. 'to God.* The plural diq literally^' demons,' but is used like the 
Hebrew Elohim as a singular. The same nse is found in the Arm. version of 
Eusebius' Chronicon Bk i. In the Arm. O. T. it is used as a plural. 

3 Venice ms= * to the plain.' ' Bod. = * the material of rain.' 

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And I fell on my &ce and did homage to him and kissed him. 
The king said : Expound this sajdng. 

There stands a pillar, and upon that pillar twelve cedard, and 
upon them thirty wheels, and upon each wheel two couriers^ the 
one black and the other white. And I said: O king, this the 
cowherds of the Asores know. The pillar of which thou spakest is 
the year and the cedars are the twelve months. The thirty 
wheels are the days of the months. The two couriers, the one 
black and the other white; are dawn and nightfalls 

The king said, What is this story, that from Egypt as far as 
Nineveh there are 500 leagues — how did our mares hear the 
neighing of your stallions and miscarry? I Khikar went out 
from him, and I took a cat and scolded and tortured it. Then 
they told the king, saying : Khikar flouts the diq and tortures the 
cats. The king called me and said z Khikar, wherefore dost thou 
flout our diq and torture the cats? And I said: Yon cat has 
done harm enough to me. Aforetime the king gave to me 
a cock ; sweet of voice was it, and at each hour it awoke me, to 
go to the king's palace. This very night (the cat) went ofif and 
bit off the head of the cock and came back here. And the king 
said to me as follows : It appears that as thou growest old, in the 
same measure your words and wisdom are changed round. From 
Egypt to Nineveh there are 500' leagues. How then in a single 
night could one cat bite off the head of the cock and come back 
hither ? But I said : How could your mares hear the neighing 
and miscarry ? 

The king said: Leave this. Come and weave me a rope of 
sand. When I had gone out from him, the king said to all those 
with him : What is Khikar sajdng ? Ye have said : ' We know 
and have heard this saying.' 

And I took and wrote a letter thus: From Seneqarim king. 

^ The Arm. word has this meaning. 

> After the explanation of the pillar ms Canon passes direct to the rope of sand 
incident, as does the Syriac. 
3 MS Canon has 360. 

L. A. G 

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all hail to Pharaon king of Egypt. Brethren have need of 
brethren to behold them and kings of kings. In this season 
expenses and debts enough have there been and silver is wanting 
in our treasuries. So then give orders and have brought to me 
by dispatch a hundred talents of silver. And I fastened up the 
letter and went in to the king and said : In this dispatch I have 
written of a matter, of which neither your city * nor your satraps 
are to hear. And they all said: We have heard and we know 
this matter of yours. But I said : Ye have heard, say then before 
ye have opened the letter. And they could not say, but opened 
and read it. I said : Ye have heard what is written. The king 
said": A rope of sand thou weavest not for me, so thou shalt 
not carry away the tribute from Egypt. And I went into a 
deeply dug chamber, and perforated the wall of the chamber on 
the side whence the dawn shone; and when the dawn gleamed 
forth, it flashed into the chamber seven ells ; and I took up dust 
of sand and cast it into the hole bored and blew into it. It 
appeared like woven twists, and I said: Give orders, O king, 
that they collect yon ropes and I will weave yet othera 

When the king saw this he laughed and said: Blessed art 
thou before the diq. And he gave me very great presents, and 
allowed the tribute from Egjrpt and well and gladly dismissed me, 
and I departed. 

When the king Seneqarim heard of my coming, he went out 
to meet me with joy. When we had saluted each other, he took 
and led me into his palace and made me recline at the head of 
the couch ; and made merry for several days, and bestowed on me 
very great presents, and said to me : O my father Khikar, ask of 
me other very great presents and I will give them to thee. And 
I bowed to the earth to him and said: O King, live for ever. 

1 92 adds *nor your king.' 

' Canon = and Pharaon said: Weave me a rope of sand, in length nine ells. 
And I said : My lord king, order them to bring forth from your treasury a model 
that I may see and aooording to the model make it, that it be not too thick or too 
thin. And Pharaon said : In my treasury is none. Bnt unless thou weave it, thou 
earnest not off the silver, which by thy wisdom thou hast sought and I promised. 

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Whatsoever thou wouldst bestow on me, bestow on Abusmaq my 
comrade, who gave life to thy servant. But to me thou shalt 
give Nathan my sister's son whom I taught ^ For he hath not 
well learned my former lore. 

And the king gave Nathan my sister's son into my hands, 
and I* bound him with a single chain of iron, which was of the 
weight of seven talents, at the door of my portico; and I 
entrusted him to BSliar my servant. And I ordered him to 
scourge him oh his back and belly. And I said to him in my 
coming in and going forth : Whatsoever I speak in proverbs with 
him, do thou write on paper and keep it with thee ; and I gave to 
him a little bread and a little water. I began to speak and said 
as follows. 

1. Son, him that with his ears heareth not they make to hear 
through his back. Nathan began to speak and said : Wherefore 
art thou angry with me, my father ? I have'* sinned against thee, 
my father Khikar. If thou wilt have mercy on me, thy servant, 
I will even become to thee dust and ashes and a servant all the 
days of my life. 

And I said to him : 

2. Son, on the throne of glory I seated thee, and from my 
throne thou didst hurl me to ruin. 

3. Son, I in byssus and purples clad thee, and thou with 
earth wouldst have destroyed my body. 

4. Son, I raised thee on high like a tower, so that if the 

* For the text of ms Canon, see below : 

Then I took Nathan, and led him to my house ; and bound (him to) 
my pillar of iron, of which the weight was seven hundred utres ; and 
I placed a rope round his neck. And I smote a thousand blows (lit 
trees) on his chest and a thousand on his back. And he was kept in 
the door of my portico. And I gave him bread by weight and water 
by measure ; and entrusted him to Beliar my servant, and I said to 
him : In my goings out and my comings in, whatever I say to Nathan 
write it in thy book. 

^. Canon =* sister's son, that I may teaoh him another teaching.' 
^ Canon with Syriao omits the words ' I have— of my life.' 

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enemy should come to me, I might go forth and fortify myself in 
thee; and thou thyself hast been found to be the enemy in my 

5. Son, I gave thee to glory and honour; and thou didst 
betray me into the hands of enmity and death. 

6. Son, I nurtured* thee like the cub of the fox ; and thine 
eye was on thine hole and my finger smooth was on thy mouth 
and thy fingers were sharpened upon my eyes. 

7. Son, my righteousness and innocency saved and rescued 
me; and thy injustice prospered thee not. 

8. Son, thou wast to me as a scorpion which struck the 
needle. The needle said*: Behold a sting which is worse than 
thine own. Again thou didst strike the sole of the foot of the 
camel, and he set his foot hard upon that scorpion and crushed it 
and said: Captive, knewest thou not that thy breath and soul 
was under my feet? 

9. Son, thou hast been to me like a goat which was eating 
madder. Says the madder : Why eatest thou me ? Knowest thou 
not that with my root they dye thy skin* ? Said the goat : I in 
my lifetime eat thee, after my death they pluck up thy root and 
prepare (lit build) my skin. 

10. Son, thou hast been to me like him that shot his arrow 
up to the heavens ; and he was not able to reach thereunto, but 
reaped the reward of his lawlessness, and the arrow returned upon 
his head. 

11. Son, thou hast been to me like the sower, who sowed ten 
busliels, and gathered five bushels, and the rest failed. 

12. Son, thou hast been to me like the child that was 
chopping a tree. Said the tree: Wert* thou not from me, thou 

^ I render snoutzi of ms Canon instead of oti80uf2i=* taught* of the other msb. 
MS Canon has the rest of the saying thus : * like the young of the eagle, and thy 
fingers were sharpened against my eyes. For thine eye was evil to look ux>on me.* 

^ I supply the words * the needle said ' from ms Canon. The other copies omit 
it through homoioteleuton, 

* So MS Canon : the other mss less well : * with me they work thy skin.' 

* MS Canon, better :. * Were not what is in thy hand from me, thou wert not 
able to overcome me.' 

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couldst not overcome me. Thus' didst thou imagine sapng: I 
will fill his place. But if the pig*s tail were about five ells long, 
it would not fill the place of the horse. And if its fleece were as 
purple, it could not be likened to the body of a king". 

The maggot of the bread ate the body of a king, but was 
itself of no use to anyone nor profitable, but vile. 

13. Son, thou hast been to me like the young of the swallow 
which fell out of its nest, and a weasel found it and said: If it 
had not been for me^ then a great evil would have befallen you. 
The nursling said to the weasel : Thy good which thou hast done 
iio me shall return upon thine head. 

14. Son, a dog which itself eats the quarry, will become the 
prey of wolves. An eye that gives me no light, the ravens dig it 
out. Hand which helps me not, from the shoulder let them lop 
it oflF. 

15. Son, thou hast been to me like the lure which lay buried 
in the dung. A sparrow found it and said : What doest* thou ? 
And it said : I am engaged in prayer unto God. Said the 
sparrow : And that which is in thy mouth, what is it ? It said : 
A little loaf for the hungry. The sparrow darted in to take the 
bread and was caught by the neck and said : If this was a little 
loaf for the hungry, God even so heareth thy prayer. 

16. Son, they said to the wolf: Keep away from the fold. 
It answered: If I live away, I am blinded; for the dust is a 
remedy for my eyes and benefits them. 

17. Son, thou hast been to me as the wolf that encountered 
an ass, and said: Peace be unto thee. The young ass said: 
Peace to. yonder master of mine, who hath loosed the cord of my 
feet and let me behold thy face evil and bloodthirsty". 

^- MB Canon, better : ' My sod, thon didst imagine thns, saying : I fiU the place 
of Ehikar, bat were the pig*8 tail nine ells long * etc. 

^ MS Canon like the Syriac adds here this saying : * Son, I thus thought, that 
thou wooldbt stay in my house and inherit my goods. But according to thy 
lawlessness, God hath not prospered thee.' 

' Lit. * if it had been apart from me.' 

* So Paris 69 : the rest =* What art thon V 

^ Canon omits * evil and bloodthirHty.' 

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18. Son, thou hast been to me like one who saw his fellow 
a-shivering. Taking water he threw it over him. 

19. Son, thou hast been to me like the dog which went into 
the oven of the potter. When he was warm, he began to bark 
at the potter. 

20. Son, they said to the cat, Give up thy habitual afiairS 
and the privilege' is extended to thee to enter the palace and 
quit it. The cat said : If my eyes were gold and my paw of silver, 
I would yet not give up the habitual thing". 

21. Son, thou hast been to me as a snake that wound itself 
round a bramble and fell into a river. A wolf saw it and said : 
Lo, the evil is mounted on the evil, and evil is that which drives 
them along. 

22. Son, thou hast been to me as a mole which came out of 
its hole and one with another went forth because of their eyes not 
seeing. And an eagle swooped and seized him; and the mole 
said: If there had been no senses in my case, I should have 
remained in my place and lived a peaceful life. 

23. Son, they gave teaching to the wolfs cub, and said : Say 
thou, ay6, ben, gim* ; and he said ayts, bouts, garhn (i.e. goeUi^ kid, 

24. Son, they took the swine to the bath, and he plunged 
into it, then rolled himself in the bog, saying: You wash in your 
own, and I will in mine. 

Nathan began to speak and said : My father Khikar^ men sin 
unto God, and He forgives them, when they say : I have sinned. 
Father, I have sinned unto thee. Forgive me, and I will be to 
thee a slave henceforth for ever*. 

And I spake to Nathan thus : 

25. Son, thou hast been to me like a palm-tree which was 
growing with roots on the bank of the river. When the fruit 

1 Lit. * word.' 

3 Canon here has * habit,' bars for ban=* word,* and this should probably be 
read all through. 

s i.e. the first three letters of the Armenian alphabet. 
« Canon adds : ' like one of the sinners.' 

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ripened, it fell into the river. The lord of the tree came to cut it 
down, and the tree said : Leave me in this placed that in the next 
year I may bear fruit. The lord of the tree said : Up to this day 
hast thou been to me useless, in the future thou wilt not become 

26. Son, God hath rescued me because of my innocence, but 
hath destroyed thee because of thy lawlessness. God passes 
judgement between me and thee. For the tail of the dog gives 
bread and his mouth a cudgell 

In the same hour Nathan swelled up and all his body burst 
asunder, and I said: 

27. Son*, he that doeth good, winneth good; and he that 
digs a pit for others, himself falls into the pit*. The good endeth 
in good and the evil in evil. 

Hete endeth Khikar*. 

^ For the text of ms Canon see below : 

Said Khikar : He that doeth well to the good will meet with good. 
And he who diggeth a pit for his fellow, with his own pei-son filleth it. 
He who loves evil is hateful to many, and he who pursues the good 
inherits it. 

* Canon = * Leave me for this year.* 

^ Canon adds this precept about the dog after No. 16. It comes as the fourth 
in the first series of the Syriac. 

* Canon : *and he who digs a pit for his comrade fiUs it with his own person.* 
So the Syriac. 

* The last three words in Codex Yen. alone. 

F. C. 0. 

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(from Mua Britt. Add. 7200 = Si). 

...And it was said to me, [There will be no son to thee]. And 
I had much wealth ; I wedded me sixty wives, and built me sixty 
castles : and from none of these women had I a son. Then I built 
me a great altar of incense and vowed a vow, and said, O Lord 
God, give me a male child, that when I shall die he may cast 
dust on my eyes. Thereupon there was heard by me this voice, 
saying, O Ahikar, vex not thyself overmuch ; there is no soii for 
thee ; but behold Nadan thy sister's son ; make him thy son ; so 
that as he grows up, thou mayest be able to teach him everything. 
Then when I heard this, I took Nadan my sister's son, and he 
became my son. And on this wise I was saying to him^: 

1. Hear my teaching, my son Nadan ; and come to my under- 
standing, and be mindful of my words, according to the following 
sajdngs : and thereupon Ahikar' began to teach Nadan his sister's 
son, and answered and said to him: 

2. My son, if thou hast heard a word, let it die in thy heart ; 
and reveal it to no man ; lest it should become a hot coal in thy 
mouth, and burn thee ; and thou shalt lay blemish on thy soul, 
and shalt be hated on earth, and be angered against God*. 

1 The aocount of the earlier years of Nadan's bringing np is omitted; if indeed 
it existed in the first form of the story. 

> The text is double; a copy which had the primitiye 'I i^ikar took my son,' 
haying been compounded with one that had * Thereupon Ahikar.' A comparison 
with the Tobit-parallels shows that the second clause is a modification of the 

3 We should expect * And God shall be angry with thee.* 

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3. My son, do not tell all that thou seest, and do not disclose 
all that thou hearest. 

4. My son, do not loose a knot that is sealed ; and do not seal 
one which is loosed. 

5. My son, sweeten thy tongue, and make savoury the opening 
of thy mouth ; because the tail of the dog gives him bread, and his 
mouth gets him blows. 

6. My son, the eye of man is a fountain, and is not satisfied 
with riches until [filled with dust]. 

7. [My son, if] thou lifb up thine eyes [and behold a woman 
bedizened] and beautified, covet her not in thy heart ; for if thou 
shouldst give her all [that thou hast, advantage]^ in her thou wilt 
not find; and thou wilt be guilty of sin before God. 

8. My son, stand not in the house of those that are at strife : 
because fi'om a word there comes a quarrel, and fi-om a quarrel is 
stirred up vexation; and from vexedness springs murder^. 

9. My son, if a house were built by loudness of voice, the ass 
would build two houses in a single day: and if by sheer force 
the plough was directed, the plough-share would never be worn 
away^ under the shoulder of the camel. 

10. Better to remove stones with the wise man than to drink 
wine with the fool. 

11. My son, in the company of the wise thou wilt not be 
depraved; and in the company of the depraved thou wilt not 
become wise. 

12. My son, make companion of the wise person, and thou 
wilt become wise like him ; and make not a companion of the 
foolish person, lest thou be reckoned like him. 

13. While there are shoes on thy feet, tread down the thorns 
and make a path for thy sons and thy sons' sons. 

^ A slight eorxeotion has been made in the Syriac text. 

' Gf. Teaching of the Twelve Apostles^ <My child, be not angiy, for anger leads 
to murder,' which is a simpler and more archaic form of the same precept. 

' This difficult expression is replaced in S3 by the easier terms 'would never be 
released.' In either case the meaning is obscure. Quaere, *if brute force were 
sufficient, the camel might go on ploughing by himself*? 

L. A. H 

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14. My son, the rich man's son eats a snake, and they say, 
For his medicine he ate it : the poor man's son eats it, and they 
say, Because of his hunger he ate it. 

15. My son, eat thy portion, and stretch not out thy hand 
over that of thy neighbour. 

16. My son, do not eat bread with a man that is shameless. 

17. My son, if thou seest thine enemy fallen, do not mock at 
him ; lest he should rise up and repay thee. 

18. My son, be not envious at the good fortune of thine 
enemy; and do not rejoice at his misfortune. 

19. My son, do not approach a woman who is hateful and 
talkative, and one whose voice is high. For the beauty of a 
woman is her good sense and the word of her mouth is her 

20. My son, if thine enemy meet thee with evil, meet thou 
him with good. 

21. My son, if thou seest a man who is stronger than thyself, 
rise up before him 

End of Fragment. 

J. R H. 


(Cod. Add. 2020 =83) 

Again, by the divine power, I write the proverbs, to wit, the 
story of Ahikar, sage and secretary of Sennacherib the king of 
Assyria and Nineveh. 

In the twentieth year of Sennacherib, son of Sarhadum, king 
of Assyria and Nineveh, I, Ahikar, was the king's secretary. 

And it had been said to me when I was a boy, that no son will 
be bom to thee^ : and the wealth that I had acquired was too vast 

^ Presumably, this was said by the astrologers. 

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to tell. Sixty wives had I wedded : and sixty castles did I build 
them : and I had no son. Thereupon I, Ahikar, built me a great 
altar, all of wood ; and kindled fire upon it, and laid good meat 
thereon, and thus I spake: 

' O Lord, my God ; when I shall die and leave no son, what 
will men say of me? they will say that this, then, is Ahikar 
the just and good and God-serving : he is dead, and has left no 
son to bury him, no ! nor a daughter : and his possessions, as if 
he were accursed, no man inherits. But I ask of thee, O God, 
that I may have a male child ; so that when I shall die, he may 
cast dust on my eyes' : and this voice was heard by me, * O Ahikar, 
wise scribe, all that thou hast asked of me I have given thee ; but 
as to my having left thee childless, let it suffice thee : perplex not 
thyself: but behold! Nadan thy sisters son: he shall be a son 
unto thee : so that with the growth of his stature thou shalt be 
able to teach him everything.' And when I heard these things, I 
was grieved again, and said, * Oh ! Lord God ! is it that thou wilt 
give me as a son Nadan my sister s son, so that when I die, he 
may throw dust on my eyes ? * And no further answer was re- 
turned to me. And I obeyed the command and took to me for a 
son, Nadan, my sister's son: and because he was yet young, I 
furnished him with eight wet-nurses : and I brought up my son on 
honey, and made him lie on choice carpets, and clothed him in 
fine linen and purple ; and my son grew and shot up like a cedar, 
and when my son was giown big, I taught him book-lore and 
wisdom ; and when the king came fi*om the place to which he had 
gone, he called me and said to me, ' O Ahikar, the wise scribe 
and master of my thoughts, when thou shalt wax old and die, who 
is there to come after thee and to serve me like thyself ? ' And I 
answered and said to him, ' O my lord the king, live for ever ! I 
have a son, wise like myself, and book-learned like myself, and 
educated.' And the king said to me, 'Bring him and let me 
see him. If he is able to stand before me, I will release 
thee in peace, and thou shalt spend thy old age in honour, 
until thou shalt end thy days.' Then I took my son Nadan 

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and set him before the king, and when my lord the king saw 
him, he said, 'This day shall be a blessed day before God, so 
that like as Ahikar walked^ before my father Sarhadum, and 
before me also, he shall be rewarded^ and I will set his son in my 
gate in his lifetime, and he shall depart his life [in peace]. There- 
upon I, Ahikar, bowed down before the king and said, ' My lord 
the king, live for ever ! And like as I walked before thy father 
and before thyself even until now, so do thou also extend thy 
forbearance to the youthfulness of this my son, that thy grace 
which was toward me may be found multiplied towards him/ 
Then when the king heard this, he gave me his right hand, and I, 
Ahikar, bowed down before the king. 

Nor did I cease from the instruction of my son, until I had 
filled him with instruction as with bread and water. And on this 
wise was I discoursing to him: 

1. Hear, O my son Nadan, and come to the understanding of 
me, and be mindful of my words, as the words of God' : 

2. My son Nadan, if thou hast heard a word, let it die in thy 
heart, and reveal it to no man ; lest it become a hot coal in thy 
mouth and burn thee, and thou lay a blemish on thy soul, and 
be angered against God. 

3. My son, do not tell all that thou hearest, and do not 
disclose all that thou seest. 

4. My son, do not loose a knot that is sealed, and do not seal 
one that is loosed. 

5. My son, lift not up thy eyes and look upon a woman that 
is bedizened and painted ; and do not covet her in thy heart ; for 
if thou shouldest give her all that is in thy hands, thou findest no 
advantage in her ; and thou wilt be guilty of sin against God. 

6. My son, commit not adultery with the wife of thy neigh- 
bour; lest others should commit adultery with thy wife. 

1 Lit. ran. 

> Beading «;^%&^ 

' Gf. Teaching of Apostles^ c. iv. ' Him that speaketh to thee the word of God, 
thou shalt remember night and day, and thou shalt honour him as the Lord.' 

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7. My son, be not in a hurry, like the almond tree whose 
blossom is the first to appear, but whose fruit is the last to be 
eaten ; but be equal and sensible, like the mulberry tree whose 
blossom is the last to appear, but whose fruit is the first to be 

8. My son, cast down thine eyes, and lower thy voice, and look 
ftt)m beneath thine eyelids : for if a house could be built by a high 
voice, the ass would build two houses in one day : and* if by sheer 
force the plough was guided, its share would never be loosed from 
the shoulder of the camel. 

9. My son, it is better to remove stones with a wise man 
than to drink wine with a fool. 

10. My son, pour out thy wine on the graves of the righteous, 
rather than drink it with evil men. 

11. My son, with a wise man thou wilt not be depraved, and 
with a depraved man thou wilt not become wise. 

12. My son, associate with the wise man, and thou wilt become 
wise like him ; and associate not with a garrulous and talkative 
man, lest thou be numbered with him. 

13. My son, while thou hast shoes on thy feet, tread down 
the thorns and make a path for thy sons and for thy sons' sons. 

14. My son, the rich man's son eats a snake, and they say. 
He ate it for medicine. And the poor man's son eats it, and they 
say, For his hunger he ate it. 

15. My son, eat thy portion, and despise not thy neighbours. 

16. My son, do not even eat bread with a shameless man\ 

17. My son, envy not the prosperity of thy enemy; and 
rejoice not at his adversity'. 

18. My son, draw not near to a woman that is a whisperer, 
nor to one that has a shrill voice. 

19. My son, go not after the beauty of a woman: and lust 
not after her in thy heart : because the beauty of a woman is her 
good sense : and her adornment is the word of her mouth. 

^ Of. 1 Cor. V. 11, idv rti...J w6pvos...T<f rotodrtp fiijdi a-weffdUip, 
* Ct Prov. xxiv. 17, idy riaji 6 ix^pos trov, /lij Iwvxapii a^(p. 

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20. My son, if thine enemy meet thee with evil, meet thou 
him with wisdom ^ 

21. My son, the wicked falleth and riseth not ; but the just 
man is not moved, for God is with him. 

22. My son, withhold not thy son from stripes; for the 
beating of a boy is like manure to the garden, and like rope to 
an ass [or any other beast,] ' and like tether on the foot of an ass. 

23. My son, subdue thy son while he is yet a boy, before he 
wax stronger than thee and rebel against thee, and thou be 
shamed in all his corrupt doing. 

24. My son, get thee an ox that [is fat and] lies down, and 
an ass that has good hoofs, but do not get thee a slave that is 
runaway nor a maid that is thievish ; lest they destroy all that 
thou hast gotten. 

25. My son, the words of a liar are like fat sparrows ; and he 
that is void of understanding eateth them. 

26. My son, bring not upon thee the curses of thy father and 
of thy mother, lest thou rejoice not in the blessings of thy 

27. My son, walk not in the way unarmed; because thou 
knowest not when thy enemy shall come upon thee. 

28. My son, even as a tree is fair in its branches and fruit, 
and a bosky mountain in its trees, so is a man fair in his wife and 
weans; and he that hath not brethren, nor wife nor weans, is 
despised and contemptible before his enemies ; and he is like unto 
a tree by the roadside, from which every passer-by plucketh, and 
every beast of the weald teareth down its leafage^ 

29. My son, say not, ' My lord is a fool, and I am wise ' ; but 
take hold of him in his faults and thou shalt obtain mercy. 

30. My son, count not thyself to be wise, when others count 
thee not to be wise. 

^ He does not mean * overcome evil with good,' which would be a sentiment 
foreign to the action of the story, but *get the better of him.* 
3 The bracketed words are a gloss. 
» Cf. Ps. cxxvii. 5. 

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31. My son, lie not in thy speech before thy lord, lest thou 
be convicted, and he shall say to thee, ' Away from my sight ! * 

32. My son, let thy words be true, in order that thy lord may 
say to thee, ' Draw near me,' and thou shalt live. 

33. My son, in the day of thy calamity revile not God ; lest 
when He hear thee, He should be angered against thee. 

34. My son, treat not thy slave better than his fellow ; for 
thou knowest not which of them thou wilt have need of at the 

35. My son, smite with stones the dog that has left his own 
master and followed after thee. 

36. My son, the flock that makes many tracks becomes the 
portion of the wolves. 

37. My son, judge upright judgment in thy youth, in order 
that in thy age thou mayest have honour. 

38. My son, sweeten thy tongue and make savoury the 
opening of thy mouth ; for the tail of a dog gives him bread, and 
his mouth gets him blows. 

39. My son, suffer not thy neighbour to tread on thy foot, 
lest he tread on thy neck. 

40. My son, smite the [wise] man with wise word, that it 
may be in his heart like a fever in summer ; [but know] that if 
thou smite the fool with many blows, he will not understand. 

41. My son, send a wise man and give him no orders; but if 
thou wilt send a fool, go rather thyself and send him not. 

42. My son, test thy son with bread and water, and then 
thou canst leave in his hands thy possessions and thy wealth. 

43. My son, withdraw at the first cup, and tarry not for 
lickerish draughts^ lest there be to thee wounds in thy head. 

44. My son, he whose hand is full is called wise and honour- 
able ; and he whose hand is scant is called foolish and abject. 

45. My son, I have carried salt and removed lead; and I 

1 Lit. 'heats.' But perhaps we should read r^^SoJilSSn rtLliiJL^O (of. 
the 73rd proverb), and translate * tarry not for sweet angoents.' 

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have not seen anything heavier than that a man should pay back 
a debt when he did not borrow ^ 

46. My son, I have carried iron and removed stones; and 
they were not heavier on me than a man who settles in the house 
of his father-in-law. 

47. My son, teach hunger and thirst to thy son, that accord- 
ing as his eye sees he may govern his house. 

48. My son, better is he that is blind of eye than he that is 
blind of heart ; for the blind of eye straightway leameth the road 
and walketh in it : but the blind of heart leaveth the right way 
and goeth into the desert. 

49. My son, better is a friend that is at hand than a brother 
who is far away : and better is a good name than much beauty : 
because a good name standeth for aye: but beauty wanes and 
wastes away. 

50. My son, death is better than life to a man that hath no 
rest : and better is the voice of wailing in the ears of a fool than 
music and joy', 

51. My son, better is a drumstick in thy hand than a wing [?] 
in the pot of other people ; and better is a sheep that is at hand 
than a heifer that is far off: and better is poverty that gathers 
than wealth that scatters ; and better one sparrow in thy hand 
than a thousand on the wing : and better is a woollen coat on thy 
back than fine linen and silks on the backs of others. 

52. My son, restrain a word in thy heart, and it shall be well 
with thee; because when thou hast exchanged thy word, thou 
hast lost thy friend. 

53. My son, let not a word go forth from thy mouth, until 
thou hast taken counsel within thy heart : because it is better 
for a man to stumble in his heart than to stumble with his 

54. My son, if thou hear an evil matter, put it seven fathoms 
deep underground. 

1 Of. Siraoh xxii. 14, 16. Prov. xxvii. 3. 

' Gf. Eocl. vii. 1, 2. Apparently the sentiments of Eoclesiastes are contradicted. 

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55. My son, tarry not where there is contention: for from 
strife arises murder^ 

66. My son, every one who does not judge right judgment 
angers God. 

67. My son, remove* not from thy father's friend, lest per- 
chance thy friend come not near to thee. 

58. My son, go not down into princes' gardens, and draw not 
near to princes' daughters. 

69. My son, aid thy friend before the ruler, that thou mayest 
find out how thou mayest help him from the lion. 

60. My son, rejoice not over thy enemy when he dieth. 

61. My son, when thou seest a man who is stronger than 
thyself, rise up before him. 

62. My son, if the waters should stand up without earth, 
and the sparrow fly without wings, and the raven become white as 
snow, and the bitter become sweet as honey, then may the fool 
become wise. 

63. My son, if thou art a priest of God, be thou ware of Him 
and enter His presence in purity, and from His presence remove 

64. My son, him that God prospers do thou also honour. 

65. My son, strive not' with a man in his day, and stand not 
against a river in its flood *. 

66. My son, the eye of man is like a fountain of water, and 
it is not satisfied with riches until filled with dust. 

67. My son, if thy will is to be wise, refrain thy tongue from 
Ijdng, and thy hand from theft, and thou shalt become wise, 

68. My son, have no part in the espousal of a woman ; for if 
it shall go ill with her, she will curse thee ; and if it shall go well 
with her, she will not remember thee. 

^ Cf. Teaching ofAposUes, *Be not angry: for anger leads to murder: nor oon- 

* Beading aaiI^ itllX. * Lit. judge not 

* Gf. Siraoh iv. 26; the Syriac reading, * Stand not up against a tooV is to be 
explained, not as suggested on p. liv. by a confusion between ?ru and 73^, but by 
one between n?3^ and M^^Di^. 

h. A. I 

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69. My son, he that is elegant in his dress is elegant also in 
his speech, and he that is contemptible in his dress is con- 
temptible also in his speech. 

70. My son, if thou shalt find a find before an idol, ofiFer the 
idol its share of it \ 

71. My son, the hand that was satisfied and is now hungry 
will not give, nor the hand that was hungry and is now 

72. My son, let not thine eyes look upon a woman that is 
beautiful ; and be not inquisitive into beauty that does not belong 
to thee: because many have perished through the beauty of 
woman, and her love has been as a fire that bumeth. 

73. My son, let the wise man strike thee with many blows, 
and let not the fool salve thee with sweet salve *. 

74. My son, let not thy foot run after thy friend, lest he be 
surfeited with thee and hate thee. 

75. My son, put not a gold ring on thy finger, when thou 
hast not [wealth]'; lest fools make mock of thee. 

This is the teaching which A^ikar taught to Nadan his sister's 

But I, Ahikar, supposed that everything which I had been 
teaching Nadan, he took hold of in his heart, and that he stood 
in my stead in the king's gate; and I knew not that Nadan 
listened not to my words, but scattered them, ets it were to the 
wind ; and returned and said that my father Ahikar is grown old, 
and stands at the door of his grave; and his intelligence has 
withdrawn and his understanding is diminished; and my son 
Nadan began [to ill-treat] my servants by beating them and 
slaughtering them and destroying them ; and he showed no mercy 
on my servants and my handmaidens though they were in- 
dustrious and well-beloved and excellent ; and my horses he slew 
and my good mules he ham-strung. So when I beheld me that 

1 This sentence cannot be of Christian or Moslem origin. 
^ Of. Ps. ozli. 5, 'Let the righteous smite me &g.* 
' Or * when it is not thine.* 

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Tfi[E LEGEND OB* AHl^Att. 67 

my son Nadan was doing detestable things', I answered and said 
to him, My son Nadan, touch not my property ; my son, it is said 
in the proverb, * What the hand did not acquire, the eye did not 
spare/ Moreover I showed to Sennacherib my lord all these 
matters; and my lord spake on this- wise, 'As long as Ahikar 
lives, no man shall have power over his wealth/ Then when my 
son Nadan saw his brother Nebuzardan standing in my house, 
he was very irate and he spake on this wise ; * My father Ahikar 
is grown old and his wits have waned ; [and as for his wise words, 
he despised them]'* ; hath he given his possessions to Nebuzardan 
my brother, and hath he removed me from his house ? ' 

When I Ahikar heard these things, I said, Alas for thee ! my 
wisdom, that my son Nadan has made insipid ; and as for my wise 
sajdngs, he has contemned them. 

Now when my son Nadan heard thereof, he was angry and 
went to the gate of the king, and devised evil in his heart ; and 
sat down and wrote two letters to two kings who were enemies 
of Sennacherib my lord ; one to Akhi, the son of Hamselim, king 
of Persia and Elam, as follows : * From Ahikar the Secretary and 
Great Seal of Sennacherib king of Assyria and Nineveh, greeting. 
When this letter reaches thee, arise and come to Assyria to meet 
me ; and I will bring thee into Assyria, and thou shalt seize the 
kingdom without war.' And he wrote another letter, as follows ; 
*To Pharaoh, king of Egypt, from Ahikar, Secretary and Great 
Seal of the king of Assyria and Nineveh, greeting. When this 
letter shall reach thee, arise and come to meet me to Eagles' dale, 
which lieth to the south, on the 25th day of the month Ab. And 
I will bring thee into Nineveh without war and thou shalt seize 
the kingdom.' And he made these writings of his like to my own 
handwriting ; and he sealed them in the king's palace, and went 
his way. 

And he wrote further another letter to me, as if from my lord 
the king Sennacherib ; and on this wise he wrote it : 

^ Omitting ftHX. 

* Probably a repetition from three lines lower down. 

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'From Sennacherib the King, to A^ikar, my Secretary and 
Great Seal, greeting. When this letter reaches thee, gather all 
thy forces together, to the rock that is called Sis : and come forth 
from thence and come to meet me at EJagles' dale, which lieth to 
the south, on the 25th day of the month Ab. And when thou 
seest me approaching to thee, array thy forces against me, like a 
man that is ready for battle: for ambassadors of Pharaoh the 
king of Egypt are come to me ; that they may see what forces I 

And my son Nadan sent this letter to me by the hands of 
two of the king's servants. 

And thereupon my son Nadan took the letters that he had 
written, as if he had actually found them; and he read them 
before the king; and when my lord the king heard them, he 
lamented and said, ' O God, wherein have I sinned against Ahikar, 
that he should do unto me on this fashion ? ' And my son Nadan 
answered and sdid to the king, 'My lord, do not fret nor rage. 
Arise and let us go to Eagles' dale on the day that is written 
by him in the letter. And if it be true, then all that thou 
commandest shall be done.' 

So my son Nadan took the king my lord, and they came to me 
at Eagles' dale : and they found me having with me great forces 
that were gathered there. And when I saw the king, I put my 
forces in array against him, as it was written in the letter. And 
when the king saw it, he was much afraid. 

Then my son Nadan answered and said to him : * Let it not 
disturb thee, my lord the king. Return and come into thy 
chamber ^ in peace : and I will bring Ahikar before thee.' 

Then my lord the king returned to his house. 

And my son Nadan came to me and said to me, ' All that thou 
hast done, thou hast done finely : and much hath the king praised 
thee ; and he commands thee to dismiss thy forces that they may 
go every man to his own place and his own district. And do thou 
come to me thyself alone.' 

^ Taking the word as equivalent of the Greek Kfnriawa. 

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Thereupon I came before the king, and when he saw me, he 
said unto me, 'Art thou come, Ahikar, my Secretary and the 
foster-child of Assjnria and Nineveh, thou whom I caused to come 
into honour ? but thou hast turned back and taken the part of my 
enemies.' And he gave me those letters that were written in my 
name, and were sealed with the seal of my own ring. And when 
I read them, my tongue stammered and my limbs became faint : 
and I sought for a single word from the words of wisdom and I 
found me none. And my son Nadan answered and said to me, 
* Away with thee from the king's sight, thou foolish old man : and 
give thy hands to bonds and thy feet to iron fetters.' 

Then Sennacherib the king turned away his face from me, 

and he talked with Nabusemakh^ and said to him, 'Arise, 

go slay Ahikar, and separate his head a hundred ells from his 

Then I fell on my face on the ground and worshipped the 
king, and I said, * My lord the king, live for ever. Seeing, my lord, 
that it hath pleased thee to kill me, thy will be done. I know, 
however, that I have not sinned against thee. But command 
them, my lord the king, that they kill me at the door of my 
house : and let them give my body to burial.' 

And the king said to Nabusemakh* , 'Go, kill Ahikar at 

the door of his house, and give his body to burial.* Thereupon I, 
Ahikar, sent to Eshfagni my wife that she should bring forth from 
the daughters of my tribe maids a thousand and one : and let them 
put on raiment of mourning, and let them wail and lament and weep 
over me. And let them come to meet me, and let them make a 
funeral feast ' over me before I die. And prepare thou bread and a 

table and a banquet for Nabusemakh^ and his Parthians that 

are with him, and come to meet them, and receive them and bring 
them into my house. And I too will come into the house as a 

^ 'Yabusemakh Meskin Eanti' which I do not understand; the correction of 
the first part of the name is obvious. Possibly it should be *Nabusemakh the 
executioner, my ooUeague (Kenothi).* 

^ Ut supra. ' Lit. a house of weeping. * Ut supra. * 

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And Eshfagni my wife, for that she was exceeding wise, 
understood all my message, and did whatsoever I had sent to 
her to do; and she came forth to meet them, and she brought 
them into my house : and they did eat bread, and with her own 
hand she served them, until they fell asleep from drunkenness, 
every man in his place. 

Thereat I, Ahikar, entered and said to Nabusemakh ^ ' Look 
towards God, and remember the love that there was between us, 
brother : and grieve not over my death : and remember that thee 
also did Sarhadum the father of Sennacherib deliver to me 
that I should slay thee, yet I slew thee not, because I was aware 
that there was in thee no ground of offence ; and I kept thee alive 
until the king desired thee, and when I brought thee before him, 
he gave me great gifts, and many presents did I carry off from 
him. And do thou too, now, preserve me alive and recompense 
me this kindness : and in order that the word come not abroad 
that I was not killed and that the king may not quarrel with 
thee, behold, I have in my prison-house a slave, Marzifan hight, 
and he is due to die : clothe this slave in my raiment and rouse 
up the Parthians against him and they will slay him : and I shall 
not die, because I have done no wrong.* 

And when I spake thus, moreover Nabusemakh *... also was 
sore grieved over me, and he took my raiments and clad in them 
the slave that was in the prison-house. And he roused up the 
Parthians, and they arose in the fumes* of their wine, and they 
slew him and removed his head a hundred ells from his corse, 
and they gave over his body for burial. 

Then went forth the report in Assjrria and Nineveh, that 
Ahikar the Secretary is killed. And Nabusemakh*. . .rose up, and 
Eshfagni my wife, and they made for me a hiding-place under 
ground; its breadth was three cubits and its height five cubits, 
under the threshold of the door of my house. And they put bread 
and water with me, and went and showed to Sennacherib the king 

^ Yabnsemakh. 

2 Ut supra. ^ Lit. taste. * Ut supra. 

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that Ahikar, the Secretary, was dead : and when the men heard it, 
they wept ; and the women disfigured^ their faces and said : * Alas 
for thee ! Ahikar the wise Secretary, thou fence of the breaches of 
our country : for like thee there will never be any one to us/ 

Then Sennacherib the king called my son Nadan, and said to 
him, * Go make a funeral feast' for thy father Ahikar, and then 
return to me.' And when Nadan my son came, no funeral feast 
did he make for me, nor any remembrance at all ; but gathered 
him the vain and lewd folk, and set them down at my table, with 
singing and with great joy ; and my beloved servants and hand- 
maidens he stripped and flogged without mercy. Nor had he any 
reverence of my wife Eshfagni, but sought to do with her the way 
of man with woman. And I, Ahikar, was cast into darkness in 
the pit beneath. And I was hearing the voice of my bakers, cooks 
and butlers as they wept and sobbed within my house. 

And after a few days came Nabusemakh'...and opened [my 
prison] over me* and comforted me; and set before me bread 
and water ; and I said to him, * When thou goest forth from me, 
remember me before God, and say, O God, just and righteous, 
and that showest grace upon the earth, hear the voice of thy 
servant Ahikar', and remember that he sacrificed to thee fatted 
oxen like sucking lambs. And now he is cast into the darksome 
pit where he seeth no light. And dost thou not save him that 
crieth unto thee? O Lord, hear the voice of my colleague*, 
[I pray thee.'] 

Now when Pharaoh, king of Egypt, heard that I, Ahikar, had 
been slain, he was greatly rejoiced, and he wrote a letter to 
Sennacherib on this wise : 

* Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to Sennacherib, king of Assyria and 
Nineveh, greeting. I am planning to build a castle between 

^ Lit. scratched. ' Lit. a house of weeping. 

^ Ut snpra. * Lit. on my eyes. 

' Cf. Apoc. vi. 10, *How long, O Lord, holy and true, Ac' 
^ This trifling bat necessary emendation confirms oar interpretation (vide sapra) 
of Meskin Kenothi, 

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heaven and earth, wherefore seek out and send me from thy king- 
dom a man who is a skilled architect, that he may give me reply 
concerning all that I shall ask him. And when thou shalt send 
me such a man, I will collect and send thee the revenue of Egypt 
for three years : and if thou send me not a man who shall give me 
reply concerning all that I ask him, then do thou collect and send 
me the tribute of Assyria and Nineveh for three years, by the 
hands of these ambassadors that come to thee.' 

And when this letter was read before the king, he cried out to 
all the nobles and franklins of his kingdom, and said unto them : 
* Which of you will go to Egypt to give reply to the king concern- 
ing all that he shall ask him ? And he shall build him the castle 
that he planneth, and bring back the three years* tribute of Egypt 
and come hither.' 

And when the nobles heard this, they answered and said unto 
the king ; ' My lord the king, thou knowest that not only in the 
years of thy reign, but also in the years of thy father Sarhadum, 
Ahikar the Secretary was in the habit of resolving questions like 
these. And now, also, behold his son Nadan, he is instructed in 
his father's book-lore and wisdom.' And when my son Nadan heard 
these things, he cried out before the king and said : * The gods 
themselves cannot do things like these; let alone men^' 

And when the king heard these words, he was much perturbed, 
and he descended from his throne and sat on the ground, and 
spake thus^ ; * Alas for thee ! Ahikar the wise, that I destroyed 
thee for the words of a boy. Who will give thee to me for such a 
time as this? I would give him thy weight in gold.' 

And when Nabusemakh'... heard these words, he fell down 
before the king and said to him: 'He who has contemned the 
commandment of his lord, is guilty of death ; and I, my lord, have 
contemned the command of thy kingship. Command, therefore, 

1 Of. Dan. ii 11. 

* Of. Ezek. xxyi. 16, koX Karaprfffovrai ixb twf BpSptap adnSp x&mti ol (Lpxi^rret,,. 
iwl rfjp yrfp Ka$€dovPTCu...Kal arepd^ovtrip irl (re ' Kod Xiy^vrat iwl (re Opijpop kcU ipovaU^ 

' Ut sapra. 

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that they crucify me. For Ahikar, whom thou didst command me 
to slay, is yet alive/ 

And when the king heard these words, he answered and said, 
'Speak on, speak on, Nabusemakh^ speak on, thou good and 
clever man, unskilled in evil. If it is indeed as thou sayest, and 
thou show me Ahikar alive, then I will give thee presents of silver, 
a hundred talents in weight, and of purple, fifty talents in value \' 

And Nabusemakh' answered and said, ' Swear to me, my lord 
the king, that, if there be not found before thee other sins of mine, 
this sin shall not be remembered against me.' And the king gave 
him his right hand on this matter. And forthwith the king 
mounted his chariot, and came unto me in haste, and opened [my 
prison] over me, and I ascended and came and fell before the king; 
the hair of my head had grown down on my shoulders, and my 
beard reached my breast ; and my body was foul with the dust, 
and my nails were grown long like eagles'*. 

And when the king saw me, he wept and was ashamed to 
talk with me, and in great grief he said to me, 'It was not I that 
sinned against thee, Ahikar ; but thy son whom thou broughtest 
up, he it was that sinned against thee.' Thereupon I answered and 
said to him, * Because I have seen thy face, my lord, no evil is in 
my mind.' And the king said to me, * Go to thy house, Ahikar, 
and shave off thy hair, and wash thy body, and recover thy strength' 
forty days ; and after that come to me.' 

Therefore I went to my house, and I was in my house about 
thirty days, and when I was recovered*, I came to the king, and the 
king answered and said to me : ' Hast thou seen, Ahikar, what a 
letter Pharaoh, king of Egypt, has written me ? ' And I answered 
and said, ' My lord the king, let there be no trouble to thee over this 
affair, I will go to Egypt and build the king a castle : and I will 
make him answer concerning all that he may ask me : and I will 
bring back with me the three years' tribute of Egypt.' And when 

^ Cod. Tabusemakh. ^ Dan. v. 16. ^ Ood. Tabasemakh. 

* Dan. iv. 33. ^ Lit. let thy sonl come into thee. 

^ Lit. my soul was in order upon me. 

L. A. K 

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the king heard these things he rejoiced with a great joy : and he gave 
me gifts: and as for Nabusemakh^..he set him at the head of all 
And after this I wrote a letter to Eshfagni my wife, aa follows : 

* When this letter reaches thee, command my huntsmen that 
they catch me two young eagles : and command the workers in 
flax, that they make me hempen ropes ; the length of each one 
of them shall be a thoubaod ells, and their thickness that of 
one's little finger. And bid the carpenters to make me cages for 
the young eagles : and deliver over Ubael and Tabshelim, the two 
boys, who do not yet know how to talk, and let them teach them 
to say on this wise: *Give the builders mud, mortar, tiles, bricks, 
for they are idle.' ' 

And Eshfagni my wife did all that I commissioned her : then 
I said to the king : ' Command, my lord, and send me that I go to 
Egypt.' And when the king commanded me to go, I took me a 
force of soldiers and went. And when we came to the first halting-^ 
place, I let out the young eagles and bound the ropes to their feet 
and made the boys ride on them ; and they took them and went 
up to a great height, and the boys cried out as they had been 
taught, ' Mud, mortar, tiles, bricks supply to the builders who are 
idle.' Then I pulled them in again. And when we came to Egypt, 
I went to the king's gate : and his nobles told the king, ' There is 
come the man whom the king of Assyria has sent.' And the king 
commanded and gave me a place to reside in ; and on the following 
day I came in before him and worshipped him and enquired after 
his health'*. And the king answered and said unto me, ' What is 
thy name ? ' And I said to him, * My name is Abikam : one of 
the contemptible ants of the kingdom.' And the king answered 
and said to me, * Am I thus despised of thy lord, that he has sent 
me a despised ant of his kingdom ? Go, Abikam, to thy lodging, 
and come to me early in the morning.' Then the king commanded 
his nobles, * On the morrow clothe yourselves in red,' and the king 
dressed himself in fine linen, and sat on his throne. And he 
commanded and I came in to his presence, and he said to me, 'To 

* Ut supra. 2 Lit. asked after his peace. 

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what am I like, Abikam ; and to what are my nobles like ? ' And 
I answered and said to him, * My lord the king, thou art like unto 
Bel, and thy nobles are like unto his priests/ And again he said 
to me, ' Go to thy lodging, and come to me on the morrow/ And 
the king commanded his nobles, ' On the morrow clothe yourselves 
in robes of white linen,' and the king himself put on white and 
sat on his throne. And he commanded and I came into his 
presence : and he said to me, * To what am I like, Abikam, and 
to what are my nobles like?' And I said to him, *My lord the 
king, thou art like to the sun, and thy nobles to his rays/ And 
again he said to me, ' Get thee to thy lodging, and come to me 
to-morrow/ And again the king commanded his nobles, * On the 
morrow clothe yourselves in black,' and the king put on crimson. 
And he commanded, and I came into his presence, and he said to 
me, 'To what am I like, Abikam; and to what are my nobles like?' 
And I said to him, * My lord the king, thou art like to the moon, 
and thy nobles to the stars/ And again he said to me, ' Go to thy 
house: and come to me to-morrow/ And the king commanded his 
nobles, 'On the morrow dress in diverse and varied colours, and let 
the doors of the palace* be covered with red hangings/ And the 
king himself was robed in fine needlework*. And he commanded 
and I came into his presence : and he said to me, * To what am I 
like, Abikam? and my nobles, to what are they like ? ' And I said 
to him, ' My lord the king, thou art like to the month Nisan, and 
thy nobles to its flowers.' Then the king said to me, ' The first 
time thou didst compare me to Bel, and my nobles to his priests. 
The second time thou hast compared me to the sun, and my nobles 
to its rays. The third time thou hast compared me to the moon, 
and my nobles to the stars. And the fourth time thou hast 
likened me to Nisan, and my nobles to the flowers thereof. And 

^ Lit. temple : bat as in Daniel, it means palace ; no doubt 7D^n stood in the 
original Hebrew: ct Dan. iv. 4, 'I Nebuchadnezzar was at rest in my house, and 
flourishing in my palace vD^Hl'; Dan. vi. 18, *Then the king went to his palace 
rl^DM.' Cf. also 1 Reg. xxi. 1 ; 2 Reg. xx. 18 &o. 

^ * Dressed in tapestry.* 

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now tell me, Abikam, to what is thy lord like ? ' And I answered 
and said to bim, ' Be it far from me, my lord the king, that I should 
make mention of my lord Sennacherib, whilst thou art seated. My 
lord Sennacherib is like* [the (Jod of Heaven] and his nobles to 
the lightnings that are in the clouds : for when he wills, he fashions 
the rain and the dew [and] the hail ; and if he thunders, he re- 
strains the sun from rising, and its rays from being seen ; and he 
will restrain Bel from coming in and from going forth in the street, 
and his nobles from being seen ; and he will hinder the moon from 
rising and the stars from appearing/ And when the king heard 
these things he was exceeding wroth, and said to me, * By the life 
of thy lord, I adjure thee tell me what is thy name?' And I 
answered and said to him, * I am Ahikar the Secretary and Great 
Seal of Sennacherib king of Assyria and Nineveh/ And the king 
said to me, * Did I not certainly hear that thy lord had killed thee V 
And I said to him, 'I am yet alive, my lord the king: and God 
saved me from something which ray hands did not.' And the king 
said tome, 'Go, Ahikar, to thy house, and come to me to-morrow, 
and tell me a word which I never heard nor any one of my nobles ; 
and which was never heard in the city of my kingdom.' 

Then I sat down and meditated in my heart and wrote a 
letter as follows: 

*From Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to Sennacherib, king of 
Assyria and Nineveh, greeting. 

' Kings have need of kings and brethren of brethren : and at 
this time my gifts are become scant, because silver is scarce in my 
treasury: command, therefore, to send me from thy treasury 
900 talents of silver, and in a little while I will return them to 
their place.' 

This letter, then, I folded and held it in my hands: and the 

^ An erasure has been made of two words, and these are now iUegible. 
Perhaps the original text was Hhe God of Heaven,* which was erased to make way 
for 'the idol Bel,' but this correction was a stupid one, seeing that Pharaoh has 
himself been compared to the great god Bel ; hence perhaps a final erasure. The 
Arabic has 'my lord is the God of Heaven/ which is sufficiently audacious to 
invite correction. 

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king commanded and I came into his presence, and I said to him, 

* Perhaps in this letter there is a word that was never heard by 
thee.' And when I read it before the king and before his nobles, 
they cried out, as they were ordered by the king to do, and said, 
' This has been heard by all of us, and it is so/ Whereupon I 
said to them, 'Behold, [in that case] there is a debt of 900 talents 
from Egypt to Assyi-ia.' And when the king heard this, he 
marvelled. Then he said to me, * I am planning to build a castle 
between earth and heaven. Its height from the earth shall be 
one thousand fathoms.' Then I brought out the young eagles 
and bound the ropes to their feet, and set the boys on their 
backs; and they were saying, 'Provide mud, mortar; [foreman, 
mix] tiles and bricks for the builders, because they are idle.' 
And when the king saw it, he was confouoded. Then I, 
Ahikar, took a switch and beat the king s nobles, till they all 
took to flight. Then the king was indignant with me, and said 
to me, 'Thou art gone clean mad, Ahikar: who is able to carry 
up anything to these boys V And I said to him, ' Concerning the 
affairs of Sennacherib my lord, say ye nothing ; for if he had been 
at hand, he would have built a couple of castles in one day.' And 
the king said to me, ' Have done with the castle, Ahikar, and go 
to thy lodging ; and in the morning come to me.' And when it 
was morning, I came into his presence, a^id he said to me, 

* Explain to me, Ahikar, the following matter. The horse of thy 
lord neighs in Assyria, and our mares hear his voice here, and their 
foals miscarry.' Then I went forth from the king's presence, and 
commanded my servants to catch me a cat, and I whipped it in 
the streets of the city ; and when the Egyptians saw it, they went 
and told the king that A^ar had lifted himself up against our 
people and makes mock of us. 'For he has caught a cat and 
whips it in the streets of our city.' And the king sent for me 
and called me ; and I came into his presence. And he said to me, 

* In what way art thou insulting us V and I answered and said to 
him, 'This cat has seriously damaged me in no slight matter; 
for a Qock had been entrusted to me by my lord, whose voice was 

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extremely beautiful, and by the time that he crowed I understood 
that my lord wished for me, and I went to the gate of my lord. 
And in this past night this cat went to Assyria and tore off the 
head of this cock of mine and returned.' And the king answered 
and said to me, * As far as I can see, Ahikar, since thou art grown 
old thou art become stark mad. For it is 360 parasangs from 
here to Assyria ; and how canst thou say that in a single night 
this cat went and cut off the head of the cock and came back ? * 
Then I said to him, * And if it is 360 parasangs from Egypt to 
Assyria, how do thy mares in this place hear the voice of the 
horse of my lord, and their foals miscarry V And when the king 
heard this, he was sore vexed, and he said to me, * Ahikar, expound 
to me this riddle : A pillar has on its head twelve cedars ; in every 
cedar there are thirty wheels, and in every wheel two cables, one 
white and one black.' And I answered and said to him, ' My lord 
the king, the ox-herds in our country understand this riddle that 
thou tellest. The pillar of which thou hast spoken to me is the 
year : the twelve cedars are the twelve months of the year ; the 
thirty wheels are the thirty days of the month ; the two cables, 
one white and one black, are the day and the night.* 

Again he said to me, * Twine me five cables from the sand of 
the river.* And I said to him, • My lord the king, bid them bring 
me from thy treasury one rope of sand, and I will make one to 
match it.' Then he said to- me, 'Unless thou do this, I will not 
give thee the Egyptian tribute.* Thereupon I sat down and 
calculated in my heai-t how I should do it. And I went out from 
the king s palace* and bored five holes in the eastern wall of the 
palace. And when the sun entered the holes I scattered sand in 
them, and the sun's path^ began to appear as if [the sand] were 
twined in the holes. Then I said to the king; *My lord, bid 
them take up these, and I will weave you others in their stead.* 
And when the king and his nobles saw it, they were amazed. 

And again the king commanded to bring me an upper mill- 
stone that was broken : and he said to me, ' Ahikar, sew up for us 

^ Lit. temple, ut supra. ^ Lit. farrow. 

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this broken millstone.' Then I went and brought a nether* mill- 
stone, and cast it down before the king and' said to him, 'My 
lord the king, since I am a stranger here, and have not the 
tools of my craft with me, bid the cobblers cut me strips (?) from 
this lower millstone which is the fellow of the upper millstone ; 
and forthwith I will sew it together/ And when the king heard 
it, he laughed and said, ' The day in which A^ikar was bom shall 
be blessed before the God of Egypt ; and since I have seen thee 
alive, I will make it a great day and a feast.' Then he gave me 
the revenue of Egypt for three years, and straightway I returned 
and came to my lord the king Sennacherib : and he came forth to 
meet me and received me. And he made it a great day and set 
me at the head of his household : and he said to me, * Ask what 
thou wilt, Ahikar ' ; and I worshipped the king and said, ' What- 
ever thou wiliest to give me, bestow it upon Nabusemakh...*; 
because he gave me my life ; and for myself, my loi-d, bid them 
give me my son Nadan, that I may teach him a fturther lesson. 
For he has forgotten my former teaching.' And the king com- 
manded and gave me my son Nadan; and the king said to me, 
* Go thy way, Ahikar, and work thy will on thy son Nadan ; for 
no man shall rescue his body from thy hands.' Thereupon I took 
Nadan my son, and brought him to my house ; and I bound him 
with iron chains whose weight was twenty talents, and I fastened 
the chains in rings, and I fastened collars on his neck ; and I struck 
him one thousand blows on the shoulders and a thousand and one 
on his loins' ; and I put him in the porch of the door of my palace, 
and gave him bread by weight and water by measure. And I 
delivered him to my boy Nabuel to guard, and told my boy, ' Write 
down in a tablet whatever I say to my son Nadan, when I go in or 
come out.' And I answered and said to my son Nadan as follows : 

My son, he who does not hear with his ears, they make him | 

hear with the nape of his neck. 

^ Lit. the mortar of a millstone. 

' Ut supra, 

' Of. the punishment of the disohedient servant in the Gospel, dafyf)(T€rai roWds. 

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My son Nadan answered and said to me, Wherefore art thou 
so angry against thy son ? 

I answered and said to him, My son, I set thee on the throne 
of honour; and thou hast cast me down from my throne. And 
as for me, my righteousness^ has saved me. 

Thou hast been to me, my son, like a scorpion, which strikes 
at a rock. And the rock said to it. Thou hast struck at an 
unconcerned heart. And it struck at a needle, and they say to it, 
* Thou hast struck at a sting worse than thy own/ 

My son, thou hast been to me like a gazelle that was standing 
over a sumach-tree and eating it. And the sumach-tree said to 
it, * Why eatest thou me, seeing that they tan thy skin with me V 
And the gazelle said, * I eat thee in my life, and when I am dead 
they will pluck thee up by thy roots'.' 

My son, thou hast been to me like the man that threw a stone 
at the heaven, and it did not reach the heaven ; but he incurred 
sin against God. 

My son, thou hast been like the man who saw his companion 
shivering from cold, and took a pitcher of water and threw it over 

My son, not when thou hadst killed me, wouldst thou have 
been able to stand in my place ; for be well aware, my son, that 
even if the tail of the swine should grow to seven ells, he would 
never take the place of the horse : and even if his hair should 
become soft and woolly, he would never ride on the back of a free 


My son, I said that thou shouldst be in my place ; and thou 
shouldst acquire my house and my wealth, and inherit them. 
But God was not pleased therewith and has not heard thy voice. 

My son, thou hast been to me as the lion that came upon an 
ass in the morning of the day and said to him, ' Welcome, my lord 

^ In the primitive sense of 'almsgiving'? 

* Apparently the point of the story is missed, which is that the snmaoh-tree 
has its revenge on the gazelle ; * thy skin shall be dyed with my roots presently.' 
3 We should expect * the free man would never ride on his back.' 

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Kjn^os/ But the ass said to him, * May the same welcome that 
thou givest me be the portion of him that tied me up last night ; 
and did not make my halter fast, so that I had not seen thy face/ 

My son, a snare was set^ upon a dunghill, and there came a 
sparrow and looked at it and said, ' What doest thou here V And 
the snare said, * I am praying to God/ The sparrow said, * And 
what is that in thy mouth V The snare said, ' Bread for guests/ 
Then the sparrow drew near and took it, and the snare caught 
him by the neck. And the sparrow said, as he was being shaken, 
' If this is thy bread for guests, may the God to whom thou 
prayest never listen to thy voice/ 

My son, thou hast been to me as an ox that was bound with a 
lion; and the lion turned and crushed him. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the weevil that is in the 
com, which destroys kings' granaries, and is itself of no account. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the pot, to which they 
made golden handles ^ but its bottom was not cleansed from 

My son, thou hast been to me like a husbandman that sowed 
a field with twenty measures of barley ; and when he reaped it, 
it made him twenty measures. And he said to it: 'What I 
scattered, I have gathered, but thou art shamed with thine evil 
name, in that thou hast made a bushel into a bushel': and I, 
[how]* am I to live? 

My son, thou hast been to me like the .... bird that could 
not save himself from death, and by his voice slaughtered his 

My son, thou hast been to me like the buck that led his 
companions into the slaughter house ; and yet he did not save his 
own life. 

1 A Syriao play of words between f^lX ^ = disposuit laqueos and r^lX -^i 
wliich foUows. -^ -^ 

2 Lit. ears. » Cf. Matt. xxv. 24—27. 
* Adding rOjLftf< to text. 

> Beading ^> **\ *** 

li. A. L 

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My son, thou hast been to me like the dog that came to the 
potters' oven to warm himself, and after he was warm rose up to 
bark at them. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the swine that had been to 
the baths, and when it saw a muddy ditch, went down and 
washed in it, and cried to its companions. Come and wash. 

My son, my finger is upon fchy mouth, and thy finger is upon 
my eyes. Why have I brought thee up, thou jackal, that thy 
eyes look thus upon apples? 

My son, the dog that eats of his hunting will become the 
portion of wolves: and the hand that is not industrious shall 
be cut oflf from its shoulder : and the eye in which there is no 
vision the raven shall pluck it out. 

What good hast thou done me, my son, that I remembered 
thee and that my soul had comfort in thee ? ^ 

My son, if the gods steal, by whom shall they cause men to 
swear ? And a lion that steals a piece of land, how will he sit 
down and eat it? 

My son, I caused thee to behold the face of the king, and 
brought thee to great honour : and thou hast chosen to do me evil. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the tree that said to its 
woodcutters, ' If there had not been somewhat from me in your 
hands, ye had not fallen upon me.' 

My son, thou hast been to me like the young swallows which fell 
out of their nest ; and a cat caught them and said to them, ' If it 
had not been for me, great evil would have befallen you.' They 
answered and said to her, ' Is that why thou hast put us in thy 
mouth ?' 

My son, thou hast been to me like the cat, to which they say. 
Leave oflf thy thievish ways, and thou shalt go out from and come 
in to the king s palace, according to thy heart's wish.' And she 
answered and said, ' If I should have eyes of silver and ears of 
gold, I will not leave oflf my thie\dng.' 

^ We gbonld have expected, 'that I might remember thee and that my soul 
might have comfort in thee.' 

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My son, thou hast been to me like a serpent^ that was mounted 
on a thombush and thrown into a river ; and a wolf saw them and 
said to them : ' Bad rides on bad, and worse than either carries 
them off.' The serpent said to him, 'If thou hadst been here, 
thou shouldst have paid the reckoning for the she-goats and their 
young ones.' 

My son, I have seen a she-goat brought into the slaughter 
house, and because its time was not yet come, it returned to its 
place and saw its children and its children's children. 

My son, I have seen colts that have become slayers of their 

My son, I fed thee with every pleasant meat : and thou, my 
son, hast fed me with bread of ashes^, and I was not satisfied 

My son, I salved thee with sweet salves, and thou, my son, 
hast fouled my body with dust. 

My son, I trained up thy stature like a cedar, but thou hast 
humbled me in my life, and hast made me drunken with thy 

My son, I raised thee like a tower and said, 'If the enemy 
should come upon me, I will go up and dwell in thee ' : and thou, 
when thou sawest my enemy, didst bow before him. 

My son, thou hast been to me like the mole that came up out of 
the earth that it might get possession ' of the sun, because he had 
no eyes ; and an eagle saw him and struck him and carried him off. 

My son Nadan answered and said to me, * My father Ahikar, 
such things be far from thee : do to me according to thy mercy : 
for God also [shows mercy] to men that sin, and forgives them : 
and thou also, forgive me this my folly : and I will tend thy horses 
and feed thy pigs which are in thy house, and I shall be called 
evil: but thou, devise not evil against me.' 

^ From the corraption in the Arabic I am inclined to suspect an original p^n 
(= crocodile?). 

« Lit. dust. 

' Lit. receive. But perhaps the original was * that he might see the sun, 
though he had no eyes.* 

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I answered and said to him. My son, thou hast been to me like 
that palm tree that stood by a river, and when its lord came to 
cut it down, it said to him, * Let me alone this year, and I will 
bring thee forth carobs.' And its lord said unto it, * Thou hast not 
been industrious in what is thine own, and how wilt thou be 
industrious in what is not thine own?' 

My son, they say to the wolf, ' Why dost thou follow after the 
sheep ? ' He said to them, * Their dust is exceeding good for my 
eyea' Again they brought him into the school house ^ : the master 
said to him, ' Aleph, Beth* ; the wolf said, ' Kid, Lamb/ 

My son, I taught thee that there is a God : and thou risest 
up against good servants, and beatest those that have not sinned ; 
and like as God has kept me alive on account of my righteous- 
ness* so hath He destroyed thee for thy works. 

My son, they set the head of the ass over a dish at the table, 
and he rolled off and fell in the dust. And they say, * He spites 
himself; he does not receive honour.' 

My son, thou hast verified the proverb, which is current : * Call 
him whom thou hast begotten, thy son, and him whom thou hast 
purchased, thy slave/ 

My son, the proverb is true that is current : ' Take thy sister's 
son under thy arm and dash him against a stone.' 

But God is He that hath kept me alive, and He will judge 
between us. 

Thereat Nadan swelled up like a bag and died. And to him 
that doeth good, what is good shall be recompensed : and to him 
that doeth evil, what is evil shall be rewarded*. And he that 
diggeth a pit for his neighbour, filleth it with his own stature. 
And to God be glory, and His mercy be upon us. Amen. 

The proverbs of Ahikar the sage and secretary of Sennacherib 
king of Assyria and Nineveh are ended. 

^ Lit. house of the soribe. 

2 Query, almsgiving ? ut supra. 

^ Lit. He shall be rewarded evil. 

J. R. H. 

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The following is the translation of the fifteen sayings of 
Ahikar, published by Comill in his Mashafa Faldsfd TaMbdn^ 
or Book of the Wise Philosophers, These sayings are taken from 
two MSS., one at Frankfort and the other at Tubingen. They 
apparently come from an Arabic collection of ethical maxims, 
and not from a complete story of Ahikar. We should have 
inferred that the precepts were in separate circulation in Arabic, 
from the title of a MS. in the Vatican described by Assemani 
which is said to contain Hicari phUosophi Mosukmi praecepta. 

Instruction of Haikar the Wise. 

He spake as follows: 

1. Hear, my son, and keep in remembrance my discourse, so 
that thou rememberest God the High and the Mighty. 

My son, if thou hearest a discourse, hide it in thy heart and 
disclose it not to thj'^ neighbour, that it become not to thee as a 
coal and bum thy tongue, and bring derision upon thee and make 
thee hateful to God. 

2. My son, make fair thy discourse and thy behaviour; for 
the wagging of a dog*s tail gives him bread, but his jaw brings 
him stones. 

3. My son, do not tarry with him, in whom there is strife : 
for strife brings controversy: and strife gives for an inheritance 
revengefulness and murder. 

4. My son, if a house could be built by talk without action, 
an ass would build two houses a day. 

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5. My son, it is better to haul stones with a wise and under- 
standing man, than to drink wine with a fool. 

6. My son, so long as there are shoes on thy feet, tread down 
the thorns, and level the way for thy children and thy children's 

7. My son, if the rich man eats a snake, they say of him, ' He 
seeks a medicine therein * ; if, however, the poor man eats it, they 
say of him, * It was from hunger.' 

8. My son, if there come to thee a slenderer and poorer man 
than thyself, rise up to receive him. 

9. My son, the wicked falls and rises not again ; but the good 
man falls and rises immediately and remains in his condition. 

10. My son, cease not to beat thy son ; for the chastisement 
of a child is good for it, even as dung makes the land good ; and 
as the land which is not rugged and on which there is grass 
delights the cattle, so doth a well-brought up son delight his 

11. My son, keep thy son in curb, as long as he is small, that 
be may not grow up and thou have no more control over him, 
and be fain to blush over his corrupt behaviour. 

12. A fair repute is better than a fair appearance; for the 
fair repute abides for ever, but the fair appearance and form pass 

13. My son, it is better to stumble with the foot than with 
the tongue ; and bring no discourse out of thy mouth, before thou 
hast entered into counsel with thine own self 

14. My son, if the course of water should turn backwards, and 
if birds should fly without wings, and if the raven should become 
white as snow, then may a fool become wise. 

15. My son, if thou wilt be wise, refrain thy tongue from 
lying and thy hands from stealing. 

J. R. H. 

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In the name of God the Creator, the Living One, the Source page 1 
of Reason, we hereby begin with the help of the Most High God* 
and His best guidance, to write the story of Haiq&r the Wise, 
Vizier of Sennacherib the King, and of Nadan, sister's son to 
Haiqix the Sage. 

There was a Vizier in the days of King Sennacherib, son of 
Sarhadum, king of Assyria and Nineveh, a wise man named 
HaiqS.r, and he was vizier of the king Sennacherib. He had a fine 
fortune and much goods, and he was skilful, wise, a philosopher, 
[in] knowledge, [in] opinion and [in] government, and he had 
married sixty women, and had built a castle for each of them. But 
with it all he had no child by any of these women, who might be 
his heir. And he was very sad on account of this, and one day he 
assembled the astrologers and the learned men and the wizards 
and explained to them his condition and the matter of his barren- 
ness. And they said to him, "Go, sacrifice to the gods and 
beseech them that perchance they may provide thee with a boy." 
And he did as they told him and oflfered sacrifices to the idols, and 
besought them and implored them with request and entreaty. 
And they answered him not one word. And he went away 
sorrowful and dejected, departing with a pain at his heart. And 
he returned, and implored the Most High God, and believed, 
beseeching Him with a burning heart, saying, " O Most High God, 
O Creator of the Heavens and of the earth, O Creator of all created 
things ! I beseech Thee to give me a boy, that I may be consoled 

^ Literally ** God, may He be exalted I " passim. 

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by him, that he may be present at my death, that he may 
close my eyes, and that he may bury me." Then there came to 
him a voice saying, " Inasmuch as thou hast relied first of all on 
page 2 graven images, and hast offered sacrifices to them, for this reason 
thou shalt remain childless thy life long. But take Nadan thy 
sister's son, and make him thy child and teach him thy learning 
and thy good breeding, and at thy death he shall bury thee." There- 
upon he took Nadan his sister's son, who was a little suckling. 
And he handed him over to eight wet-nurses, that they might 
suckle him and bring him up. And they brought him up with 
good food and gentle training and silken clothing, and purple 
and crimson. And he was seated upon couches of silk. And 
when Nadan grew big and walked, shooting up like a tall cedar, 
he taught him good manners and writing and science and philo- 
soph}'. And after many days King Sennacherib looked at Haiq&r 
and saw that he had grown very old, and moreover he said to him, 
"O my honoured friend, the skilful, the trusty, the wise, the 
governor, my secretary, my vizier, my Chancellor* and director ; 
verily thou art grown very old and weighted with years ; and thy 
departure from this world must be near. Tell me who shall have 
a place in my service after thee." And Haiqfir said to him, " O 
my lord, may thy head live for ever! There is Nadan my 
sister's son, I have made him my child. And I have brought 
him up and taught him my wisdom and my knowledge." And 
the king said to him, '*0 Haiq&r! bring him to my presence, 
that I may see him : and if I find him suitable, put him in thy 
place ; and thou shalt go thy way, to take a rest and to live the 
remainder of thy life in sweet repose." Then Haiq&r went and 
presented Nadan his sister s son. And he did homage and wished 
him power and honour. And he looked at him and admired him 
and rejoiced in him and said to Haiq^: "Is this thy son, O 
Haiqd.r ? I pray that God may preserve him. And as thou hast 
served me and my father Sarhadum so may this boy serve me 
and fulfil my undertakings, my needs, and my business, so that I 
1 Literally *< the sealer of my secrets,'' pasHm, 

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may honour him and make him powerful for thy sake." And 
Haiq&r did obeisance to the king and said to him, " May thy head 
live, O my lord the king, for ever! I seek from thee that thou 
mayest be patient* with my boy Nadan and forgive his mistakes page 3 
that he may serve thee as it is fitting." Then the king swore to 
him that he would make him the greatest of his favourites, and 
the most powerful of his friends, and that he should be with him 
in all honour and respect. And he kissed his hands and bade him 
farewell. And he took Nadan his sister's son with him and seated 
him in a parlour and set about teaching him night and day till he 
had crammed him with wisdom and knowledge more than with 
bread and water. 

Thus he taught him, saying : 

1. O my son! hear my speech and follow my advice and 
remember what I say. 

2. O my son ! if thou hearest a word, let it die in thy heart, 
and reveal it not to another, lest it become a live coal and bum 
thy tongue and cause a pain in thy body, and thou gain a reproach, 
and art shamed before Ood and man. 

X O my son ! if thou hast heard a report, spread it not ; and 
if thou hast seen sonjething, tell it not. 

4. O my son ! make thy eloquence easy to the listener, and be 
not hasty to return an answer. 

5. O my son ! when thou hast heard anything, hide it not. 

6. O my son ! loose not a sealed knot, nor untie it, and seal 
not a loosened knot. 

7. O my son! covet not outward beauty, for it wanes and 
passes away, but an honourable remembrance lasts for aye. 

8. O my son! let not a silly woman deceive thee with her 
speech, lest thou die the most miserable of deaths, and she entangle 
thee in the net till thou art ensnared. 

9. O my son! desire not a woman bedizened with dress and 

^ It is strange to find a great scholar like Burton taking this idiom literally 
and translating " extend the wings of thy spirit." It is either a Syriaoism or a 
suggestion of Pl-P Ip^. 

L. A. M 

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with ointments, who is despicable and silly in her soul. Woe to 
thee if thou bestow on her anything that is thine, or commit to her 
what is in thine hand and she entice thee into sin, and God be 
wroth with thee. 

10. O my son ! be not like the almond-tree, for it brings forth 
leaves before all the trees, and edible fiiiit after them all, but be 
like the mulberry-tree, which brings forth edible fruit before all 
the trees, and leaves after them all 

11. O my son ! bend thy head low down, and soften thy voice, 
and be courteous, and walk in the straight path, and be not foolish. 

page 4 And raise not thy voice when thou laughest, for if it were by a 
loud voice that a house was built, the ass would build many houses 
every day; and if it were by dint of strength that the plough 
were driven, the plough would never be removed from under the 
shoulders of the camels. 

12. my son ! the removing of stones with a wise man is 
better than the drinking of wine with a sorry man. 

13. O my son ! pour out thy wine on the tombs of the just, 
and drink not with ignorant, contemptible people. 

14. O my son ! cleave to wise men who fear God and be like 
them, and go not near the ignorant, lest thou become like him, and 
learn his ways. 

15. O my son ! when thou hast got thee a comrade or a friend, 
try him, and afterwards make him a comrade and a friend ; and do 
not praise him without a trial ; and do not spoil thy speech with a 
man who lacks wisdom. 

16. O my son ! while a shoe stays on thy foot, walk with it on 
the thorns, and make a road for thy son, and for thy household and 
thy children, and make thy ship taut before she goes on the sea 
and its waves and sinks and cannot be saved. 

17. my son ! if the rich man eat a snake, they say " It is by 
his wisdom," and if a poor man eat it, the people say "From 
his hunger." 

18. O my son ! be content with thy daily bread and thy goods, 
and covet not what is another's. 

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19. O my son ! be not neighbour to the fool, and eat not bread 
with him, and rejoice not in the calamities of thy neighbours. If 
thiiie enemy wrong thee, shew him kindness. 

20. O my son ! a man who fears God do thou fear him and 
honour him. 

21. O my son ! the ignorant man falls and stumbles, and the 
wise man, even if he stumbles, he is not shaken, and even if he 
falls he gets up quickly, and if he is sick, he can take care of 
his life. But as for the ignorant, stupid man, for his disease there 
is no drug. 

22. O my son ! if a man approach thee who is inferior to 
thyself, go forward to meet him, and remain standing, and if he 
cannot recompense thee, his Lord will recompense thee for him. 

23. O my son ! spare not to beat thy son, for the drubbing of 
thy son is like manure to the garden, and like tying the mouth of 
a purse, and like the tethering of beasts, and like the bolting of 
the door. 

24. O my son ! restrain thy son from wickedness, and teach page 6 
him manners before he rebels against thee and brings thee into 
contempt amongst the people and thou hang thy head in the 
streets and the assemblies and thou be punished for the evil of his 
wicked deeds. 

25. O my son 1 get thee a fat ox with a foreskin, and an ass 
great with its hoofs, and get not an ox with large horns, nor make 
friends with a tricky man, nor get a quarrelsome slave, nor a thievish 
handmaid, for everything which thou committest to them they 
will ruin. 

26. O my son ! let not thy parents curse thee, and the Lord be 
pleased with them ; for it hath been said, " He who despiseth his 
father or his mother let him die the death (I mean the death of 
sin) ; and he who honoureth his parents shall prolong his days and 
his life and shall see all that is good." 

27. O my son! walk not on the road without weapons, for 
thou knowest not when the foe may meet thee, so that thou 
mayest be ready for him. 

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28. O my son ! be not like a bare, leafless tree that doth not 
grow, but be like a tree covered with its leaves and its boughs ; 
for the man who has neither wife nor children and is despised and 
hated in the world is like a leafless and fruitless tree. 

29. O my son ! be like a fruitful tree on the roadside, whose 
fruit is eaten by all who pass by, and the beasts of the desert rest 
under its shade and eat of its leaves. 

30. O my son ! every sheep that wanders from its path and 
its companions becomes food for the wolf. 

31. O my son ! say not " My lord is a fool and I am wise," 
and relate not the speech of ignorance and folly, lest thou be 
despised by him. 

32. O my son ! be not one of those servants, to whom their 
lords say, " Get away from us," but be one of those to whom they 
say, " Approach and come near to us." 

33. O my son ! caress not thy slave in the presence of his 
companion, for thou knowest not which of them shall be of most 
value to thee in the end. 

34. O my son ! be not afraid of thy Lord who created thee, 
lest He be silent to thee. 

35. O my son ! make thy speech fair and sweeten thy tongue 
page 6 and permit not thy companion to tread on thy foot, lest he tread 

at the last on thy breast. 

36. O my son ! if thou beat a wise man with a word of wisdom, 
it will lurk in his breast like a subtle sense of shame ; but if thou 
drub the ignorant with a stick he will neither understand nor hear, 

37. O ray son ! if thou send a wise man for thy needs, do not 
give him many orders, for he will do thy business as thou desirest ; 
and if thou send a fool, do not order him, but go thyself and do thy 
business, for if thou order him, he will not do what thou desirest. 
If they send thee on business, hasten to fulfil it quickly. 

38. O my son ! make not an enemy of a man stronger than 
thyself, for he will take thy measure\ and his revenge on thee. 

39. O my son ! make trial of thy son, and of thy servant, 

* Literally "he will weigh thee." 

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before thou committest thy belongings to them, lest they raake 
away with them ; for he who hath a full hand is called wise, even 
if he be stupid and ignorant, and he who hath an empty hand is 
called poor, ignorant, even if he be the prince of sages. 

40. O my son ! I have eaten a colocynth, and swallowed myrrh, 
and I have found nothing more bitter than poverty and scarcity. 

41. O my son! teach thy son frugality and hunger, that he 
may do well in the management of his household. 

42. O my son I teach not to the ignorant the language of wise 
men, for it will be burdensome to him. 

43. O my son ! display not thy condition to thy firiend, lest 
thou be despised by him. 

44. O my son ! the blindness of the heart is more grievous 
than the blindness of the eyes, for the blindness of the eye may be 
guided little by little, but the blindness of the heart is not guided, 
and it leaves the straight path, and goes in a crooked way. 

45. O my son ! the stumbling of a man with his foot is better 
than the stumbling of a man with his tongue. 

46. O my son! a friend who is near is better than a more 
excellent brother who is far away. 

47. O my son I beauty fades but learning lasts, and the world 
wanes and becomes vain, but a good name neither becomes vain 
nor wanes. 

48. O my son! the man who hath no rest, his death were 
better than his life ; and the sound of weeping is better than the 
sound of singing ; for sorrow and weeping, if the fear of God be in 
them, are better than the sound of singing and rejoicing. page 7 

49. O my child ! the thigh of a frog in thy hand is better than 
a goose in the pot of thy neighbour ; and a sheep near thee is better 
than an ox far away ; and a sparrow in thy hand is better than a 
thousand sparrows flying; and poverty which gathers is better 
than the scattering of much provision; and a pound of wool is better 
than a pound of wealth, I mean of gold and silver ; for the gold 
and the silver are hidden and covered up in the earth, and are 
not seen ; but the wool stays in the markets and it is seen, and it 
is a beauty to him who wears it. 

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50. O my son! a small fortune is better than a scattered 

51. O ray son ! a living dog is better than a dead poor man. 

52. O my son! a poor man who does right is better than a 
rich man who is dead in sins. 

53. O my son ! keep a word in thy heart, and it shall be much 
to thee, and beware lest thou reveal the secret of thy friend. 

54. O my son ! let not a word issue from thy mouth till thou 
hast taken counsel with thy heart. And stand not betwixt persons 
quarrelling, because from a bad word there comes a quarrel, and 
from a quarrel there comes war, and from war there comes fighting, 
and thou wilt be forced to bear witness ; but run from thence and 
rest thyself 

55. O my sod ! withstand not a man stronger than thyself, but 
get thee a patient spirit, and endurance and an upright conduct, 
for there is nothing more excellent than that. 

56. O my son ! hate not thy first friend, for the second one 
may not last 

57. O my son ! visit the poor in his affliction, and speak of 
him in the Sultan s presence, and do thy diligence to save him 
from the mouth of the lion. 

58. O my son ! rejoice not in the death of thine enemy, for 
after a little while thou shalt be his neighbour, and him who mocks 
thee do thou respect and honour and be beforehand with him 
in greeting. 

59. O my son ! if water would stand still in heaven, and a 
black crow become white, and mjrrrh grow sweet as honey, then 
ignorant men and fools might understand and become wise. 

60. O my son ! if thou desire to be wise, restrain thy tongue 
from Ijdng, and thy hand from stealing, and thine eyes from 
beholding evil; then thou wilt be called wise. 

page 8 61. O my son ! let the wise man beat thee with a rod, but let 
not the fool anoint thee with sweet salve. Be humble in thy 
youth and thou shalt be honoured in thine old age. 

62. O my son 1 withstand not a man in the days of his power, 
nor a river in the days of its flood. 

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63. O my son 1 be not hasty in the wedding of a wife, for if it 
turns out well, she will say, " My lord, make provision for me"; and 
if it turns out ill, she will rate at him who was the cause of it. 

64. O my son ! whosoever is elegant in his dress, he is the 
same in his speech; and he who has a mean appearance in his 
dress, he also is the same in his speech. 

65. O my son ! if thou hast committed a theffc, make it known 
to the Sultan, and give him a share of it, that thou mayest be 
delivered from him, for otherwise thou wilt endure bitterness. 

66. O my son! make a friend of the man whose hand is 
satisfied and filled, and make no friend of the man whose hand is 
closed and hungry. 

There are four things in which neither the king nor his army 
can be secure : oppression by the vizier, and bad government, and 
perversion of the will, and tyranny over the subject; and four 
things which cannot be hidden : the prudent, and the foolish, and 
the rich, and the poor. 

Thus spake Haiq&r, and when he had finished these injunctions 
and proverbs to Nadan, his sister's son, he imagined that he would 
keep them all, and he knew not that instead of that he was dis- 
playing to him weariness and contempt and mockery. 

Thereafter Haiq&r sat still in his house and delivered over to 
Nadan all his goods, and the slaves, and the handmaidens, and the 
horses, and the cattle, and everything else that he had possessed 
and gained; and the power of bidding and of forbidding re- 
mained in the hand of Nadan; and HaiqIU* sat at rest in his 
house, and every now and then Haiq&r went and paid his respects 
to the king, and returned home. Now when Nadan perceived that 
the power of bidding and of forbidding was in his own hand, he 
despised the position of Haiq6r and scoffed at him, and set about 
blaming him whenever he appeared, sajring, " My uncle Haiq&r is 
in his dotage, and he knows nothing now " ; and he began to beat page 9 
the slaves and the handmaidens, and to sell the horses and the 
camels and be spendthrift with all that his uncle Haiq&r had 

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And when Haiq&r saw that he had no compassion on his 
servants nor on his household, he arose and chased him from his 
house, and sent to inform the king that he had scattered his pos- 
sessions and his provision. 

And the king arose and called Nadan and said to him : ''Whilst 
Haiq&r remains in health, no one shall rule over his goods nor over 
his household, nor over his possessions." And the hand of Nadan 
was lifted off from his uncle Haiq&r and from all his goods, and in 
the meantime he went neither in nor out, nor did he greet him. 

Thereupon Haiq&r repented him of his toil with Nadan, his 
sister 8 son, and he continued to be very sorrowful. And Nadan 
had a younger brother named Beniizard&n, so Haiq&r took him 
to himself in place of Nadan, and brought him up and honoured 
him with the utmost honour. And he delivered over to him all 
that he possessed, and made him governor of his house. 

Now when Nadan perceived what had happened he was seized 
with envy and jealousy, and he began to complain to every one 
who questioned him, and to mock his uncle Haiq&r, saying : "My 
uncle has chased me from his house, and has preferred my brother 
to me, but if the Most High God give me the power, I shall bring 
upon him the misfortune* of being killed." And Nadan continued 
to meditate as to the stumbling-block he might contrive for him. 
And after a while Nadan turned it over in his mind, and wrote 
a letter to Achish, son of Shah the Wise, king of Persia, saying 

"Peace and health and might and honour from Sennacherib 
king of Assyria and Nineveh, and from his vizier and his secretary 
Haiq&r unto thee, O great king I Let there be peace between thee 
and me. And when this letter reaches thee, if thou wilt arise 
and go quickly to the plain of Nisrin', and to Assyria and Nineveh, 
I will deliver up the kingdom to thee without war and without 

1 LiteraUy " cast him into the misfortune." 

^ Nisrin may either mean "the eagles," or **the wild rose." I prefer the 
latter, beoanse the iiPiifll plural of nasr is nusUr or anaur. 

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And he wrote also another letter in the name of Haiqiir to 
Pharaoh king of Egypt. " Let there be peace between thee and 
me, O mighty king ! If at the time of this letter reaching thee 
thou wilt arise and go to Assyria and Nineveh to the plain of 
Nisrln, I will deliver up to thee the kingdom without war and page 10 
without fighting." And the writing of Nadan was like to the 
writing of his uncle Haiq&r. 

Then he folded the two letters, and sealed them with the seal 
of his uncle Haiq&r ; they were nevertheless in the king's palace. 
Then he went and wrote a letter likewise from the king to his 
uncle Haiq&r. " Peace and health to my Vizier, my Secretary, my 
Chancellor, Haiq&r. O Haiq&r, when this letter reaches thee, 
assemble all the soldiers who are with thee, and let them be 
perfect in clothing and in numbers, and bring them to me on the 
fifth day in the plain of Nisrtn, and when thou shalt see me there 
coming towards thee, haste and make the army move against me 
as against an enemy and fight with me, for I have with me the 
ambassadors of Pharaoh king of Egypt, that they may see the 
strength of our army and may fear us, for they are our enemies 
and they hate us." 

Then he sealed the letter and sent it to Haiq&r by one of the 
king's servants. And he took the other letter which he had 
written and spread it before the king and read it to him and 
shewed him the seal. And when the king heard what was in the 
letter he was perplexed with a great perplexity and was wroth 
with a great and fierce wrath and said, ''Ah, I have shewn ray 
wisdom ! what have I done to Haiqfir that he has written these 
letters to my enemies? Is this my recompense from him for my 
benefits to him?" And Nadan said to him, "Be not grieved, O king ! 
nor be wroth, but let us go to the Plain of Nisrln iand see if the 
tale be true or not" Then Nadan arose on the fifth day and took 
the king and the soldiers and the vizier, and they went to the desert 
to the Plain of Nisrin. And the king looked, and lo ! Haiq&r and 
the army were set in array. And when Haiq&r saw that the king 
was there, he approached and signalled to the army to move as in 

L. A. N 

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war and to fight in array against the king as it had been found in 
the letter, he not knowing what a pit Nadan had digged for him. 
And when the king saw the act of Haiq&r he was seized with 
page 11 anxiety and terror and perplexity, and was wroth with a great wrath. 
And Nadan said to him, '' Hast thou seen, O my lord the king ! 
what this wretch has done? but be not thou wroth and be not 
grieved nor pained, but go to thy house and sit on thy throne, and 
I will bring Haiq&r to thee bound and chained with chains, and I 
will chase away thine enemy from thee without toil." 

And the king returned to his throne, being provoked about 
Haiq&r, and did nothing concerning him. And Nadan went to 
Haiq&r and said to him, " Wallah, O my uncle ! The king verily 
rejoiceth in thee with great joy and thanks thee for having done 
what he commanded thee. And now he hath sent me to thee 
that thou mayest dismiss the soldiers to their duties^ and come 
thyself to him with thy hands bound behind thee, and thy feet 
chained, that the ambassadors of Pharaoh may see this, and that 
the king may be feared by them and by theii* king." Then 
answered Haiq^r and said, " To hear is to obey." And he arose 
straightway and bound his hands behind him, and chained his 
feet. And Nadan took him and went with him to the king. And 
when Haiq&r entered the king's presence he did obeisance before 
him on the ground, and wished for power and pei-petual life to the 
king. Then said the king, " O Haiq&r, my Secretary, the Governor 
of my affairs, my Chancellor, the ruler of my State, tell me what 
evil have I done to thee that thou hast rewarded me by this ugly 
deed." Then they shewed him the letters in his writing and with 
his seal. And when Haiq^Lr saw this, his limbs trembled and 
his tongue was tied at once, and he was imable to speak a 
word from fear ; but he hung his head towards the earth and was 
dumb. And when the king saw this, he felt certain that the thing 
was from him, and he straightway arose and commanded them to 
kill Haiq^Lr, and to strike his neck with the sword outside of the 
city. Then Nadan screamed and said, " O Haiq&r, O black-face ! 
* Literally "to the way of their path." 

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what avails thee thy meditation or thy power in the doing of this 

deed to the king ? " page 12 

Thus says the story-teller. And the name of the swordsman 
was Ihn Samik. And the king said to him, '' O swordsman ! arise, 
go, cleave the neck of Haiq&r at the door of his house, and cast 
away his head from his body a hundred cubits." Then Haiq&r knelt 
before the king, and said, " Let my lord the king live for ever ! 
and if thou desire to slay me, let thy wish be [fulfilled] ; and I 
know that I am not guilty, but the wicked man has to give an 
account of his wickedness ; nevertheless, O my lord the king ! I 
beg of thee and of thy friendship, permit the swordsman to give 
my body to my slaves, that they may bury me, and let thy slave 
be thy sacrifice." 

The king arose and commanded the swordsman to do with him 
according to his desire. And he straightway commanded his 
servants to take Haiq&r and the swordsman and to go with him 
naked that they might slay him. And when Haiqfix knew for 
certain that he was to be slain he sent to his wife and said to 
her, "Come out and meet me and let there be with thee a 
thousand young virgins, and dress them in gowns of purple and 
silk that they may weep for me before my death. And prepare a 
table for the swordsman and for his servanta And mingle plenty 
of wine, that they may drink." 

And she did all that he commanded her. And she was very 
wise, clever and prudent. And she united all possible courtesy 
and learning. 

And when the army of the king and the swordsman arrived 
they found the table set in order, and the wine and the luxurious 
viands, and they began eating and drinking till they were gorged 
and drunken. 

Then Haiq&r took the swordsman aside apart from the company 
and said, "0 Abu Samlk, dost thou not know that when 
Sarhadum the king, the father of Sennacherib, wanted to kill thee, 
I took thee and hid thee in a certain place till the king's anger 
subsided and he asked for thee ? And when I brought thee into 

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his presence he rejoiced in thee : and now remember the kindness 
I did thee. And I know that the king will repent hiTn about me 
and will be wroth with a great wrath about my execution. For I 
am not guilty, and it shall be when thou shalt present me before 
him in his palace, thou shalt meet with great good fortune, and 
page 13 know that Nadan my sister s son has deceived me and has done 
this bad deed to me, and the king will repent of having slain me ; 
and now I have a cellar in the side of my house, and no one knows 
of it. Hide me in it with the knowledge of my wife. And I have 
a slave in prison who deserves to be killed. Bring him out and 
dress him in my clothes, and command the servants when they are 
drunk to slay him. They will not know who it is they are killing. 
And cast away his head a hundred cubits from his body, and give 
his body to my slaves that they may bury it. And thou shalt 
have laid up a great treasure with me." And then the swordsman 
did as Haiq&r had commanded him, and he went to the king 
and said to him, " May thy head live for ever ! " Then Haiq&r's 
wife let down to him in the hiding-place all that sufficed for him, 
and no one knew of it but herself And the story was reported 
and repeated and spread abroad in every place of how Haiq&r the 
Sage had been slain and was dead, and all the people of that city 
mourned for him. And they wept and said : " Alas for thee, O 
Haiq&r ! and for thy learning and thy courtesy ! How sad about 
thee and about thy knowledge ! Where can another like thee be 
found ? and where can there be a man so intelligent, so learned, so 
skilled in ruling as to resemble thee that he may fill thy place ? " 

But the king was repenting about Haiqdr, and his repentance 
availed him nought. Then he called for Nadan and said to him, 
'' Go and take thy friends with thee and make a mourning and a 
weeping for thy uncle Haiq&r, and lament for him as the custom 
is, doing honour to his memory." But when Nadan, the foolish, the 
ignorant, the hard-hearted, went to the house of his uncle, he 
neither wept nor sorrowed nor wailed, but assembled heartless 
and dissolute people and set about eating and drinking. And 
Nadan began to seize the maid-servants and the slaves belonging 

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to Haiq&r, and bound them and tortured them and drubbed them 
with a sore drubbing. And he did not respect the wife of his uncle, 
she who had brought him up like her own boy, but wanted her to 
fall into sin with him. But Haiq&r had been cast into the hiding- 
place, and he heard the weeping of his slaves and his neighbours, 
and he praised the Most High Gkxl, the Merciful One, and gave 
thanks, and he always prayed and besought the Most High God. page 14 
And the swordsman came from time to time to Haiq&r whilst he was 
in the midst of the hiding-place : and Haiq&r came and entreated 
him. And he comforted him and wished him deliverance. 

And when the story was reported in other countries that 
Haiqdj: the Sage had been slain, all the kings were grieved and 
despised king Sennacherib, and they lamented over Haiq&r the 
solver of riddles. And when the king of Egypt had made sure 
that Haiq&r was slaini he arose straightway and wrote a letter to 
king Sennacherib reminding him in it " of the peace and the health 
and the might and the honour which we wish specially for thee, 
my beloved brother, king Sennacherib. I have been desiring to 
build a castle between the heaven and the earth, and I want thee 
to send me a wise, clever man from thyself to build it for me, and 
to answer me all my questions, and that I may have the taxes and 
the custom duties of Assyria for three years." Then he sealed the 
letter and sent it to Sennacherib. He took it and read it and gave 
it to his viziers and to the nobles of his kingdom, and they were 
perplexed and ashamed, and he was wroth with a great wrath, and 
was puzzled about how he should act. Then he assembled the old 
men and the learned men and the wise men and the philosophers, 
and the diviners and the astrologers, and every one who was in 
his country, and read them the letter and said to them, " Who 
amongst you will go to Pharaoh king of Egypt and answer him 
his questions ? " And they said to him, " O our lord the king ! 
know thou that there is none in thy kingdom who is acquainted 
with these questions except Haiq&r, thy vizier and secretary. But 
as for us, we have no skill in this, unless it be Nadan, his sister's 
son, for he taught him all his wisdom and learning and knowledge. 

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Call him to thee, perchance he may untie this hard knot." Then 
the king called Nadan and said to him, '' Look at this letter and 
understand what is in it" And when Nadan read it, he said, " O 
my lord ! who is able to build a castle between the heaven and 
the earth?" 
p^3 15 And when the king heard the speech of Nadan he sorrowed 
with a great and sore sorrow, and stepped down from his throne 
and sat on the ashes, and began to weep and wail over Haiqdr, 
saying, "O my grief! O Haiq&r, who didst know the secrets and the 
* riddles ! woe is me for thee, O Haiqfi,r ! O teacher of my country 
and ruler of my kingdom, where shall I find thy like ? O Haiq&r, 
O teacher of my country, where shall I turn for thee ? woe is me 
for thee ! how did I destroy thee ! and I listened to the talk of a 
stupid, ignorant boy without knowledge, without judgment, without 
manliness. Ah ! and again Ah for myself! who can give thee to 
me just for once, or bring me word that Haiqar is alive ? and I 
would give him the half of my kingdom. Whence is this to me ? 
Ah Haiq&r ! that I might see thee just for once, that I might take 
my fill of gazing at thee, and delighting in thee. Ah ! O my grief 
for thee to all time ! O Haiqdr, how have I killed thee ! and I 
tarried not in thy case till I had seen the end of the matter." And 
the king went on weeping night and day. Now when the swords- 
man saw the wrath of the king and his sorrow for Haiq&r, his 
heart was softened towards him, and he approached into his 
presence and said to him : " O my lord 1 command thy servants to 
cut off my head." Then said the king to him : " Woe to thee, 
Abu Samlk, what is thy fault ? " And the swordsman said unto 
him, " O my master ! every slave who acts contrary to the word of 
his master is killed S and I have acted contrary to thy command." 
Then the king said unto him, " Woe unto thee, O Abu Samik, in 
what hast thou acted contrary to my command?" And the 
swordsman said unto him, " O my lord ! thou didst command me 
to kill Haiq&r, and I knew that thou wouldst repent thee concern- 
ing him, and that he had been wronged, and I hid him in a certain 

* B.M. MS. " is crucified.*' 

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place, and I killed one of his slaves, and he is now safe in the 
cistern, and if thou command me I will bring him to thee." And 
the king said unto him, "Woe to thee, O Abu Samik! thou 
hast mocked me and I am thy lord.*' And the swordsman said 
unto him, " Nay, but by the life of thy head, O my lord ! Haiq&r 
is safe and alive." And when the king heard that saying, he felt 
sure of the matter, and his head swam\ and he fainted from joy, page 16 
and he commanded [them] to bring [Haiq&r]*. And he said to the 
swordsman, " O trusty servant ! if thy speech be true, I would fain 
enrich thee, and exalt thy dignity above that of all thy friends." And 
the swordsman went along rejoicing till he came to Haiq&r's house. 
And he opened the door of the hiding-place, and went down and 
found Haiq&r sitting, praising God, and thanking Him. And he 
shouted to him, saying, " Haiqftr, I bring the greatest of joy ! 
and happiness, and delight ! '* And Haiq^Lr said to him, " What is 
the news, O Abu Samtk ? " And he told him all about Pharaoh 
from the beginning to the end. Then he took him and went to 
the king. And when the king looked at him, and saw him in a 
state of want, and that his hair had grown long like the wild beasts' 
and his nails like the claws of an eagle, and that his body was dirty 
with dust, and the colour of his fsuce had changed and faded and 
was now like ashes. And when the king saw him he sorrowed 
over him and rose at once and embraced him and kissed him, and 
wept over him and said : " Praise be to God ! who hath brought 
thee back to me." Then he consoled him and comforted him. 
And he stripped off his robe, and put it on the swordsman, and 
was very gracious to him, and gave him great wealth, and made 
Haiq&r rest. 

Then said Haiq&r to the king, " Let my lord the king live for 
ever ! These be the deeds of the children of the world. I have 
reared me a palm-tree that I might lean on it, and it bent side- 
ways, and threw me down. But, O my lord ! since I have appeared 
before thee, let not care oppress thee." And the king said to him : 
" Blessed be God, who shewed thee mercy, and knew that thou 

1 Literally "hia reason flew." 2 Qod^ "him." 

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wast wronged, and saved thee and delivered thee from being slain. 
But go to the wann bath, and shave thy head, and cut thy nails, 
and change thy clothes, and amuse thyself for the space of forty 
days, that thou mayest do good to thyself and improve thy condition 
and the colour of thy face may come back to thee." Then the king 
stripped off his costly robe, and put it on HaiqAr, and HaiqiLr 
thanked Qod and did obeisance to the king, and departed to his 
dwelling glad and happy, praising the Most High Qod. And the 
people of his household rejoiced with him, and his friends and 
every one who heard that he was alive rejoiced also, 
page 17 And he did as the king commanded him, and took a rest for 
forty days. Then he dressed himself in his gayest dress, and went 
riding to the king, with his slaves behind him and before him, 
rejoicing and delighted. But when Nadan his sister s son per- 
ceived what was happening, fear took hold of him and terror, and 
he was perplexed, not knowing what to do. And when Haiq&r saw 
it he entered into the king's presence and greeted him, and he 
returned the greeting, and made him sit down at his side, saying 
to him, ** O my darling Haiq&r ! look at these letters which the king 
of Egypt sent to us, after he had heard that thou wast slain. 
They have provoked us and overcome us, and many of the people of 
our country have fled to Egypt for fear of the taxes that the king 
of Egypt has sent to demand from us." Then Haiqilr took the 
letter and read it and understood all its contents. Then he said 
to the king, " Be not wroth, O my lord ! I will go to Egypt, and I 
will return the answers to Pharaoh, and I will display this letter 
to him, and I will reply to him about the taxes, and I will send 
back all those who have run away ; and I will put thy enemies to 
shame with the help of the Most High God, and for the happiness 
of thy kingdom." And when the king heard this speech from 
HaiqUr he rejoiced with a great joy, and his heart was expanded 
and he shewed him favour. And Haiq&r said to the king : " Grant 
me a delay of forty days that I may consider this question and 
manage it." And the king permitted this. And Haiq&r went to 
his dwelling, and he commanded the huntsmen to capture two 

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young eaglets for him, and they captured them and brought them 
to him : and he commanded the weavers of ropes to weave two 
cables of cotton for him, each of them a thousand cubits long, and 
he had the carpenters brought and ordered them to make two 
great boxes, and they did this. Then he took two little lads, 
and spent every day sacrificing lambs and feeding the eagles 
and the boys, and making the boys ride on the backs of the eagles, 
and he bound them with a firm knot, and tied the cable to the 
feet of the eagles, and let them soar upwards little by little every 
day, to a distance of ten cubits, till they grew accustomed and 
were educated to it ; and they rose all the length of the rope till page is 
they reached the sky ; the boys being on their backs. • Then he 
drew them to himself. 

And when Haiq&r saw that his desire was fulfilled he charged 
the boys that when they were borne aloft to the sky they were to 
shout, saying, " Bring us clay and stone, that we may build a castle 
for king Pharaoh, for we are idle." And Haiq&r was never done 
training them and exercising them till they had reached the 
utmost possible point (of skill). Then leaving them he went to 
the king and said to him, "O my lord! the work is finished 
according to thy desire. Arise with me that I may shew thee 
the wonder." So the king sprang up and sat with Haiq&r and 
went to a wide place and sent to bring the eagles and the boys, 
and he tied them and let them off into the air all the length of 
the ropes, and they began to shout as Haiq&r had taught them. 
Then he drew them to himself and put them in their places. And 
the king and those who were with him wondered with a great 
wonder : and the king kissed Haiq&r between his eyes and said to 
him, "Go in peace, O my beloved! O pride of my kingdom! to 
Egypt and answer the questions of Pharaoh and overcome him by 
the strength of the Most High God." Then he bade him farewell, 
and took his troops and his army and the young men and the 
eagles, and went towards the dwellings of Egypt; and when he 
had arrived, he turned towards the country of the king. And 
when the people of Egjrpt knew that Sennacherib had sent a man 

L. A. o 




of his Privy Council to talk with Pharaoh and to answer his 
questions, they carried the news to king Pharaoh, and he sent a 
party of his Privy Councillors to bring him before him^ And he 
came and entered into the presence of Pharaoh, and did obeisance 
to him as it is fitting to do to kings. And he said to him : ''O my 
lord the king ! Sennacherib the king hails thee with abundance of 
peace and might, and honour ; and he has sent me, who am one of 
his slaves, that I may answer thee thy questions, and may fulfil all 
page 19 thy desire : for thou hast sent to seek from my lord the king a 
man who will build thee a castle between the heaven and the earth. 
And I by the help of the Most High God and thy noble favour 
and the power of my lord the king will build [it] for thee as thou 
desirest. But, O my lord the king! what thou hast said in it 
about the taxes of Egypt for three years — now the stability of a 
kingdom is strict justice, and if thou winnest and my hand hath no 
skill in replying to thee, then my lord the king will send thee the 
taxes which thou hast mentioned, and if I shall have answered 
thee in thy questions, it shall remain for thee to send whatever 
thou hast mentioned to my lord the king." 

And when Pharaoh heard that speech, he wondered and was 
perplexed by the freedom of his tongue, and the pleasantness of his 
speech. And king Pharaoh said to him, " O man ! what is thy 
name ? " And he said, " Thy servant is Abiq&m, and I am a little 
ant of the ants of king Sennacherib." And Pharaoh said to him, 
" Had thy lord no one of higher dignity than thee, that he has sent 
me a little ant to reply to me, and to converse with me ? " And 
Haiq&r said to him, " O my lord the king ! I would to God Most 
High that I may fiilfil what is on thy mind, for God is with the 
weak that he may confound the strong." Then Pharaoh commanded 
that they should prepare a dwelling for Abiqd.m and supply him 
with provender, meat, and drink, and all that he needed. And 
when it was finished three days afterwards Pharaoh clothed him- 
self in purple and red and sat on his throne, and all his viziers and 
the magnates of his kingdom were standing with their hands crossed, 

1 Literally " betwixt his hands." 

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their feet close together, and their heads bowed. And Pharaoh 
sent to fetch Abiq4m, and when he was presented to him, he did 
obeisance before him, and kissed the ground in front of him*. 
And king Pharaoh said to him, "O Abiq&m, whom am I like ? and 
the nobles of my kingdom, to whom are they like ? *' And Haiq&r 
said to him, " O my lord the king ! thou art like the idol Bel, and 
the nobles of thy kingdom are like his servants." He said to him, 
"Go, and come back hither to-morrow." So Haiq&r went as 
king Pharaoh had commanded him. And on the morrow Haiq&r ptLge i 
went into the presence of Pharaoh, and did obeisance, and stood 
before the king. And Pharaoh was dressed in a red colour, and 
the nobles were dressed in white. And Pharaoh said to him, " O 
Abiq&m, whom am I like ? and the nobles of my kingdom, to whom 
are they like?" And Abiqftm said to him, '*0 my lord! thou 
art like the sun, and thy servants are like [its] beams." And 
Pharaoh said to him, "Go to thy dwelling, and come hither to- 
morrow." Then Pharaoh commanded his Court to wear pure 
white*, and Pharaoh was dressed like them and sat upon his throne, 
and he commanded them to fetch Haiq4r. And he entered and 
sat down before him. And Pharaoh said to him, " O Abiqd.m, whom 
am I like ? and my nobles, to whom are they like ? *[ And Abiq&m 
said to him, " O my lord ! thou art like the moon, and thy nobles 
are like the planets and the stars.'' And Pharaoh said to him, 
'* Go, and to-morrow be thou here." Then Pharaoh commanded 
his servants to wear robes of various colours, and Pharaoh wore a 
red velvet dress, and sat on his throne, and commanded them to 
fetch Abiqd>m. And he entered and did obeisance before him. 
And he said, "O AbiqiLm, whom am I like? and my armies, to 
whom are they like ? " And he said, "0 my lord ! thou art like the 
month of April, and thy armies are like its flowers." And when 
the king heard it he rejoiced with a great joy, and said, "O 
Abiq4m 1 the first time thou didst compare me to the idol Bel, 
and my nobles to his servants. And the second time thou didst 
compare me to the sun, and my nobles to the sun-beams. And 

1 Literally "between his hands." * Or a dress completely white. 

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the third time thou didst compare me to the moon, and my nobles 
to the planets and the stars, and the fourth time thou didst com- 
pare me to the month of April, and my nobles to its flowera But 
now, O Abiq&m ! tell me, thy lord, king Sennacherib, whom is he 
like? and his nobles, to whom are they like?" And Haiq&r shouted 
with a loud voice and said : " Be it far from me to make mention of 
page 21 my lord the king and thou seated on thy throne. But get up on 
thy feet that I may tell thee whom my lord the king is like and 
to whom his nobles are like." 

And Pharaoh was perplexed by the freedom of his tongue and 
his boldness in answering. Then Pharaoh arose from his throne, 
and stood before Haiq&r, and said to him, ''Tell me now, that I may 
perceive whom thy lord the king is like, and his nobles, to whom 
they are like." And Haiq&r said to him : " My lord is the God 
of heaven, and bis nobles are the lightnings and the thunder, and 
when he wills, the winds blow and the rain falls." And he com- 
mands the thunder, and it lightens and rains, and he holds the 
sun, and it gives not its light, and the moon and the stars, and they 
circle not. And he commands the tempests, and it blows and the 
rain falls and it tramples on April and destroys its flowers and its 

And when Pharaoh heard this speech, he was greatly perplexed 
and was wroth with a great wrath, and said to him : " O man ! tell 
me the truth, and let me know who thou really art." 

And he told him the truth. " I am HaiqiLr the scribe, greatest 
of the Privy Councillors of king Sennacherib, and I am his vizier 
and the Governor of his kingdom, and his Chancellor." 

And he said to him, " Thou hast told the truth in this saying. 
But we have heard of Haiq&r, that king Sennacherib has slain 
him, yet thou dost seem to be alive and well." And HaiqS.r said 
to him, " Yes, so it was, but praise be to God, who knoweth what 
is hidden, for my lord the king commanded me to be killed, and 
he believed the word of profligate men, but the Lord delivered me, 
and blessed is he who trusteth in him." 

And Pharaoh said to Haiqar, "Go, and to-morrow be thou 

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here, and tell me a word that I have never heard from my nobles 
nor from the people of my kingdom and my country/' And Haiq&r 
went to his dwelling, and wrote a letter saying in it on this wise : 

" From Sennacherib king of Assyria and Nineveh to Pharaoh 
king of Egypt. 

" Peace be to thee, O my brother ! and what we make known 
to thee by this is that a brother has need of his brother, and kings 
of each other, and [my] hope from thee is that thou wouldst lend 
me nine hundred talents of gold, for I need it for the victualling of 
some of the soldiers, that I may spend [it] upon them. And after 
a little while I will send it thee." Then he folded the letter, and page 22 
presented it on the morrow to Pharaoh. And when he saw it, he 
was perplexed and said to him, " Verily I have never heard any- 
thing like this language from any one." Then HaiqUr said to 
him, " Truly this is a debt which thou owest to my lord the king." 
And Pharaoh accepted this, saying, '' O HaiqS.r, it is the like of 
thee who are honest in the service of kings. Blessed be God who 
hath made thee perfect in wisdom, and hath adorned thee with 
philosophy and knowledge. And now, O Haiq&r, there remains 
what we desire from thee, that thou shouldest build us a castle 
between heaven and earth." 

Then said Haiq&r, " To hear is to obey. I will build thee a 
castle according to thy wish and choice ; but, O my lord ! prepare 
us lime and stone and clay and workmen, and I have skilled 
builders who will build for thee as thou desirest." And the king 
prepared all that for him, and they went to a wide place; and 
Haiq&r and his servants came to it, and he took the eagles, and 
the young men with him ; and the king and all his nobles went 
and the whole city assembled, that they might see what Haiqd,r 
would do. 

Then HaiqiLr let the eagles out of the boxes, and tied the 
young men on their backsS and tied the ropes to the eagles' 
feet, and let them go in the air. And they soared upwards, till 
they remained between heaven and earth. And the boys began 

^ Literally **on the eagles' backs." 

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to shout, saying, " Bring bricks, bring clay, that we may build the 
king's castle, for we are standing idle ! " 

And the crowd were astonished and perplexed, and they 
wondered. And the king and his nobles wondered. And HaiqUr 
and his servants began to beat the workmen, and they shouted for 
the king's troops, saying to them, " Bring to the skilled workmen 
what they want and do not hinder them from their work." And 
the king said to him, '* Thou art mad ; who can bring anything up 
to that height ? " And Haiq4r said to him, "O my lord ! how shall 
we build a castle in the air ? and if my lord the king were here, 
he would have built several castles in a single day." And Pharaoh 
page 23 said to him, "Go, O Haiqilr, to thy dwelling, and rest, for we have 
given up^ building the castle, and to-morrow come to me." 

Then Haiqd>r went to his dwelling and on the morrow he 
appeared before Pharaoh. And Pharaoh said, "O Haiq&r, 
what news is there of the horse of thy lord ? for when he neighs 
in the country of Assyria and Nineveh, and our mares hear his 
voice, they cast their young." And when Haiqdr heard this speech 
he went and took a cat, and bound her and began to flog her with 
a violent flogging till the Egyptians heard it and they went and 
told the king about it. And Pharaoh sent to fetch Haiq&r, and 
said to him, " O Haiq&r, wherefore dost thou flog thus and beat 
that dumb beast?" And Haiqftr said to him, "O my lord the 
king ! verily she has done an ugly deed to me, and has deserved 
this drubbing and flogging, for my lord king Sennacherib had 
given me a fine cock, and he had a strong true voice and knew the 
hours of the day and the night. And the cat got up this very 
night and cut off its head and went away, and because of this deed 
I have treated her to this drubbing." And Pharaoh said to him, 
"O Haiq^r, I see from all this that thou art growing old and art 
in thy dotage, for between Egypt and Nineveh there are sixty- 
eight parasangs, and how did she go this very night and cut off 
the head of thy cock and come back ? " 

And Hai(i^r said to him, " O my lord ! if there were such a 

1 Literally *'we have passed away from." 

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distance between Egypt and Nineveh, how could thy mares hear 
when my lord the king's horse neighs and cast their young ? and 
how could the voice of the horse reach to Egypt ? " 

And when Pharaoh heard that, he knew that Haiqilr had 
answered his questions. And Pharaoh said, "O HaiqSr, I want 
thee to make me ropes of the sea-sand." And Haiq^r said to him, 
" O my lord the king ! order them to bring me a rope out of the 
treasury that I may make one like it." Then Haiqd^r went to the 
back of the house, and bored holes in the rough shore of the sea, 
and took a handful of sand in his hand, sea-sand, and when the 
sun rose, and penetrated into the holes, he spread the sand in the page 24 
sun till it became as if woven like ropes. And Haiq&r said, 
" Command thy servants to take these ropes, and whenever thou 
desirest it, I will weave thee (some) like them." And Pharaoh said, 
" O Haiqfix, we have a millstone here and it has been broken, and I 
want thee to sew it up." Then Haiq&r looked at it, and found an- 
other stone. And he said to Pharaoh, " O my lord ! I am a foreigner, 
and I have no tool for sewing. But I want thee to command thy 
faithful shoemakers to cut awls from this stone, that I may sew 
that mill-stone." Then Pharaoh and all his nobles laughed. And 
he said, " Blessed be the Most High God, who gave thee this wit 
and knowledge." And when Pharaoh saw that HaiqSx had over- 
come him, and returned him his answers, he at once became 
excited, and commanded them to collect for him three years' taxes, 
and to bring them to HaiqS^r. And he stripped off his robes and 
put them upon HaiqlLr, and his soldiers, and his servants, and gave 
him the expenses of his journey. And he said to him, " Go in 
peace, O strength of thy lord and pride of his doctors ! have any 
of the Sultans thy like? give my greetings to^ thy lord king 
Sennacherib, and say to him how we have sent him gifts, for kings 
are content with little." 

Then Haiqfir arose, and kissed king Pharaoh's hands and kissed 
the ground in front of him, and wished him strength and continu- 
ance, and abundance in his treasury, and said to him, " O my lord ! 

* Literally ** my peace upon." 

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I desire from thee that not one of our countrymen may remain in 
Eg3rpt." And Pharaoh arose and sent heralds to proclaim in the 
streets of Egypt that not one of the people of Assyria or Nineveh 
should remain in the land of Egypt, but that they should go with 
Haiqd^r. Then Haiq&r went and took leave of king Pharaoh, and 
journeyed, seeking the land of Assyria and Nineveh ; and he had 
some treasures and a great deal of wealth. 

And when the news reached king Sennacherib that Haiq&r 
was coming, he went out to meet him and rejoiced over him 
exceedingly with great joy and embraced him and kissed him, and 
said to bim, "Welcome home, O kinsman ! my brother Haiqd.r, the 
page 25 strength of my kingdom, and pride of my realm. Ask what thou 
wouldst have from me, even if thou desirest the half of my king- 
dom and of my possessiona" Then said Haiqd.r unto him, " O my 
lord the king, live for ever ! Shew favour, O my lord the king ! to 
Abu Samik in my stead, for my life was in the hands of Qod and 
in his." 

Then said Sennacherib the king, " Honour be to thee, O my 
beloved Haiq&r! I will make the station of Abu Samtk the 
swordsman higher than all my Privy Councillors and my favourites." 
Then the king began to ask him how he had got on with Pharaoh 
from his first arrival until he had come away from his presence, 
and how he had answered all his questions, and how he had 
received th^ taxes from him, and the changes of raiment and the 
presents. And Sennacherib the king rejoiced with a great joy, 
and said to Haiq&r, " Take what thou wouldst fain have of this 
tribute, for it is all within the grasp of thy hand." And Haiq&r 
said : " Let the king live for ever ! I desire nought but the safety 
of my lord the king and the continuance of his greatness. O my 
lord ! what can I do with wealth and its like^ ? but if thou wilt 
shew me favour, give me Nadan, my sister's son, that I may 
recompense him for what he has done to me, and grant me his 
blood and hold me guiltless of it." 

And Sennacherib the king said, " Take him, I have given him 

1 This is one of the oases in which ^j^ may have the sense of dergleichen. 

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to thee." And Haiq&r took Nadan, his sister's son, and bound his 
hands with chains of iron, and took him to his dwelling, and put a 
heavy fetter on his feet, and tied it with a tight knot, and after 
binding him thus he cast him into a dark room, beside the 
retiring-place, and appointed Nebu-hal as sentinel over him and 
commanded him to give him a loaf of bread and a little water 
every day ; and whenever Haiq4r went in or out he scolded Nadan, 
his sister's son, saying to him wisely, 

" O Nadan, my boy ! I have done to thee all that is good and 
kind, and thou hast rewarded me for it with what is ugly and bad 
and with killing. 

" O my son ! it is said in the proverbs : He who listeneth not 
with his ear, they will make him listen with the scruff of his neck." 

And Nadan said, "For what cause art thou wroth with page 26 

And HaiqiLr said to him, " Because I brought thee up, and 
taught thee, and gave thee honour and respect and made thee 
great, and reared thee with the best of breeding, and seated thee 
in my place that thou mightest be my heir in the world, and thou 
didst treat me with killing and didst repay me with my ruin. But 
the Lord knew that I was wronged, and He saved me from the 
snare which thou hadst set for me, for the Lord healeth the 
broken hearts and hindereth the envious and the haughty." 

" O my boy ! thou hast been to me like the^ scorpion which, 
when it strikes on brass, pierces it." 

" O my boy ! thou art like the gazelle who was eating the roots 
of the madder, and it said to her, * Elat of me to-day and take thy 
fill, and to-morrow they will tan thy hide in my roots.'" 

" my boy ! thou hast been to me like a man who saw his 
comrade naked in the chilly time of winter; and he took cold 
water and poured it upon him." 

" O my boy ! thou hast been to me like a man who took a 
stone, and threw it up to heaven to stone bis Lord with it. And 
the stone did not hit, and did not reach high enough, but it became 
the cause of guilt and sin." 

L. A. P 

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" O my boy ! if thou hadst honoured me and respected me and 
hadst listened to my words thou wouldst have been my heir, and 
wouldst have reigned over my dominions." 

" my son ! know thou that if the tail of the dog or the pig 
were ten cubits long it would not approach to the worth of the 
horse's even if it were like silk." 

" O my boy ! I thought that thou wouldst have been my heir 
at my death: and thou through thy envy and thy insolence 
didst desire to kill me. But the Lord delivered me from thy 

'*0 my boy! thou hast been to me (as) a lion who made 
friends with an ass, and the ass kept walking before the lion for 
a time ; and one day the lion sprang upon the ass and ate it up." 

" O my son ! thou hast been to me like a trap which was set 
up on the dunghill, and there came a sparrow and found the trap. 
And the sparrow said to the trap, ' What doest thou here ? ' Said 
the trap, * I am praying here to God/ 

"And the lark^ asked it also, 'What is the piece of wood that 
page 27 thou boldest ?' Said the trap, * That is a young oak-tree on which 
I lean at the time of prayer.' Said the lark : * And what is that 
thing in thy mouth ? ' Said the trap : * That is bread and victuals 
which I carry for all the hungry and the poor who come near to 
me.' Said the lark : ' Now then may I come forward and eat, for 
I am hungry ?' And the trap said to him, 'Come forward.' And 
the lark approached that it might eat. But the trap sprang up 
and seized the lark by its neck. And the lark answered and said 
to the trap, ' If that is thy bread for the hungry God accepteth 
not thine alms and thy kind deeds. And if that is thy fasting 
and thy prayers, God accepteth from thee neither thy fast nor thy 
prayer, and God will not perfect what is good concerning thee." 

" my boy ! thou hast been to me like a weevil in the wheat, 
for it does no good to anything, but spoils the wheat and gnaws 

* For this rendering of n^J^g see Payne Smith's Thes. Syr, col. 3655, 
8uh r^llAX.d^Cl&. 

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"O my boy! thou hast been like a man who sowed ten 
measures of wheat, and when it was harvest time, he arose and 
reaped it, and garnered it, and threshed it, and toiled over it to 
'the very utmost, and it turned out to be ten measures, and 
its master said to it : * O thou lazy thing ! thou hast not grown 
and thou hast not shrunk/ " ^ 

" O my boy ! thou hast been to me like the partridge that had 
been thrown into the net, and she could not save herself, but she 
called out to the partridges, that she might cast them with her 
(self) into the net." 

" O my son ! thou hast been to me like the dog that was cold 
and it went into the potter*s house to get warm. And when it 
had got warm, it began to bark at them, and they chased it out 
and beat it, that it might not bite them." 

" O my son ! thou hast been to me like the pig who went into 
the hot bath with people of quality, and when it came out of the 
hot bath, it saw a filthy hole* and it went down and wallowed 
in it." 

" O my son ! thou hast been to me like the goat which joined 
its comrades (on their way) to the sacrifice, and it was unable to 
save itself." 

" O my boy ! the dog which is not fed by its master becomes 
food for flies." 

"0 my son! the hand which does not labour and plough 
and (which) is greedy and cunning shall be cut away from its 

"O my son! the eye in which light is not seen, the ravens 
shall pick at it and pluck it out." P^ ^® 

"O my boy! thou hast been to me like a tree whose 
branches they were cutting, and it said to them, ' If (something) of 
me were not in your hands, verily you would be unable to cut me.' '* 

' This meaning of jj^ wiU be found in Lane, p. 1776, col. 3. 

• GUre means a hollow place, sidn is presumably from the Hebrew JID to be 
soft or sticky and the Syriac . ><^ limus, coenum. I can find no justification 
for 8idq, the reading of the MSS. used by Salhani and Lidzbarski. 

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" O my boy ! thou art like the cat to whom they said : * Leave 
oflf thieving till we make for thee a chain of gold and feed thee 
with sugar and almonds.* And she said, ' I am not forgetful of 
the craft of my father and my mother/ " 

" O my son ! thou hast been like the weary man^ riding on a 
thorn-bush when he was in the midst of a river, and a wolf saw 
them and said, * Mischief upon mischief, and let him who is more 
mischievous than they direct both of them.' And the weary man 
said to the wolf, ' The lambs and the goats and the sheep which 
thou hast eaten all thy life, wilt thou return them to their fathers 
and to their parents or no?' Said the wolf, *No.' And the 
weary man said to him, * I think that after myself thou art the 
worst ofiia'" 

" O my boy ! I fed thee with good food and thou didst not feed 
me with dry bread." 

"O my boy! I gave thee sugared water to drink and good 
syrup, and thou didst not give me water from the well to drink." 

" O my boy ! I taught thee, and brought thee up, and thou 
didst dig a hiding-place for me and didst conceal me." 

"O my boy! I brought thee up with the best upbringing 
and trained thee like a tall cedar ; and thou hast twisted and bent 

"O my boy! it was my hope concerning thee that thou 
wouldest build me a fortified castle, that I might be concealed 
from my enemies in it, and thou didst become to me like one 
burying in the depth of the earth ; but the Lord took pity on me 
and delivered me from thy cunning." 

" O my boy ! I wished thee well, and thou didst reward me 
(with) evil and hatefulness, and now I would fain tear out thine 
eyes, and make thee food for dogs, and cut out thy tongue, and 
take oflf thy head with the edge of the sword, and recompense 
thee for thine abominable deeds." 

And when Nadan heard this speech from his uncle Haiq^r, he 
page 29 said: "O my uncle! deal with me according to thy knowledge, 

1 The text is probably corrupt here. 

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and forgive me my sins, for who is there who hath simaed like me, 
or who is there who forgives like thee ? Accept me, O my uncle ! 
Now I will serve in thy house, and groom thy horses and sweep 
up the dung of thy cattle, and feed thy sheep, for I am the 
wicked and thou art the righteous: I the guilty and thou the 

And Haiq&r said to him, " O my boy ! thou art like the tree 
which was fruitless beside the water, and its master was fain to 
cut it down, and it said to him, * Remove me to another place, and 
if I do not bear fruit, cut me down/ And its master said to it, 
' Thou being beside the water hast not borne fruit, how shalt thou 
bear fruit when thou art in another place ? ' " 

" O my boy ! the old age of the eagle is better than the youth 
of the crow/* 

" O my boy ! they said to the wolf, ' Keep away from the sheep 
lest their dust should harm thee/ And the wolf said, ' The dregs 
of the sheep's milk^ are good for my eyes/* 

" O my boy ! they made the wolf go to school that he might 
learn to read, and they said to him, * Say A, B/ He said, * Lamb 
and goat * in my belly/* 

" O my boy ! they set the ass down at the table and he fell, 
and began to roll himself in the dust, and one said, ' Let him roll 
himself, for it is his nature, he will not change/** 

" O my boy ! the saying has been confirmed which runs : ' If 
thou begettest a boy, call him thy son, and if thou rearest a boy, 
call him thy slave/ ** 

" O my boy ! he who doeth good shall meet with good ; and he 
who doeth evil shall meet with evil, for the Lord requiteth a man 
according to the measure of his work/* 

" O my boy ! what shall I say more to thee than these sayings ? 
for the Lord knoweth what is hidden, and is acquainted with the 
mysteries and the secrets. And He will requite thee and will 

1 This is evidently a pun, ghahar meaning dust, and ghulyr the last milk 
in the udder. 

2 The animals mentioned by the wolf had names whieh doubtless began with 
A, B. In the Arabic and English this is lost. 

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judge betwixt thee and me, and will recompense fchee according to 
thy desert/' 

And when Nadan heard that speech from his uncle Haiqfir, he 
page 30 swelled up immediately and became like a blown-out bladder. 
And bis limbs swelled and his legs and his feet and his side, and 
he was torn and his belly burst asunder and his entrails were 
scattered, and he perished, and died. And his latter end was de- 
struction, and he went to hell. For he who digs a pit for his 
brother shall fall into it ; and he who sets up traps shall be caught 
in them. This is what happened and (what) we found about the 
tale of Haiq^r, and praise be to God for ever. Amen, and peace. 
This chronicle is finished with the help of God, may He be exalted ! 
Amen, Amen, Amen. 

A. S. L. 

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The following is the portion of the story of Aesop which shows 
coincidence with Ahikar. 

Fahulae Romanenses Graece Conscriptae (ed. Eberhard). 

Merh Be tovto rfj^ vqaov awdpa^, Trepi^ei r^v ol/covfievr^Vy to?9 c. xxiii. 
a7ravTa)(^ov t&v <f>tXoa6<l>a>v SioXeyofievo^ * d^VKOfbevo^ Se koX irpb^ 
Ba^v\(Sva koI ttjv iavrov a'o<f>Lav iiriSei^dfievo^, fiiya^ iraph t& 
^aaCKel AvKijpCf) ijevero, /car iKeivov^ yhp tov9 xpoi'ov? ol 
^aaiXel^ tt/oo? dWijT^v^ elp^vrjv expine^ koX ripyfreo)^ X^P^^ 
7rpol3\ij/jLaTa t&v ao<l>ia'TiKmv tt/oo? dWi^Xov^ ypd^ovre^ eircfiirov. 
direp oi fiev hnXvofievov <f>6pov<; iwl priToh irpo^ t<Sv Trefiirovraov 
iXdfifiavov' el Bi firj, roif^ taov^ irapelxov, 6 rolvvv Aiccoiro^ rh 
7r€fi7r6/ji€va r&v 7rpo^r)fidTa>v KvKTjpcp avviav €7ri\v€y koI evBoKt- 
fieiv iiroUi rhv ^aaCKea, koI avro^ he hi,h AvKijpov Srepa roh 
^ao'iXevo'iP avreireiiireVy &v clKvtcdv fievovTwv, <l>6pov^ 6 fiatrvXeif^ 
OTi, TrXe/o-TOv? elaeirparrev. 

At(T<07ro<; Bk firj iraiZoiroL'qadp^evo^y eva rivh t£v evyevmv, IStPVov c. xxiv. 
rffv kXrjo'iP, elaeiroLrjaaro re koX co9 yvrjai^ov iralBa t^ ^aaCkel 
TTpoaeviyKa^; avvearriae. fierct S* ov iroXvv ')(p6pov tov "Eri/ou rfj 
Tov 0€fi€vov TraWaKj} avfj^dapePTO^, Alatoiro^ tovto yvov^, dire- 
\avP€VP ifieWe t^9 olKia<i. h Bk Ty kot eKetPOv opy^ \r)<f>0€U, 
iirKTToXijp T€ 7r\aa'dfi€P0^ irap Aiaayirov BrjOev irpo^ tov<; dim- 
<TO<f>i^ofiivov<; AvKijpqy, «? avTolf; &roifi6^ ia-Tt irpoaTidea-Oai 
fiaXKop fj T& AvKrjpfp, t^ ^aaiXel iveyf^elpiae, t^ tov Aurmirov 
Tavrrjp a'<f>payia'dfjL€VO<; BaKTvXi^p. 6 Bk ffaaiXeif^; rp t€ <T^paylBi, 

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TretaOeh /cal airapaiTfjTtp opy^ ')(pr}adii€vo<iy irapa'Xprjfia r^ 
^EpfiLinr^ /e€\€V€i, firjSkv i^erdaavra ola Sij irpoSorrfv Biax€tpl' 
aaaOal AXatoirov. 6 he '^EpfiiTnro^ <^tXo9 re ijv rtp AlacoTrq) koI 
t6t€ Bi) Tov <f>i\ov iiriBev^ev, iv rtvv yctp t&v to^odp firjBevo^ 
€tSoT09 Kpxn^a^ TOV avdpcDTTOv, iv airopprfToi,^ eTp€<l>€v. "Evpo^ 
Bcf TOV )8ao"6\€0)9 KcXevaavTo^, iraaav Ttfv BioUrjaiv Aiadirov 
c. XXV. MerA Be Tiva y^povov Ne/crei/a/Sa) ^aatkeif^ AlymrrLtov irvffo- 

fievo^ Aiaarrrop TeOvrjKevai, Trcfim-ev AvKi]pq> irapaxpVf^o, ema-ToXifv, 
oixoBofiov^ avT& airoaTeTkai, KeXevovo'av, oi irvpyov oiKoBofujaovat 
fiT)T ovpavov fiijT€ yr}^ dirrofievov, dWct xal tov diroKpivov/ievov 
del TTpo? iravO^ oaa &v ipaoTtprj' koX tovto TronjaavTa, <f>6povfs 
ela-TTpaTTeiVy el Be fii), KaTaTiOeaOai,, TavTa t& AvKijptp dvayvco- 
aOhna eh dOvfilav ivefiaXe, firjBevo^ twv <f>i\a)v Bvvafievov to 
7rp6^f)fjui TO irepl tov irvpyov avvelvai, 6 fievToi ^curCKev^ kcu 
Kiova T^9 eavTov ^aaCKeia^ eXeyev diroXtoXeKivai tov Alatoirov. 
"^pfiiTTTTO^: Be Trjv TOV fiaaiXeo)^ Bv Matoirov Xvirrjv fiaOoDV, 
TTpoaijXde tcS ^aaCXel koX ^rjv ixelvov eifrjyyeXlaaTO, irpoaOeh 
0)9 TovBe x^P^^ avTOV ovk dvelXeVy elBo)^ (W9 /leTafieXrja'ei ttotc 
T^ fiaaCXel t^9 d7ro<l>daea)<;. tov Be ffaacXecof; Bia(f>€p6vTa)^ eiri 
TovToi^ '^o'devTO^, AtaoDTTO^ pvTTwv KoX av%/Aai/ oXo^ TTpotrrjvexOVf 
KoX TOV ^aatXito^, (W9 eWev aifTOVy BaKpvaavTO^ koX XovaaadaL Te 
KoX T§9 aXXrj^ iiri/jbeXeia^ d^uoffrjvai KeXevtravTO^:, Atacoiro^ fiCTCt 
TOVTO Kol virep tiv KaTrjyoprjffrj Td^ alTta^ direaKevdaaTO, €<l> 
oU /cat TOV ^aaiXe(os tov "^wov dvaipelv /leXXovTO^, AXatoiro^ 
avT^ (Tvyyvdfirjv yTrja-aTO. 67ro/i€i/a>9 Bk tovtoi<; 6 fiaatXevf; Trjv 
TOV AiyvTrriov hrLaToXrjv t^ Kiadirtp iiriBcDKev dvayvoSvai. S Be 
avTCKa TTjv Xvcrcv avveU tov irpopKrjfiaTo^y eyeXaae Te Koi 
dvTiypd<f>etv ixeXevaev, ©9 iweiBdv y^ifiayv TrapeXOrj, irep^drivaL 
T0V9 T€ TOV iTvpyov olKoBofirjaovTa^ Koi TOV aTTOKpivov/jbevov 7r/}09 
Tct ipa>T(OfJLeva, 6 ^aaiXev^ oZv tou9 fiev AtyvTrHov^ irpea^ei,^ 
direo'TeiXev, Aiawirtp Be Trjv ef dp)(r}^ BioiKfjaiv evexeipKrev diraaav, 
IkBotov avT^ 7rapaBov<; Kal tov ''Evvov. 6 Be AiacoTro^ irapaXa^oov 
TOV "Ei/i/oi/, ovBkv dr)B€^ avTOv ^Bpaaev, dXX* ©9 vi^ irdXiv 7r/oo<r<r%o) v, 
aXXov^ Te xal tovtov^ vireTiOei Toij^ X6yov<;, 

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''TcKvoVf irpo irdvTwv ae^ov rh detov, top ^aaikea Si rifia' cxxvi. 1 
:al T0?9 fiev ix^poh aov Seivov aeavrov irapaaKevafy, Xva fifj 2 
KaraAf>povwai aov Toh Sk (f>C\oi^ irpSuiv koX €Vfi€To£oTov, w 
evvovarepov^ aoi fmSXov yivecOau (hi Be roif^ fikv i'xjSpov^ 3 
voaelv evxov icaX iriveadai, ©9 firj otov^ re elvai Xvwetv ae* toi)? 
Sk <I>lKov<; Karh iravra eS irparrew fiovKov, aUl t§ ywaixi aov 4 
XPV<^^^ ofit^i, a7r»9 erepov dvSpo^ ireipav fjLrj fiyri/o-i; Xafielv. 

KOV(f>OV yCtp TO tAv ryVVaiKOOV ioTl <l>v\0V Kal K0\a/C€v6fl€V0V 

eKdrrto (f>pov€t xaxd. o^euip p,iv irpo^ \6yov KTrjaai rrjv aKorfv, 5 
T^9 hk 7\ft)TTi79 iyKparrj^ Sao. roi^ e5 irparTovatv iifi <l>06v€if Q 
d\\d avyy^aipe* ^Oov&v yctp aeavrov /mWov fi\d'\^€i^, rwv 7 
oIk€t&v aov iirifieXov Xva firj pivov ci9 heaTroT'qv ae ^oP&vraty 
oKKd Kal 0)9 evepyirrjv alSwvraL p,rj alax^vov pMvOdveiv del rd 8 
Kpeirra}. ry ywaiKl p/rjSiiroTe Tnarevarf^ dTropprfra, del yhp 9 
OTrXi^erai irS^ aov /cvpuvaeL Kaff f)pipav teal eh r^v avpiov 10 
dirorrap^ievov' fiekriov yhp reXeirrSvra ex^poh KaraXety^ai, ij 
^£vTa Twv <f>i\tov eTTiZelaOai, e\nrpoartyopo<i eao toa9 avvavrciaiv, 11 
elSa>^ 0)9 /cat r^ Kwapifp dprov 17 ovpd irpoairopL^ei, dryaffo^ yevo- 12 
fievof; p^ff p^eravoei, '^iOvpov avipa e/c^aXe arj^ oUta^, rh yap vird 13 
aov Xeyop^va xal irpa-rrop^va erepot^ <l>€pa>v dvaOijaei^ wpaTre 14 
piv rd p,rj Xvmjaovrd ae, eirl Be to?9 avpfiaivovai /lm) Xinrov, 
p,rjTe irovrjpd fiovXevarf wore pJfre rpoirov^ KaKtov p^cp^ijay." 1^ 

TovTot^ Tov Aladirov top ^Ewov vovOerijaavTo^, exelvo^ Tot9 re 
\o70»9 KctL T§ oiKela avvecSijaei old rivi ^iXec irX7)yeh rrjv '^vxvv, 
p»€T ov iroXKh^ fipApa^ rov fiiov /^en/XXa^ey. 

Ataayiro^ Bi rov^ l^evrd^ irdvra^ irpoaKaXeadpsvo^, der&v c. xxvii. 
1/60TTOV9 rirrapa^ avXXrj^Brjvai xeXevei. avXXf)(l>devTa^ oiv ovTa>9 . 
idpe>^€Vy ©9 Xiyerai, teal eiralZevaev, oirep ov ttovv rl ps Tre^Oop^evov 
^eiy C09 vatSa^ Siii OvXAkodv airroh TrpoarjpTrjp^ivcov ^aard^ovra^ 
eh i^o^ alpeaOaty koX o{;to>9 inrrjKoov^ roi^ iratalv elvai, 0)9 
OTToiirep &p ixeivoi ^ovXovvro XirToaOaA av re eh 5^09 av re 
eh yrjp x^f^'^i^* '^^ ^^ ;^€£ft€/>ti/^9 &pa^ irapahpapovari^ xal 
fjpo^ Bia/yeXdaavTO^, diravra rh irpo^ rifv oSov ava/ceuaadp,€vo^ 
Ataaovo^^ Kal rov<: re walSa^ Xaficbv Kal roif^ 06x0^9, dm^pep eh 
L. A. Q 

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Acywrrov, ttoXX^ <f>avTaaia Koi B6^ irpo^ KaroTrXij^LP tcSi/ ixel 
^€%/5?7/i€i/09. Ne/CT6i/a)8a) S' aKovcra^ Trapa/yeyovivat top AXaoDiroVy 
" ivTjSpevfiai,'* (fyrfal rol^ ^/\ot9) " fJLefJbadrjKOt)^ AXacDirov reOvrjKivaL" 
c. xxviii. T^ S' iiTLOvarj Kekevaa^; 6 fiaaiXev^ Trdvra^ tov^ iv rikev 

XevKct^ 7r€pi^aXi(T0av (ttoXA?, auT09 Bi Kcppctp ivehvaaro koX 
SidSrjfia Kol iiaXiBov Kirapiv. xal KareaOeU i(f>' in^rjXov Si<f>pov, 
Kal TOP AXawTTov elaa'xdfjvat KeXevaa^y " rlvi lie eUd^ei^y' elceX- 
06vTi ^Tja-iv, '^Attrayirey Kal roif^ aifv ifioi;^ Koi 09, "<r€ fiev rjXifp 
iapiv^, T0V9 Be irepi ae toi5toi9 copaLoi^: aTd^va-u* xal 6 ^aa iXtv^ 
davfidaa^i avrov koL hdapoi^^ iBe^iaxraTo. tt) Be fier eKeivrjv rifiepa 
irdXiv .6 fiev /SaatXei)^ aroXifv XevKordTTjv evcxevaadfievo^ roi^ Be 
<^t\oi9 <f>0LviKa<; fC€Xev(Ta<; Xaffevp, eiaeXdovra rov AiacoTrov rifv 
TTporepap aJf0i<; irevaiv iirvffero. koX 6 Atafoiro^y " ak fiev," elirev, 
** eUd^Q) 7fXL(p, Tovq Be irepL ae tovtol^ aKTlai,,*' koX 6 iiefcreva^w, 
• ^' olfiat fifjBep etpai Avxrjpop irpos ye ttjv ifiijv ^aciXeiav*'* xal 6 
Aiaayiro^ fi€iBidaa<; etjyrjy "fiij ev^epA^ ovrco ire pi exeivov, do fiaaiXeVy 
Xoyi^ov. 7r/}09 fiev ykp to vfierepov €0vo<; fi vfi&v eTriBei/cvvfiei^ 
fiaatXeia Blicqv riXlov aeXayel* el Be AvKrjptp 7rapaPXr)0€ir]f oifBkv 
civ Beoi fjLTj TO (f>m TOVTO ^o^ov diroBeux0rjvau' Koi 6 NeKTeva^o) 
Tffv T&p Xoyoop evoToxiav i/cnXayeU, '^fjver/Ka^ VH'^^t* ^4*V> "toi)9 
fieXXovra^ top irvpyov oiKoBofielp'** teal 09* ^^eroi/iol elacp, el fiopov 
VTToBei^ei^ top tottov!' 
c. xxix. /LterA tovto e^eX0wv e^(o t^9 iroXecD^ 6 ^aacXev^ iirl to ireBlov, 

vireBev^e BuifieTp'^aa^; top 'x&pop» a^arfwp toIpvp Aia-miro^ iirl tA9 
v*iroBei,')(j9eLaa^ tov tottov ytopla^ TeTrapa^ tov^ Tevrapa^ t&p deT&p 
iifia Toi^ iraial Bub t&p 0vXdKa>p aTrrfpTrj/iipoi^, xal olKoBofiwp to?9 
7rav<rl fierh ;^€!pa9 801)9 ipyaXela, exeXevaev dpaTTTrjpat, oi Be 
irpo^ vyjro<; yepofiepoiy " Sot6 '^fiip" i^copovp, " \i^ov9, Sotc KOPtap, 
BoTe ^vXa, Kal ToXXa t&p irpo^ olKoBofirjp eiriTqBeloyp.^* 6 Bk 
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ipl^eip ^aaiXel;" xal 6 NeKTepa^d' "A?o-G>7r€, ^TTrjfiaL 
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Digitized by VjOOQIC 


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1 Slot Quaere inJXaj, 

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c. xxxiL T^ Si i^f^9 Vf^p^ avyKa\ia'a<; toi)? ifnXov^ Smavra^ 6 

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rd iv Aiyvirrtp irpa'xOevra ravra Kal rov^ <l>6pov<: dirihoDKe. 
AvKrjpo^ S' iKeKevaev dvSpidvra x/^uo-oOi/ r^ AiadnTTip dvareO/jvau 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ywyi nuuuiUnU ''["t-flB Juinn.Luib* 

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n} H^ p'-P '*P'hh "/' P**"]^ "fl'^U^ w/ n.nt..utnp np tun tfUut^ 

^niJihu O'uirL.unMa. J tut uui^nuuA punj^ ti^ n^ "Pi "P'tP 

* Titulum ex Veneto traxi. lu[i^MupiM»j vel lu[i^utp[i vel t'bk'^F'U 
alii codd. Initium apud Bod deest paginae iactura. 

' ^«f^l^<f] + U. utbuL.^ Paris 58 et 131 et Edjm. 

* Paris 58 omit 1^ et verba «»«• j-"!^ b*^ 

* ^Ai^Lu^<;,^% Paris 131. 

* Paris 58 omit "ij item om jlrut^t item unjtLpm. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

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tinnn uiL.nL.pu ^un^puip ututiUi ^uMfulrual^^ n} Lutp^ uuiuin.^ 

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^an.nptLhU ^n u. uUnuauiUnatu Aui ^^tr npnJt% u. ^UiUtnL.ual^ 
oA-cr qiAnuUn.u on* 

1 >A. inna-uttT tnuuMj 'puju n f uiuutnuuth-nauf utrLn AuMp-uni 
^aiL.npn.nlt hJ^ Jit utuipnj l^p% u. ^utunuan uJun nt^tau u. 
h-pnuiUnuy u. Ju/UbutL nuLft n uiUinuAna %nput LuMUitan * II. 
npu^l^u npnh p-utuuiunpn utnui^nL.^ autpn-Uipuan tfltui* u. 
uippnL.Qp it Jut LutP% tu uhrtp U. Vb^aitt^quiUl^p lAut h tltpun 
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1 uttu uLutiMi iMUtu itL-UttL^Qtintui qtM.tupituP'ptjU UL itpuutuutttt^^ 
PptJt^ u. tM^uutlCtup uhmnt^ptuni u. auMuitntuufuuMbhu ^ptt^ 
tfutptntuliuiq^ i»tLtupAttL.tuh-u ^tuLiuiLXuLtuq pttut^upa^ p tnnij^ 
b tCi—PP "i-~ n-UitM-tupl^p jttuuttt^auiUbttu ipiun% \f-- */"'*' 
ubaitt^qutUl^p tpitu titt^uifuttJp.^ 'hpplL. ^tun/iL, u. Pp*"! < 

1^ uMut uiulf tunpuifU pUt^ hu% pthLuip iM.tupp ml. jtifiuutnttajt^ 
aputbu tap h-uputnttui tuf u. J^^^ tltuftHCtMsUp ^tu ittj 1^ 
np ututntuplf iCtuptntupnt^ptiutlp. U. htfiuutnuLfi-ttutR. quttph-u 

* uupun. sic Yen. * llrn.uM^ JiJng Veil male. 
' sic semper Ven : %uai^Mi% ceteri. 

* tpibnuiMi^ e canonico restitui. Latet graecismus : Ikti(T€i cot rd 
rpo^eid, qualia vertisse Armenum manifestum est. Scriba aliquis 
Armenus sermonem graecissantem non agnoscens pro /pAm-^qM scripsit 
tpuhnL% = * nomen,' quod quamvis apud Ven, 58, Bod reperitur, in- 
sulsum est. Cod Edjm 2048 insulsitatem miratus tentat: i^ %'« 
iguLM^l^ ipnirqp mmAiuluA ^#f = < et lUo replebit locum nominis tui.' 

• Paris 58 et 131 omit ^>uuilr^[i. 

• Bod post MuJ^g add u$>up^iu%. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fuftliiupuy 127 

iuppniJiaiuq uhnna^ U. au mnmnuiP tiP J^iJ't^ C'T^Pt'Wt* 
1 >£. uiuatP aUiu% iunpun lUiiJtinlruiU liuta* ^ ntP '*P'hP "Z' 
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unL.p-uutit na^nni^u ^ush- ^"'^y^ utnju^p hiP I^PtP' l"~P* 

Z' ^ P ^"""t-''"^"""' "'WdP* \fPibP ^""tP '""""^ t"^ 
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utul^pinL.unL..numtah pitnutP • 

j^n.tua^ tpi^ tulru puaU A^^ /i n.putUl^ Lupontish^ ilhnnj 

II. p-uitLU tpMLU p upmp ^nL.Jf II. up na^iUsD p tlupun ^UiUpnlru% 

C) l^utufb ^DUUMty Jh uapciuiLlra^f ul. apupiuiLtuifla Jh Lututtu*^ 

Q^Um Af- If^P uttuu/btu Jh UMuttj L. itnp natu Jit 


^\pfi'tuiL Jh ^uaJpiunJiLUi p Jtp uiu^ on uttuuabuM 
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*p *UafuaUlf n^ AJr^ LLanaaAaUf <^/ iLuaanauuaaupanpu JUU li~ *p 
JiupaM-LuaUlf^ oaaAaap haJuaia l^ %au aipiuJautap np p Jtpau 

^ mp l^ uaiLMaLtr£^ uiulr^ L. ^ut%'Auplrn ^iat% qpaa L. uaul; PailS 131 

et 58. 

^ Incipit codex Bodl Arm. ' likg^ om £od, 58. 

* Canon add : utliuih^^ «'/"%/ "Ftt t'^ luom^p% L. ftputtn% ^J: t^ffip f 

^aun-qp L. JlrhnL.p-f^ ^mughaa ^Ja h-lrpmL^ptA* 

^ Lauiuir*u£_ £od. au/iiau^lru^trm Sod. 

^ l^t — juijufblri_ Ven et 58 : Bod om. 

^ Apud Canon ita : ml_ [Al^ luulrip i^M^Irm ^uA a^^m ai^uy% Aqm lu 

tuJop- ft Juapi^l^uahl; U. i^uaanuauutuaiM% luf et Cetera om \ similla £idjm : 
Bod male ita: i^i^ ji^i^ t'-hp ^b ^<^^4 wt-i^^Ui uinM$ulri^ ^uA p-k 

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nn i&utnj h-tunun Ll lutn^uiy^ ^iUuuAp nuiuim^n pi-p t 

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Jh pdiuumutUiup x 

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np Jh npuil^u tAnutu uiUJhm Ln^ugau % 

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uipus iCutituiuiuip^ npnnq^ •P''3 ^ 

ll#T#Li(-ii/^ Jbh-uiutu/U npiM-ltlt utui Lhputu utulrU f-hn 1^ 
\iJiUm uinnutmlib npn.h%'" ihtp II. uiulrU jt unJnt^ Iprputu X 

* /^V/. ^®^ • Z^Vr cet, sed Ven sic utitur infinitivo passim, quern 

» add i^t Sod, 58. * i^w Bod, 58. 

* Par 58 hie omit adagium hoc. 

* ^Iria^" itt^t^ ®* ^^ 4?" V®^ • ceteri et Edjm add ^^^ 
« ^<%^/> ^UM Bod et 58. 

' uMUn^lMMJlau L. iu%uMi.pli%li'u Ven : ceteros et Edjm secutus sum. 
® Canon et Edjm : ^/v»i^ tfunum, 

* nptf-n^ Canon cum Syriac : wtw/r^ ceteri. 
^^ om npn-lfb Bod. 

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fuftliiupuy 129 

^CJ ^n tnuuii ^tn Duinutnnt^Pp. ^> II. on tusLtpnU 'lut^n. an 
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tAinr utUutLUiJh ^tua Jh numti t 

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^\nn.&UML uiULiuUn uiUutLJtl-iiU h fuin tLnnh-na hunna f U- 
LtMiUlpin uinn.u»nU n nutph nnp^na pt-pna x 

l)#T#LO-a#^ Jh JhpcilrUunp ^h LKu uAunutJ* ml. piuUputUuiunnj 
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'UuMpttumMiD u, pbhntjSb t 

i\pn.tuiL nuunj 'ipp'hK^ ^^ /> •R'^'W "- P h-uipiuu^ np 
JuifUiup^nL.P'p Jiuptua^ qLhuAu ftLp l 

^ ^h-p ^tuquiqui.p-p' Ven et Canon : om ^«»^ Bod et 58. 

' L. ^kuf Ven. 

' om utiruut%t^u et 1^ Bod. 

* ^$uuaUL^tu%k ^^f t-i- ifAp ^t$t%uiiq*uti^ Imp ^utaP Ven ! ^mtmv* 

^^f^ ©t om cet 58: iw«.^4 ^^f_ ©t cet om Bod. 

* luMfi qjtfih-auL^ Bod, 58. 

' h-auiip ib'Upu Ven : ^UManm^Irm OOt. 

' IfPttt b *"^*" Ven : ^MfMt% np^jt ^u ceteri, item infra bis i^jnia* 
^ uifkuiku — utqmy^% om Bod ; cetera ap Bod et 58 ita: ib Irp-k 

^uap^ui%b-u a^Lutapu%utL a^ ^UMtP lrp^nL.u ^UM%ii.auputpf p^fig n^* 

L. A. R 

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II. ip' It- "Pf-h ^ ^np'ypf luatLinl^urb L. putplr^uttP tu 
ludbUunU aiupJhprx 

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ngitpaau uutltab ^n^ JKu^Ll unt np nnJIrunl^ 9»P ^* 

f)#ia.o-a#y up nt^i^o ututi ^oy II. Jit mUtt ^tuptupttut^u 
uttRjuyp tn it ^nf qp tip tuutuptLUuqpu p uJunal^ % 

* Ven om npi^hua^* ■ i^piu% p-^j ^- "p f-p^k ^^i__ Bod. 

* Sententiam banc om 58. * iJMupi^% Bod 58. 
5 pMifjg Ven Canon : L. u,ki, tp^k Bod 58. 

® ^wt-P Ven 58 : Jume^ Bod : ^'"'-p ^ Jm^p Canon cum Slavonico. 

^ b ttzj^vb praem Canon cum Slavonico. 

^ om. U. Iilt% Ven : add 58 Bod et Canon. 

» h. lutT. ipupiT. om Bod 58. '^^ Adagium hoc om 58. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f)#i#i.i(-a#^ juMunuit I^^PS^ ^ ptntnnpnp^ tLnunl^ nj> 

np uiJbUbanaJi tfut^ UMn^ui^p Lun u. uiiumnL.^uiU ubh- 1^ t 

^\nn-tiu^ JutmuAn nulih nn ^1^ on an rpibn n JiumnUu onfuJl 
II. uh ^iuoMUMnn^ aa^lrnu u. h-nnuiUhu nn ^1^ ^"^ i^ ^P '■7' 
ih •B'* "b ^»^ArfV£.# iptuif op O'tunp uinJt&ii tntunnnfU t 

i^n.&ui^ pi^u^l^in L. ouingtuiM hg^^ "Z* ^'"3 ih 'P" ^ 
numnatu t 

i\nntutL nn^ aiuupuiL.nn [^ ^umU 1^f"t "P ^utLutnju^nt 
Kwn. tiifui* nnt^atf uuiuiltuiupQl^ a^aa t 

^\pn.iriu^ auitiu u. tfiu^tujj aUupU h uputl^ nni^JI^^ u. putpp 
iP'P •P^'L- d^U b '^P't-i'^^ "- pn-PQUiLhu LuiJuiL.Btb uij % 

^\^ pi; ptupcip trli ^Q-i/^* jbpLtfUuU ppptL. LuA^ntJs 
V f inpO'uiJr umuiupabu funUiup^lrant aa-iniJu ^n x 

f)#i#i.o-a/y up uinAinLj VPf^'^'L "''^ "- "P ututi 4^^>BP 
L^n-nJ* ML. ututtj P^ 2^^ 3"U* IP '^'^ "Si. "'"fif "lf/l__ 
pjuMpLuiuahr^ II. n.nt^ unihudui^ Lnpthi^'u x fol. 8^ 

l)#i#i.iS-u/^ Jh tptAnL.1 unuutf op Jh tiui^nupa ,£"3 


i\pn.&uju uit^puuiQif tut ntJUuu nppf u~ fuiplf^ tip uputut^p^ 
tw uitutnnLJtptuVu tut tutuppuut [^ Jtuptn.ttt x 

^ + unp utnAlru 58. 

« m.iuu%pp Yen, * ^kf^irp Bod : ^&h%kp Canon. 

* add p i^panlr^ i^au Bod : np i^ptnlr% l^^f_ 58. 

* up ^lu^ w/f Bod : «/» ^'^3^ Canon : ^w^ «/» ceteri : item post ^glrtt 
add j«»/<f Bod : add ^—pl' Canon. 

• Jiupi. np Bod 58. 

^ zA^^ ^®^ male : add «w«»^ ^« Bod 58. 
® iuttirg_ corr : iuulr% Ven i luub-u ceteri. 

• i$aj£_ piup* om Bod, 58. 

*° juMtjupp ^n i^tu^tMiu^ir% p tl^rpuaj irp^pp Bod, 58, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

\Q2 jupuiuip ML, htfutuu9nL.p-htJs 

k tUiuLuiuti %naui Jit mntnutuahu* 

1\pnkuML nnnfip u. uutUManLUMirn tuij Anp^nbf Jhh-iuinmJMU 
UBnouiiniuUiur- ^ uinDUiufU Jhh-uibuij* funUutn^^ p.uipAniiu/bty% 
UL auipipb ptnbuip^unsuij t 

fkiin-tiuf tp^ puipip Irb Z^J^JP mufu on Lr tAs^lrpU on 
^AcuAq-uAufif Jh uiuirp P^ lk.*^i— "^'^h^ *uJu»% "HI ^pP 
ntnhu^ L. uttu ut^tuL.D^ a^ nuu (^ %ilui ^u/b o^uiouip^ 
ouiifpuipu nu^y U. iuph-utPy t 

t\pn'tuiL Juii/b ^iupuMfuuigjunu.P'a- nul^p u. tuph-utP Jp 
iuniinLj* u^ njtph- ifut^iuptp ^ L ^uip jy^* k, Jh ^hnntj 
iupltA iupnjup h muipuiu^iupmnug^ tw^ dp ^tngp iupjtiit on 
ihnptuibuiL utpbutb %npun t 

l^pn-tuiL uiui^tiu ytanL. ^n p ^uipuitfuiuL^uni^p-trUl^^ Ml. 
V"i-. •P'^ liupuitn ^^yhiy^ "- 'J^tnJi on p iLnnnL.ptrltl^* It. 
putph lt*^h mB^'l J"U ^ ^t Jwpn.lpuUlf* u^ np ajmpuUijy nuljt 
LiuiT ujjt 'hlBP hpP tquitnnt^^uiuii u. uu^uibnt^X Jk [^ % 

^ipn-tiuL Jh A tup jAif. Ifbn^ pULIipfiU^^ a^ Jh putpLuiunh 
uo-f L *yLP^ AuiUtuU /Atn. IfUn^ on t 

fipn.bui^ Jh uinJsnLJ luni tutpp* qp mpJ-utu puiUu pb^ 
ll^hf uiuhal^ uiL.iun uin.ui^pit UMjpb pj^ II utpmJhu % 

ll#T#i.O-ic/y hp-^ Jpl^J ^tuual^ 'B"'l "{J "b p^'u^'^Ppp It- 
iCpiCtLnhp^ np Jh putpLutuah tuh- u. umjm fuuutu»a.yU h utuipuiJtuJ^ 
uuiututL^ 'hphnt 

l)#TM.o-a#y Jh uppht 't^Ptl'^ <£" utn^ututt ,£"*b ah-uin.uifig 

^ Bod et 58 om Jth-. —q^* 

2 om i^pip — ^n L. Bod, 58 et Canon. 

* om i^Muipup Bod, 58. 

* om t^ Ven. 

» add ^-*^ Bod, 58. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

(uftliiupuii 138 

^n* op n^ aJimlru tp^ n '^ p %nauA^ UMpmunsp iP'h 

f^#Li(-ftf^ n^UMintui qniuutuiumuiU uipn.iup jt Jmh onLjif A. 
ah-lrpuU u^wutnngjrui^ ap *A abh' njutnutgjnpl^ n.nt^ upuwnngjrugpu^ 

II. [t^b ^^1__ P^'pt * 

f )/inLO-ff#^ aiuh-nt^ tpu^ on u. LutLntunnj upuipputrv. pbputbty 
on ML. iiunbiu pUq. utLtuJp on* qp up tpLJruapu diupn-lpuU 
uiUnnniutK np "P^ tutnunuiLuiL. ututlCtup ^U^hp k^ uiJIpt 
iULpIs • 4" ^ njuppuMU 2u"ip "- fuipinuiju* 

t\pn.tuiL Up ^upupmuaUuMp utL.nL.p JutULntJUriuU ^n^ ap 
up Lnpnajual^ 1^ "l ifu/bLnLfi'ftLii ^nt 

i\pn.&uiL M utuii Pyi t^lprpffU on Lnfuti qnuiu ^Uf 
qp up ^uiuuipiuiqauit Lnfubual^ qujpupuiUnat^ x 

itpqtuiL pug quimutfuuiqpU on usnjufp qututiuunpKU 
auMudiuifp Jh ptutuupp^ qp Jh utbnqquitP U. utbJhua Ln^uapu* ^ 
UMJI qnp ^utpgutUl^ upuuMUiuptuiUp ouiqgpnupirutJp. ututgtuf II. 
qnMimutuututb unpun p qint^ %npuii Lnuuttugtu % 

^\pqtuiL tpi^ fuUqptuglru just puiph *Utufu qlpuJh %npun 
Ltuutiupaui UMus^utuDf ML, utquiLp'pL.^f II UiUiUn LuMUtUipKU 
ptUqpnLjuuMhrp on p piuppU % 

^ Ven om «: Bod add /s«m^ post ^^^ sed del vult: sic apud 58: 

* t^*uanntJ^ui^/iu Veil ! aquManpL gJ^t^aMMigfim Oeteii. 

■ guih^iy Canon : jefUfd" ceteri male. 

* uiiu-Aup it^frp Ven : utng% it%hp Canon et 69 : om Bod j mox 
utJk'^ ex Canon traxi, quia Syriaco consonat. 

» qjuppsau Bod, Canon, 69 : uM^tupui% Ven ; mox luMpqju^u Bod, 
quod om Canon. 

* ^BuJuapimtl^lrit^l^ Vti^'-b' •P" f "A»» ^ fufttsp* Bod. 
^ L. tu%M^Mntaa% irpirLiru^fnt et Om f»f Bod. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

X34! funutuip II. hJtuuuini^p-ltijb 

f^»n-lnuL nuL, ^ uiitngjb atunn ^uA amtutu^ guMtiLuiip^ 
ap OMrnlraLntJJ'p UMUiUMuuiiap^ II. UMUniJb pjuinn uLusj jusupintuAtt 

Dutbop iyp ui^uMu^ uinuiiL nL.uuAn l^pP- u. bL TCuiuutuMUMn*- 
^Aip* hu^ kyP J^^'^mB^ p-nnnL. atuunnnnn. TCuiUuMUiUin^^ II 
tpB-UMj putn LuiJii p^p < 

l)ff#i.i(-fff^ /u#c. 4" ^"7 ^ p itn^pb ^n ^uula »IQ-I^p pnt^i- 
Jh J^Ul^S itnJAi* nuL. 4* "^pblCqnu^ Jh h itnJib ^n j^uAi 
q^utauipu tapl^pUu p-rL.nt^gtiut^ iuml, J^ "^7 '^ uiuiutuipmar 
fi tnuA ^nt^tP ^umU tptuuipiu^ Jfa h inuib "(Jin^ < 
fol. 4^ fl/'T-^"'^ lUML, 4 UMnouMinni^p-tuMtlp. J-mpiillr^ J^uAa 

uJhh'ntJB-tutJp gpnuht^i 

l\pq-tuj^ JJi uAph-uAitp IJ'PI-p^ ^" JKu^Ll mtuiubtu 
Jiun^utii inpuif u. JJi iup^uMtflup^tugtu JKu^Il. uttuu/btugK-u 
aLutmuMpiuirii L. qJutn^uA/b L. ij^ut^^ t 

f^n-tiuf ^pliUlrui qputVlt^ ft upmft ^nL^J^ L. uiupu A 
Jbpun ^utuu/bltgtu* qp ''Pi ^nfutu qpu/iA ^utngp i^'uhu* 

t\pn-tut^ tp-J^ lulru puA luMp nnt^dh^l^ ^ PuMttn oUum h 
uptnh j^nt^JT ^uA^nciiu *4'*9 f^ "ffi' ^UMpU JhnjuiUh II. puMpKu 
LuMtnuMpp t 

f )ff#i.^£i#^^ Pf^'h'h'yp '^ h-ph-iunptj ap nf"h'l"ilP ^h^witfi* 
LnJti^ 4*9 ^'- if'-h^ uuitiAnt^SIt 4 t"- JuM^ t* 

1\pO-tuML ptMib unuut II. uinuMptuiuunLp-p npuil^u uMpTCIiiC 
h-iuUp 4"* P"U3 J^"' ^"'i'"*- uiung^pg^ h J^pufj PplA t"li 
npuil^u mtpu. h-iun^ng \ 

* tuupufiiub^ Ven, Canon : uA^uAfi ceteri. 

* Sic Ven et Canon : i^i- j""-f' ceteri. 

' upum* [i m. ^. Bod, Canon : [* mBu% ^, upuiiu»iiua Ven. 

* !Bod uaf^^uamnL.p-p et t^dlrh-nL.p-p^ 

* UPMupIt pu/uX Bod : om pwpt Ven, Canon. 

> iptt^Jl^ls om Bod. ^ Hoc adagium apud Bod deest. 

* puf^g upul^uau juaL.nt.p% Bod. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

b'tk"'P"ii 135 

l^^o-ftf^ juniniilrut n^hlPP /unn^nLnn. on atuntiuiMti 
^nf u. J tut UML.ncjy qpajh.!^ tfinu* U. uAtuinaJ^ Aui* II. 
tp-J^ u. lUMpM funn^nLJtiA n^ jusjuAl^ ututiu qJIsh- funn^ 
^liLfiUi juututblrui %Jun^ II. ^UML^uanuinhiT uhnti^ uiut<^tu 
ipnu t 

||#ia-0'i'/y MUfLUM^p p-tuoMtajnnuiQ U. utrLUM^p n.uiiniuL.^ 
nnuigy iut^tLUui^uMb ttn ALtnfab ^n* op nnwul^u It phntuUnt 
tMtiL.pL.h-itj tMtnh-itL.auMiitu nUtu^ u. tP'h •P^'L "^niii aiunft II. 
tftturL.^ % 

^^tM.tiu^ tp-J^ p-^tutlpit ^n t^tugl^ jtttnit ^it^ p-ttnnL.^ 
Pfttii ^ttp^tiu it/tUf II. h-fth-iunttu itLJttufuttL.p-a. jtntuu 
ttitntMif ML tntLtut tAttu unutnnt^ntf s 

l^^it^ftf^ ^l^n^lrb ip^l^ 'If' IrpP-tut jt tM^tutnjtu^ L. itLJt 

fXPt^'^i l^t """'-"Mf^"'/ "- P^'h JT''*-3"'"I ahtitni tih 
tMiiaguaUhgjtu a^ tlh ju/uLtunh-iuJSu^ JlgnjuiUhghu^ % 

||/7a.0'iify ^tung Qusjn fttfluumttti atEtb pntutniuLtMMb"^ u. 
jttfiuutMtUtuugjtu* tu tpi^ ^tungtiiUhglru 'fugp tiAitlhin aulitltL.^ fol. 5 ' 
aiuutfluL^ %iu n^ jttfSuUtiMt x 

fXnnJbtuL tp-J^ 1"UP fttliuumitgif tun.tMiplru It auA tlh A^^ 
tututnitiJtnktj l"i£^ Ltutntunl^ tM^utUb* J^ tutu pii tituutlhutb 
tunjuiplru tunju^p pMitntt^tT tfiunnJLtiMU tututntttJtnl^* u. LtutP 

tMjtL, tfiitu L. tfiitu tlh jpn^p < 

f IfffLitftf^ titttnibtu l^^piP* ^" h B""IB ^ h ^utntui^f II. 
Pl^ Ltuntttt hgl^ tuiutu tnttcJt qpit^ ott h ihn^nb uitntu t 

i\ntt.btuL h LttAtutnti/bl^ II. h ^tunutitbhtug itunjtu^t 

1 U. mlru hpk Bod : om mlriM Veil et Canon. 

* nil l^liul^u ^ tf* «^ h-ppuyp Bod. 

« om "/t^m^ Ven. * «r^/•^Jifi»<J ib\^» Ven. 

' pM»k ^paumuibaa$it Von : muiiu ^JtuuuwmLpir Bod. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

][3g funuMUip II. hJiuuinnL^^iii 

IV'T*^'"^ f/Scf/v^ nn uinuiant^uiirp u. pb^^ tuuqnL.tP ntAAf 
irn^tfit ahui fit/uiutnniA II. iunjuip^h* L. nn K^^^ umumLumu 
ntiajt Ln^aU tpiui uiuJhin U. UMUUina.f u. n^ no uMUttnm^ tfbuM t 

V\nn.tiuL Ltnujf nMiniifHC L. ^Pph t^ntf ^ "^ 4/' l^lk 
j^ulit autnDuiinnL.pfnii* putnip iun u, utnlChlCf L. n^ l^p 
h-utun j^uiit auMUinuipb» op p-tu^i^in nuini^n u. nutuU^ n^ 
Liunl^h ^uiUaAniy* autnain hnl^uin u. Diunhuu A Jtnujj nt^una 
hifna^ U. iutL.iua.njb l^n pUi^ ^u/b o^utLntU pbq. luUahuih II, 

^\nn.tut^ tp-J^ uinputm hntu It tlft^ft tALtntua ^na Jh 
titttutitlrt^ qp tlh lun^tutfutn^nahu It Itnatttul^f II. auiitlta ^na 
n^ tulfU* 

f\pn-lruili^ uhnlrutf qJutntlpi ^n II. I^pb ^n^ qfi tuttJtit on J^^ 

kS^Pt k *"3 'P"3 jy tuttptutnumiut^j^ ^ttitnt^auA^ 

VLPtP* •P" • 

^^tf-tiu^ tp-J^ tunjupi^ tnl^fflt ^n pi^ pirn uttf^tnnup 

ptutpntty tip p"P^i """{Jf W ttpttutpntpt ntjtnl^ L. tpttuttnuL.-' 

^luub uitpnnLJtltU n^ PntptL. t 

V\nO-"'"k BUiL. 4* pntit htlutuuAtu ttupplrnntJ3-tuiit ^utb 
tapttttt uiuiltnp It h-tupiUL.nLp-lnttu l^tutT tp^ni^p-autlM* nut^ ^ 
h-utnMtt nnptL ^tttb tuttuttn u. unt^tn* lutu J^ ptupkLiuiT tliut^tn^ 
Itjnp ^uiit IrpPuttp ^trL.iUL,np t 

f )#fflLitiif^ naiutpn ptttb ^n Ifitnf tijt jttitutbttj qfi tnpLiup 

' ^uA ^ ^n om Ven, sed Bod et Canon retinent. 
2 + jlrmu Yen. 

* l^uikuufj np ualmt.^ t^VL ^^^dbv VtH^^ •P" ^8^011 • ft ut%ut% 

tP!'^ -P" (^^ -P" ^^) ceteri Lege M$t%mL2>_ et cf. Syriac. 

* q.tunA Canon. * add i^liip. ^utmnLUj^^ ^nj^utpaatA Canon. 
' Hie addit 58 denuo adagium 15. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

(uftliuifiuy 137 

^ li, ihlPPnah^ II. %iu juMfuAl^ ^utntunnuiait II. n.nL. uin^tu*' 
Jlun^nu t 

^^\PtP "P^ tP^P P*^^"^ uMui^tui BgtonL. j^n n ^ff/ifffiy«' 
luiuuunL^lrbl^^ L. p*"ph Iv^P •B"'! "- k"ii" hJuiumnijb % 

tLnuai^ nLJiUMtiUMi u. njtu uiuMui2uiL.tu s 

l)ff#i.^u#^ A OMinkLutJI^ DnL.JI^ up ^brLUMbuiii^ omlmI^ "UL 
"JL '^■^'"^hs^" uiptuihufi tj''"p^P'h*"khg I*- putnt^uitr^'t 

^\nn.tutL uhnbiu 't^^p ^"^ "/' ^^^'^ 'LB 'LJ nu/bi^i-u 

^tULp u. t/tJUL.p ^n dp uin.akuf op p puipnt.P'hiJi J^ng 
fubn-uiugbu t 

i\pn.tuML nuL. J^ Pi anquMugtrii qpYt^ ^n ^uus Pl^ tLingbb 
A tltpun on a.nnnuP'jtuU x 

f\pn.auML Jiupn. np ppnuU uiuutin^ui^ ^luifnqi^ njta^ 
upuinniJfUM AuMj* u. tnpa-uiu utauuiUpghu ah-lrpb n.nL. tnuA 
^uighp utnMM^p *bnpui u. uth-uMptuM q^uy t 

^\pnAiuL pitq uMnii niiiht^nph II, pit^f- a.tiniu luipnuglrina 
Jh ^lu^iun-ju^kt* qfi uitLut^ ifutpn.njb uu^jAm n^ iO'ly 
^uii^tf^ pi^ ^nqnili 

1\pn-tiuL pIUuMJpptuit^untJt Jh uinJitij qp upiuppb juij 
L. jpn.^iu^l^ mtubngii^ ^l. q^fupb h ^1^ 4" ^ uaulrii qj^n qJ^dT 
^uibuiLjpt X 

f\pqlruiL bpi quiquipirti qJruip p tfbutgpg LuitP uipaqutub 
Ji^P'^'^M inpuif Ipuu putqgpuiugp ioqp npwql^u Jbqp^ Lutu 
uuijtmuiltuiugjt uiqjmjuaia npwql^u quiquniiltf 'bniiaq^u Pnqgp 
u/UqqjiuSi quiitqqtuJnt^p-hiJi h^p u- iMttidhmU qqutuututugp^ x 

^ Hoc adagium tantum apud 58 exstatw 
' Tantum apud 58 exstat hoc adagium. 

* Paris 69 ita : ^*-^ q^%Jii>^ i^^^L. ^./ ^"vl: 

* |ff/^^If»^<f ^c^ Canon (No. 86). 

L. A. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

138 funuMuip II. hduiuuinL^^-hijU 

f^PI^*"^ Jh jiuTCutfutn tpPuMfp nutfit^^ A'' innti 
fuupt^uiJ^ on n^nugl^^ lumhal^ 'bP^'L.* 

^uinuMifk ^uMtuih-lritn aUui^^ 

f\nn.lrtuL oMnirp p*"ph It- uMUMtnuiniua. UMbaph- ^uilCn J^ "{J* 

|^A^a#^ funp^nupn. ^u»p h uhput uiniincA nJiLpfHt^ 

UMtfpni^Pp ^uiL.uttnnj* 

t\pn.tutL np ^ta j^p B-niJt iUtLlrppu ^n n.nur alp 
iunJiat* u. anp ^ on "U/"^ *lh utustt 

i\pn.niuL uppbuij q^2^/^P''^"*-Pp "- uiinufUi quuiopi^*^ 
*lanL.p-l» ^ Uy auinnuB'p • uMUMinnL.hpujiaiuaii uij mjblpMnhp^ u. 

b iJfP^ "P '/"^t" i * HP 'Y""""^//""^^ "c/ upuppuiM^ 4* 
Jgupn.nj t 

fiSpt^'^k b ^'pvu m^p^ ^ b """"b*""-"^ 'b'^b'bp^ ib 
peis^ iAuApis , 

i\pn.tujli qn.ujinuiUU9uAii up uppai* up p-J^ui^i^ut at. 
tuinP-tuahu nunfutib^ uumI^umjU utj n.uiUiUiuuiUiUl~U vplutp s 

* Canon ib «^ j'"t^''db ^ unntu^^ 'bP^ti 

■ h/ip-iMfjli om Ven, 58 : mm^u^ add Canon : om ceteri. 

* il^hm ^n 58, Canon : ij(yt ^n Ven. 

* -^nii n^ tl-nj Ven ! + «/» ibf^ Bod : om Canon. 
» ^p^hu Ven, 58 : '-a^uik'' Bod. 

• q-/"-f>it Ven et supra A. u/tpui. ' h-hpu^ Ven, 58. 

• om ^« q-uL, Ven, 58. Infra i«i^.t»««./_ dat Bod pro i«i^.t»A/. 

• om fut%op* U. Ven, 58. 

" tltufulri^ Ven : l^ekl^tbp ceteri 

'^ umui^uiM^nLfi-lr%k Bod, 58. 

" Jbiltug Bod ubi secuntur verba : U. n^ ^phtug ijj^^ Secutua sum 
Ven, 58. 

*" Canon add »uk^piuu.nLp-lr^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

u. nn %lrbn.l^ unmhu fuwui^uinl^ JB-uinhuitj Itl. nn utnjuim I; 
unutliL. m 4" nnnnJnL.p-nuiJa.* nn umomu^ J^ fo-tu^^ut u. 

Codex Paris 58 haec addit adagia : 

y » i)«f#i.O-«f/^ h utniii jusannannp Jh JtnuMblrn^ u. "Pt^ 
umuMUau up tusukn* ap a.usnnL.n ^nn imJiUMjU u. 
tLutmuinu ^ uhuMu t 

u UM* i\nn.truiu niiuuhn ^n it uouttu LuttP n ^tnjuuutu/ui^ 
M auiifoLUiutn* ap auulw lJf*P J"*-'" "- ibnt-P-nJ 
^utual^ It ut nit u. ^n^ntJip % 

k P'* f\pf-^"'i ^niut/uMjatui ^^ uth- qtiltliftb tltuttti nt^nusfu^ 
nL.p-lf P-^US b '"^w" nnquMunnh II. umji tltutnP-tun lu 
uiliUMtum^utTC tnhttp^ iuml. 4* "'HP pJuilrf ^nSi* I'Hy'P * 

k t* 1\nt^'''k "UP utna.lrQntt tujUuii^u Lutnh-i^ It tllttnu 
ItLJt p-J^ tu ^*"9 ^^ ^ ttuttP qnn AirJ_ fuoufttP 
ntliuumnt^p-n fuoulttl2 n^ itJtutl^ P^ ^^utUn-ltu^n tunJt 
^iu^uitHn/t nn It T^T^'t L^ iaiutug P'^"3 J PkPP 
Lnnh-tM^i^ tptuM II. viiLl^* 

k t* jXpi^^^k P^ tnhuuMbnu op-^uttlniM ^n 'f;iJ'P""*H 
nuL, tnntnuhtu It tiantuj unnus^ tjp piunauutti uiniitu* 
tiiuiui p-^ h-iuttp tunitlru Aut innJ-tutT LtJuUifiilt ^ntp 
^tuunt^ntMiitl^ ^Ift} 

k ^* ^\pi-^"'k "UP ''unn.lrnnn tMitUwul^u Liunh-J^ ^Ph 
^pktP 2d9?p9^* t t"'L "i- it"^^ ^P^ t^ufuU pLft 
futtutnptutt 4* ^uAqpf nnuii^u Jusjn i^ ^pktP ""^ 
u^utitng II. inmittupkniug 'UniUwul^u J>UMtn 1^ aJtUltU lutT 

* i. e. nuqrimpi^ \ ^n/iq. 58 : inLut/ip- Canoii. 

' uipb-^uabuaii% 58. ' CaHOTl uapaum^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

240 htpuMuiD lu hJtuutnnL.p-hijM 

j^tuntuia^ tuUfumhn uifumliL. tufumuAuMi uaun^ L. 

utbnnnniT uuMUiUutblri» lutquitLpI^ utnunnLM u. utbtuu*^ 

k 1l ii\P't^"'i ihuifuhn tnuM2lituiL.nnnLp-IAl^* utu^tu P't 

tMJttu^utbl^ ^n uituu* n^ J^tyi A antuiuAi^f *HII ^ 
iCnj^l^ uJnnnuun. t 

J-tuiT Jh unuut ajuuMblrb^ "PF VlT't^ fuouhu um^ut 
^uM^niJ!^ u~ n^ ^lUL^unnuMb t 

\yL. tu ututtP abuuP-unM f^nn-lruiL h Jhutu on utn^ 
mtnuMUiU II. Jh JhnjuuiUin i 

^^utnangjuu P'iuajuL.nnuta nnnx^na^ a. uiuanuiuhituian 
hihljUMnuit* ^nijmuMt u. nutnpuni* ^iunguiU h fuhLuipKii^ 
u. uiuJ^ funLiun n 'buiP'uAi^ iJ^P" nuii* oJiunnjtiu ut^tua 
agniJu 2^**^*^*"^*^ h 'l"P"U ^^^Qh^J^^ uuMjppM* P^hH 
ouultMUitM^ LnfuntU^ u. n ^ttn 9ph Jp tfiiUMth^ It, 
WL-p putpbLutfnt uthuUnLj^ 

^^npu puA oJiupnit apptuait^ u. UMn.nn^ u^iu^^* '/"'-2 
^UMiAalrha^ U. iubt ^umUq puAi np ht^pi^ 'f-fi'-P P^k t """^^ 
uppmi* ^i^ut u. iurL.nn^ u. l[PLp ^bn.uit^npis puipnJ iiriK-f/tmcy * 
\fL, iJ^pp fipp i "P QJu*pn.nA ^"'pkhP' iULJriglrU kuJT JuiJng^^ 
qpuipp piUiL.uptu^ iuJI^ puittp ^nt^uiui finun*^ pinbuip^ ItlrUiuii^ 
upul^uiu fuuML.uhfli°^ uiJtu^ h thiippl^ u. h Jl^h-j^* \f^ * t * 

^ Bod sic : In. . t^". [ipp lr% np i^Uutpq.'ii. Similiter infra. Quae 
seountur iuxta cod Bodleianum ordinavi usque ad initium codicis 92. 

« ^u.^ii> 58. 3 /,uph^% 58. * add ifi %ugf 58. 

' Verba Qngiu piuii usque ad mhuimi^ plane om Ven : add Bod, 58 ; 
sed Bod confuse post A- [> JtS^ infra. 

• mV <f Kr«^£. Bod, 58 : q^'^T Ven. ' «r-^^— ^«.*«, om 58. 

* ^aatL.m[i/it VeU *. miuanaatu^uA aauajit Bod, 58. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t'tk"'P"U 141 

biv ^ "P ^JutptMju tptupii 2^uttii utuiitU^ "try ^kp"^'" 

p-^iHb^ 2Uiinuifuuii^u^^ [II. tntn n^ nJtutlrUuy uiUinh-lfUuMi\^ 
I uiJI^ putU p-u{onL.giubtiit* J^P^I t *^^P" p^^lrfb tu qnn n/ 
ifpini^ p %tpu l^f^ft II. a#f#4-] ^4" tthuilrtr L. umuufuuiuunup-h *♦ 
^iupgpU ufJtuiiupfuiuuflU^ L. uiuHia' tp-J^ J^pkpt 1y"i- k^'U 
J^uingn^ l^"^ u#f/lc#/.^ tntuiug^ nn uiJiuL^ niiih ^utngn 
4* 'bui* tm uiJT i^pflB b IPpf-PlAi^ II. utbtfinntJB'ttil^ 
miUMUflii* \f~ uiju l^n funtumb 1"P nuunugh 'UuMp-uiUui % 
C) unu° utiT 'buip-utbut ^trLnnnM^y h'^'Iti ^" b'tk'^P 
n.unawuu^kinu ultbhpuMnlttfur tunpuMiKb^ II. unuusl^u ^usnh-tglt It 
Jink hJni^JT f^Ph nnL.unu3h II. ttlunutuA unn nL.unL.nh 
*lMuup-uItiut ^utunj^ ^L. SLutunl^^ II. usut^tunj^ It Jmh jtupnuiTt 
f\> fh^hb ^P'h IpMibu JtJT ujiiuttu luntun^ L. ^ nut tun nnufi^u ■ tol. 6^ 
jjtn^p iAnjLi^ti^ ^nntlntf ^*y tntuit p tHhp itLMnL^iT up-J^ 

^uMtpu ptT t^pk^'P ^"P'^'gtui^ ^ jy "- ^««"'"'««y h p 

n.nL.nJi tLnpttpliuultb» U. ouinMth-tuti ai* tlltuwu p*-p «. 

uMut^tuuttut uU ptnp^nLptLp ItLp u. n^ l"'i_ nJtutl^ t ytLuutL. 
%utPuii* JtuuAIrt tMUMtT KU^ Itjr^ It ^npnt^uutf II. nj^ fuUtuil^p It 
h-tunjMMtu IttT II. iutpupiUuMau II. mutb^^p tAnuuy II. utipitUutlMl^p^ 
II. Lnutnpl^p nihu U. tf^pltuy II. ujrpltJuMpu htll II. aiAutltp 
tAuthpu It <^oumJ^ Uiuuttu^^p t 1^£_ bPP ^tup AuiPuA 

• om Bod. «(...) om Bod 58 : tt'^h Ven. 

• [ . . . ] om Ven : 58 sic habet «»«/tt» fuuit ^ m^pm ^ %lrpu tunXuL^. 

U. anm n^ t^pmlrk$ay tutuph lr%iMy* Infra Ven uaJfhp- irplruaaauk^ mp 
mamiupiiULut^ 58. 

• Incipit Paris Anc. Fonds Arm. 92 fol 179 r«. 

• om Ven. ' j[ifi%^M»ppJuMf Ven. 

• pitq. ^"qJy Von : pyt^'^ ^* Canon ceteri. 

» ^uyp l,jr ^Hu>p ih%q^%p k L. h^kp 58 and 92. 
'® usque ad ^>^ iffk tantum collationem codicis Paris 58 ad- 

" i**^- ^'^ 92 : ^%im %mpu, ^r Bod, sed ^"pm uult del. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

242 funutuw «. hJuiUinnL^p-ptJi 

jftnjtpiLpb ttJf nn qtLnnh-u ntP tutiuitaauiOj L_ apU^ t" 
JuMuAtuia^ ^UMuutt u^uiy II ututtP It P-^yS ^'"3 Jl^ihs 
hdng^ II. Jh JhnilrUuin • aj» qptuMt i^ jiunjuil^uU I'P'^ 
itrL.^ nn n^ Ifb JuMumuiLtuMi umImU %nntu n^ fttUunl^^* El. 
tpPtuMt uiUitnuhnhr unbnpannjut inauinii P^J t 1>^ ummm 
kn^iun tfliiup-iuu II. utul^* nn^uiJt funl^uin ^abnMtbn ^ 

#Air^ *Unngu n^ np ubnilrunh^t %\uiltMa-UMjr tutbu uusp-UMU 
qpni^truJii" tnpiuijnit hf-Pf 9"/' uUnL.nniut l^n A mu/U nJni 
II. uiul^ funliutn ^uypb nJT h-tniunbiui J^ II. pjuiip *UnnuM 
uAt^uiJiunbuti i^» a. bu napu. inuun aunu^ jiuiT P^ibg P*^3 
p pu(jg UMputpp aUui % 1 ><- funp^nLJtn^ iupusptuit uwup-uiU 
iuipni^phuMu p uputp pupnuu* npausn jusUnijM ptP p-ni^np 
tun. p-^^tutlltU^ upUnpnppil^ tunpuMtpU %pbnt^^p u. tuunplrumtt/up» 
u. tuul^p tMiiutul^u X 1 >" b^tk^^P tt-u^ptutuamu upUhpnpptliu 
tunpttnpr^ tunjuipnnh tun^ btiJttM^tntunnn p-tuntut^npn.* "Ph 
fol. 6*^ jnpfrtutT 'tPP^ h •P"'L ^""""^^ tLnL^tliupaunbu qatuLJtu ^n^ 
II. nuaunbu it tt-tu^utu iuph-niMatun ^^ np u»L^pU * p b * IP^P 
^pninhn tutfuntiim u. bu ^^ustMu/iMit.tnnt^npn atu2p»uip^u 

tuunptjnn* L_ tntun atuP-nnjM upUhpnpptliiMt It innis on 

^ 'Vl!HJL^'"d ^^^ 92 : uajiilrtug Bod : uy^uijipn^hut^ %nup-uM% iii^nph^u 

p^ Canon. 

* tQi lu%uylrugk 92 Canon : Bod add j^^^ -u''* 

* uMiutmJbgfi Bod Canon : uiutmJb% Ven : uiBumJlr^f,% 92 et om 

* tQi JlrpJ-lru^liu Ven : cp Canon «^ Jbp3Jr%uap % Bod »^ »» 

* puLHJu% Ven 92 : pMiLi^u»% Bod. 
« ^-% 92 : l>up«j Ven Bod. 

' t^^lruag juMbntX fitT p-nt.qP- OHl Bod. 

8 miL P^^ubJIA add 92 : om Ven Bod. 

* + %[ihnLk[i L. »uunfihuuitu%[i 92 : slmll apud Canon. 

*° uaph nuuhaaag Canon I tuph-pnubkau^ CCteri male. 

" lP^^,^u»p% WlA^uMpl^J* Ven 92. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


fuftllUMfiUMJ 143 

mnjuibn iU2luutmuMbuta u^ l^iuagtu Aui t \>l. %ifuibtanL.atuiM 
l^n uinnituiahnu Pt-p P^^hj UrnJbuigLpnU^ U. pfptuii JuuinuiU^ 
ttUL. pJnJx \yL. tnpa-iUiT fuUn^nhahU aiuuppb P-uiojUMijnpnU 
ifbuit A inniiiu pLptu/ba^ %uif3-unt JhuMtU ffUiua uunjuM^p 
p-uMOAUijnpplM^ II. uiuI^ iunpuMi tuMuntnlrufb Luiaatu t 1 >" 
tnunnL.^UM^U ipp ^bpauMi aJT A tnu/U ^n^ fihi ^uml, ip^h 
uttuu/uht oUuphu UMnju9p ^n« fuhLiup ^uutpla jttT np h 
uMiumhL. II. a ubh-nL.ptr*U j^na^iT l^p umtuia ffbi L_ ^ta^ u. 
tnL. h ^nnffi P^uiJhuMa ^nn^ \f^ P'nL.qP^ anp a.ntiut 
l^p 'iiuup-tuU jtJT puibltL. u. %Jutbkgnugtuti l^p aitnjuinJtpli 
pJy ilrih.tua.ppU^ Ml. UMn^buii ^utpn.uMa u^pnJiupinuMLuU^ anp 
Klwii l^p aptuMi^^ UMfLUM^p P'UiajUMu.nphU t 1 >^ pppu. I^"^ 
p-iuoMsunpii mpindhnuiL. jy^ «- umuI^* S'^-JI'^i- ^'P'^kP ^•^ 
iupiupbuti Iru pipl^uMppU np uituuil^u uipiup /wn. Af#* 1>^ 
JiuqJuMqutLh Opi uuMp-u/h ^puiifuniuit^ uippunpb umjuumI^u [^^ 

inpJ-uiJT pUp-hnJinL^u Ift-Pp" a-nuulupaugbu aopu ^n u. 
tLtuatu h iLui2inU uiph-nt^huig^ np tut^p • fi Ir • l^h ^/"""A^ 
uiJunfU* II. hppi*- intuaku qfiu Kui^tutntuafiu pinLnJ^tP A«/« 

Du/bap ^plr2UMUMlMj^ dtgupuiL,nUp usn^ pu ab bLbgui^ op uttualrb 
qonu hJl \fF"P oPnufumb uun^ pu^ U. pwb tAiua gun. 
p-iutLUML.npU* ^^'"/f UMnjufp p-uMajui§jnppb u. uiul^ Jh tnpin^. 
Jhpi nJ uMppun^ ^l__ ^i ^pP'fiS'"--P t f-'"^'"^ uMph-ngittiua 
L_ mtuanu^ P^i^ "Ut "UfH^" P3^* umu^ih ip^i_ ^piujitytu 
l^h* 1 >c- utnJruit^ uKujipuMphjr oopu Acp II. tlfb h nju2inb fol. 7"^ 

' om Ven: /?^V ^2. ' om A^« Ven. 

* ab A. usque ad qih^n.u0i^fii> del uult Bod pr m ut uid. 

5 ^iru^i^ Ven 92 : fV^-*^ ^^^• 

^ ^piuJuthuti. p-aui^Lup[i\ Yen: Bod add p-nutifS-* 

f + jtuLptnlruA ^iu^f et om Ir^ 92. 

® Canon : U. aun-lrua^ %uip-au% tiutfi^uyli L. ^—^ '^ i^a$t^% aa§ph-nA'^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

244 funuiuip II. huiuuuanL.p-hgji 

uttah ghnLnJ^iT %nnunf nnuil^u ^nuitfuittuii l^n* npplrt^ tuatru 
uinouMjU tnnmutauiL, jy^* fuuMuutt u^uuml. uutp-uAtf II. 
UiuJ^ M mnmJhn uinpuy^ "Hi ^pPtS^'-'B t utngjb* L, tu 

aiiuip-utb ^P^ uth-tu afuhLuin utnju9p nu ununnJra^u 
Jkh-uiJlih-u tnuiiT J^l"ti l»- h 'I^P^'U utMUsbuybr q.nni-na hJng 
^uiuuitnutphtP ^utgm^aka J^^l* ^^ i[UMUbbuMjb ajtnirp 

tunDniiitutg ^ta JfiZCutntugnb^ TCuiptnuinnL^p. s \fL^ uinpiuiii 
nMinkuML. juMinuMnuii*u hLp* u~ %iup-uMb DtrL.nnnJfb jttT t^ 
uin. nu II. umuI^» Vlpiippuinnu iunpuitU iun^utpkiug mubu umwi. 
J^lft u~ *'*ui^ 0-y uiiL nu L. n JhuMupb nLJtuifu [P'h^h'Qf < 
1^c_ inntl-uiJr tLbutghf uiu^ Sv" ntnpunti^ fuhLuin njuhn II. 
hdtuuutntii^ funp^pii-UMytg U. p2ptuiU ntT f^ppi II. ^pujilu/Uuiutna^ 
anuMuti utunpa^ng U, UnUnL^utga^ng* U. nMipitutt tntp p l^nnJT 
p-AuMaUmUig pdng* II. Pnufumu ipp apauit l^p uuuP-ualM paP^ 
puMupL. ML. utfututgnLgtuii l^p acihnAiuaa.prna pt-p h"ht ^^n^*" 
%uitLppif tm UMppuatia auat. lau II. auul^ aun^ Ilt P^P^PSPP ^ 
1^£. Iru lappla. tAaP-tpgataa^ inL.h-aua^ auaT aMabaMAuafp paT'^ II. 
atuna^ paT aapaul^u aliaaaijuapup aLauauapbgaua^f u. tu auala2bgaaaa^ 
L, tai^ tPP^ Vlb jt*^P^I"d* t'^tPit puali jaJiuuanna^pirauia^ 
II. aa^ iLanaMiUl^p anaua aMiauanauufuaMaUla* %auP'aaab fuauajuira ubuaua^ 

II. auulf sb" P P^'S h*^3 J P 3 '"PB^UPt^ ^'"It'^P f"*-'"^ 
i-taiaa u. auaaSuaankaua^ anaaaja aaitaaia naa J^pi^'P' "- 'tpania 

^ om Ven. 

» add p^^s ^ t ^^' 

* ^ Urn^ ^m Bod : ^1^1^ ilbl&mplr% Veil : ^it^ ^^l^mphu 92 : i^mph^m. 

^jCusphitnli'b Canon : item supra i^-nph-u omnes praeter Canon. 
' om Ven. « om »«. U. 92. 

^ Jmp,^\p m%iiJuJi,^ ItJ^U Bod. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

b'tk*"F"a 145 

j»n p Ijfnalrnu* II. tunpuiiU nMinAyg utptuu hup jH^I?* ^ 
uiulf guipnuuifuip^ %unltuijlu h^-py ^4* utuip uututbutbtuM 
ipMibuMh- l^hlpupn.^ L. ^tnjuay f9/'"-^ n.npuif tppU. ^u/*' 
%u •iC % AfL. tu uibLutt It tit pun tp&utua It tin a ^ ^PktP ^""fh ^ol. 7^<* 
U. tuuttT tunptty jtutJttnttMtb Lttug^ Ltutlhatup tt^u It uttpu*' 
uttLMh II. It pitiupa htlna itj^ titbutuatp t 1 >^ tu jutltAbl^ h'l^k 
tf^utlrJr np n^ p^i^ tittttuj ^tu* II. It ultput hJT %lfUtLnup-ft 
"i— ty* tttbtltit BtT^^ "Tt "T^/riAftf Itbi II. ^ptutfuulrtu 
pUA^ tap p it.ptttu ptfnt^JT utatuiualrb upu u. tpRuptlKitu ptT 
tntugbb p p-tutnttjlb t 1 >^ p-tuiLtUL.ttpb ^ptutluttttug tupttt^u^ 
tlutptu^ qp p n.ptuit fitly uuttuitgfit ttpu K u. fipptt^ ttp fi 
p-tutLtut^npi^^ iptafi p-nt^tn tuttntl tun. tuptutntiih IJtilit fitT 
u. tuulrJt ^^npJ-tuJT p-nt^tnu fi J^tta ^tuutitUl^^ ^tttb 
WfipA tunMtf fitT LnL.uttAu * a. • L. ^'9-^^'ffi^ qntutn uiMjy u. 
ttJtnlfia piti unt^tLf tc. nugglrb Mtfiu* qfi tu tntufig tu^tut^^ 
fitfnilp tHUituil^tMiUu np tuab tafiu fi tlfbttMtbnt^p-ttu% fitlht^tH 
II. it.nL. tuptuugtu ^uau tlbi-tutlbh-^ np tntuu it.tu^^tug fiung II. 
fiinptnfitu tJrtttgfitu tuta. fi tnutntt u. fi pdpttt 1 >^ tuptutntana 
lutiaia fitT ta^ptutluajttutuia fitT ttutntupttuum 1// P^t ""'-'"P 
fitl^ II. ttlttui- tfbnutu fi tnntia* t. ttt. tuaaju^ft %ngtu uttpaab u. 
ttptutpttug taianutUf u. ttn ptiuati tipbfiu ^pbu la. taatatutapuliu* 
tlltia^luL P'tlptgtaaia u. tupptgtaab la. fi ^naia tlinpta s 1 >^ tu u. 
tplala fitT taalalati\p antnu tupna^u tittup ty auainJf la. tuuiugfi gutu 
y^ pnL,utlu{Pf Alatp fitT ^ tan t tug ttptptau u. tntu tauah- 

1 %uy^ui% ^^ 92. 

« + A. m^<y<«|>m 92. 

' ^-% 92 : t'-F ceteri. 

* ^A- 92 : ^-t ceteri. * ^ ««r^^ 92. 

' ^ffit^ ^^ Jll*^ liJfu»ummg% l;p L. mpaaap mp$u^u L. ^ptaaJuylr^fi Veil, 

92. Codex Paris 58 addit : juy%^u,r >«(ip>>y% <;/>«ri%i^mj fi%l ^%mi^ 
jA^if^i^'^uut Reliqua desunt apud 58. 

L. A. T 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

246 funuiuip L. JtJuiUinni.p-hA 

ui^uMu^ ^n^ u. jbyk*" muttnu.^uiQU nn n ahuiupb ^irphui^^ 

uinpuMth ^uiLjfU^* u. tu iunJrtui tnui^bah 'LP"'t upb^UL 
UMnpuijit fAn.ntuta f^^l* l»- hpp^ inuinun Q^^'f iunjuM^p 
unnuM uMUMnalLU Jth-iuuth-u but tHii t V^ Pf- uiui^tui fpUf 
tu <^iuinnj qthnfuuini^ anuifuinawug nJhg^ u. tpup •£"'/ 
uMUMnalLu ubh-utukh'Uf II. mniuutnl~b j^n oiupntji [pup mP"1 
fo\. S^° ptupA^^ 1^ hiT iutp Jh^ h ^ L. jniJ" 'btfiuU 4" P»^* 
tuphtiituptup It ivpu/b hJntf U- tltu^iugutuptn ljf\ II. utbnijt 
unptu uutinpiup* yw^^» "'P'/- tntupguu u^tubnhpciu pti It 
piui*n.pb II. unhgnLMiMMbuu %tluM II. ututubgtu tfitui^ u. Ltutntupuu 
u^ptuuuiU p-tuujUMunppU s 1 >^ pppU. I^u tuuiugh gtupnt^utlutp ^ 
tLp-iuguJL. p tllrptu ptf^ II. luptup qLuttlu htl^ II. ^inp tuutugp 
%tlut* L. q^nt^nnpit p-tlpttutD^ It •B^'JJ latupP-tutb It 

^uiUiuptu^ ipy^py^i "■• utJUUiUltb tMUub^Diup h-iurL.u£jb ptl^ u. 
^unjUMgnL.gltti qqjngMb unptu p utlu/bl^ utuutMJidtu ^ a * ul. 
at ^tutlpuiuu p j^tuituiDU utunplrutnti/ulrtMJjg pi^ t'*ti"'P 'HH.tP 
U. ptliuutnntjM tiunjiut^* ^\u£jb€ltutP tupnt^utftuu pU^tpb IttT u. 
tuptutnuA Lputi IttT tuptupItU^ tnntjM MUrtitbtuthnp* ^P^^HI^ 
unt^p-ptJi Unptu ^tMMUtLntJiU •1^ * u. ptupipnuB'lttJM %nptu 

^tuutuptu^^^ Q-lb'lf h^lyi Jtpi It rt.putb ulrtlhg tntuitu^^* &i^ 

* Canon sic : jl'i^'" Vf^P b^^pMsypaLp-huA J^pij % Im- JJt Jkqiuiiib-f_ 

auphuaii ffJiy* qfi t^fimb-u np b-u uaiiupuptn hJl 'ffl_ b. j[iyp-uy tpff^ "p 
^ufjp% uBrft^putpptfStfj h-ui %p^1_ l* ^bn-u ftJT ft uupM»Uni.3IL, 

^ lllrplri_ Ven, et saepius hac forma participii omissa vocali «« 

8 Buppuyft <;u0iLp% Ven 92 : p>^ ^'^H'^ sic Bod. 

* d'^^ 'g*'t*'V ^^ • '%'"Pt* *^*"' 92 omissis ceteris. 
^ l,jr uyp JJm Yen Bod : «/a»/f7. ij& 92. 

« om Ven. ^ Qi^lr/^K'/' Ven 92 : »l»%u%gmpl,jr Bod. 

« {. ^Xnj Yen 92 : ^ ^i-t'ynj cet. » + ^ir^ 92. 

^utt.uMuuMp 92, puto recte, ** ^I«^« uhJu/y^ u»tu% ^Jty 92, 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

iuant^utlu^p uin. p-iuaMMunnU u. uiutinubuMa vP^i V'tk^'P 
uu^uAuiL, t \yL. utiKu nn tul^nta aJIu^^ It iff Lnh-J^nb L- uiUiut*' 
2utL^nuf II. uiul^nti utuuin J^'"t 'fH^P* "'I ^ "P 'P'^pk 
qanna-u ^n tunpntiilruiQ TCiuniniunm^p-tuiJa. ^nJt ^Kuntia-uiJT 
in^uta tunpuMjU Au»p-uib u. iuui^ "PP mnut [jutp^ amuiU 
II. unua. ^usLJt ^n t 1 >^^ iuM/3-iU% u. thnfuutiMiuL uunub 
J-nnnJIruiQ qa.nL.uuMbu f u. uinuin nLpuifunt^PpiJi Jbh-* u. 
ah'uin.uMtu L. auinuufubuMju fuip^utpl^p ^ utuiu^l^p n.iunJituui^u 
jy^ i f*- JutplruinuMiiUJj Ifbnfl^ P*^^ "i_^ uiJiu^p^ uiu u. ^uiul^p 
lunrALtt l^n- ^<A#| np ubnuatuit l^p tfifu t 1 >«- t** h i^lnnbuMtfinp 
uiutUl-tM [ui^h uiiuait u. q^uin^iu^u/bu nn^na* h-unLuypg pdnn^ II. 
tu uMji A ^tin° t^Vthi ^ 3^"^k*HiP *"^^ h^ uuiuuML. ^iugp fol. 8^ 
II. utuiUfuiiL M tluh II. puta-tuLp* iru l^p ^uipauuinlnui uttP 
l^ibS b'^S* l/^ UMiT t^'*'ib,B iuunpbutnuMblruMjn u- 'iapUnul^*' 
iugt^ng thutfulrujb iKial-U^* hppu. tnL.UML. Ijyu p-uiajuijnplM 
kqpuitniugt^ng* tpi^ pthuiup Q-^ipp utn.uit^f II. *UpUnLj^ 
u. iUiT iU2ptiup^u auunpbuinuiulrung thuipituMb* Jll nLJiuifu 
attain % 1 ><- tP"^"3 p-nufuP' thuipiut^A uinpuMjb Ira^pupnui*' 
g'-ng unuuil^u tun. ulrUl^ptuplttl^ tunptinb tuuttptutnuMulrtMsjg s 
llnr^mip^ tni^pttup-ttttbtt. II. P-tuiLtui^npttuP a-tt.* ttJttnnt^p-ptJt 
ikdt •P^'L it k""^^ T^^l tututuptiiitu^ P^t ^p^pkp^ ^ 

^ laJiuuutng% Jlrtuuat. Bod ubi SUpr VS SCr pr m uu^utltuai.* 

* om U. uuLif. Bod. * ii^miuttat%u male Bod. 

* lu»pta»lu»^ 92 melius. * om jn/^f- 92. 
« %u0 L. Ven Bod : i«/^ 92. ' i^s% 92. 

» om t <JA^m 92. » c/A^^^^ 92 : ^ \Jiu%k Ven Bod. 

*^ t^MMinauiuIrm 92. 

^ sic in mg pr m Bod, in textu autem -tp-pg sic. 

*' ^lb8b 92. 

" umuiumiiub'uu om Ven, Bod add supra vs. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

]^48 funuiuiD II. hJuiUinnL^p-hijb 

uain nn 2U^h* "- ^1 VP l^i^ ^uinQuiUinT utty lUiUinuMufuu/uh i 
\ u^ui pi^ uniJtnjP- uinJitu tu OMttP u. pLuinJiiutP qP-§uajUMt^n^ 
nnL^p-ngJiii. A. if'P^hp'h mB" ""^^"P^sbS ^ l^/V^ int^uML. 'n"J'* 
P'iuajUML.npb utnmJbautL. jy^ "- uirLUipbuta a-nnnJInua 
AtufuiunuMitub h^Jif A funuiin ^uinautbti Ph iP^i^ iunitlrt^^ 
uMulrU %iufuuinutnpli nJ piutLuit^npf uyt "V '""(J utiuimuu*^ 
fuuMun "(JQ- P'^ho-i P'tlS "Pi uiuP-u/b np ni^ututt 1^ h 
hihliUipl^^ II. aputl^ qn.uipnup-puiM unptUf II. uUtiut 1^ A utuMU 
%npiu* uui ^iupuiuaj^ imuM uihu uiUitnuiupMuiup tyn.tP putUhq.^ 
tptp apkiug uippuMjb tapuiutuMat^na s •XuiluiruMtP "'/IP'^^ 
^n^uia aUtup-UMU^^ u. jiuturUtuta aptnp^nLpiA II. Inn A *buM 
a^pnuiupinuMuli^ u. pbptpjjiUL. 'UutP'UMb^ VxpplL Ltupn.iUQ 
aP-nLp»uAf p AuMju putpip iunutniuLttua II. ujuI^* 1"fJ't 

puibtir u. fJip" "^ I^UMplrU JjCiupti IpuJT trnut unutnuiufuuttih^ 
au aputpn. Ipupuigpg tnuii uMiUiniuupMUMbp s V^ppL tnutUM^ 
p-iuiLUii^npU jiuptuit^ inu^t^nj iiup-nn.njb pt^pJI^ u. 'Uumiua^ 
fol. 9"* h 4"P^ ifnptpni* II. ^nh-J^p ilrih.nJpU h*~P'"Lp ntptuu p^-p^ 
II. iCnn^p qunpnt^uu pLp "- UMU^p* 1^ *~""l •P"1} U'tk^'P 

'h^nbP^ AfAffffcfrn<.£r* p pttut^uu dtupn.Lu!b Lnpm^up f^Acr» 

^uiiiijp n.nt^ tKuipl^^p BtLnph-u UMnpniitttug Jbpng^ tu tp-^ 

* mhu — uin- [lu om Bod. sed add Ven Canon, postea dat Bod 

et ^en T^yJ"'i'l"'' ^ iCuptnutp U. ^aftuuuatti^ "UP ^^* 

^ Canon add i^mJu ^Jl 

" om ^u,i,gm%lri_ 92. 

* Canon Ira. %npiu antufiua^nLub-au£n utub%t iMfjnjupup ojiph-nji^ fupLuMmU 
antyn Buuauamu^ut%^f L. ayt0-aP %aup-Bu% nn ^ k anirnp %nnuf: 

* om Ven Bod. « + ^J/fmi^^ 92 et om ^ %in. 
' A. Ven Bod : -/t 92. 

^ Canon uyi^j^u^ t^/ih-q. Ifuh^ n^ l^utpb% utnAlri_ i^tumauu^au%[i* n^ 
P'h Juafii^^* \tpLpL. ^a^tua. aa»ppaay\ amfiamattr^aua. jnj^ aauplrama.* 

* thp^ Bod: T^/^V^ 92: i^- Ven. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fufilliUpUMJ 149 

tnuMjn IIP 1^*"t pU^ tu utuMin udui 1^i__ «- ("^'hP^P jf"*^^ 

uian£.uJufp nhutnii hJT tutua uin^ui^p p-iuaMMt^nnnU L. uiu^* 
p-iua.iuL.nny lUMt^nuBauMU LtuMU* nn a^nuMiliubu p-uMtLutL.nnnU 
n^ uinJil^ ilui^uiuiuinm ^* op utj ^nuiJuil^pU u. PutajUL.nnfm 
Jh ^ • ii.nL. taptnLuin <^nuMj2ujtatn uuiUibuiUbij U. uua iLirn.. 
LlrUiLuabh ^^ l^''^' "'flP'y" fuuML.uiui uianL.ut/ufp h-uin^uu 
hJT II. ^uiL^uauiuanhdl tp^ u^ihLuan LlrUn.uibh anL.ugtu^ Ithi 
at^tuu L. h-pnuibnu umuiJT^ •B^l} uiutna.u.u ubh'utubh'u 

uiUinaiutiT^ ^tat 1^«_ uaBLnuudui^y pblblIl. inL.UML. IffNU ft 
PuMOMuunn^ y nanu. unuiPn^n^ ^uiuy irlht uin.. nu* U. 
apLUiu qn.nL.nJM auunsuiinnn mu/ub^ it. Ir^uib npu u/butn* uJ 
l^fiU tntiip hiT ujjituunLitlruMi U. oinLpa nJT puanuauii u. 
pqi^ltnii^p niP nanu. uiunh-nL..nj uaabgauMi* Yk-fLnu. tuttu upu 
Puiojuunnli^y LnnuManja aajnL.[u P*-P$ "- uiiRu^n ^"(ihp 

itntuu hd\ II. ^uiOpL. ^unbauMa^ JP uaJiUL^Puiipa bnauuML^ 

It. uaul^ sb"* f 1^ *'bP''lb "- utuMUMnL..uiLuMb bnpuun niP fuhLuin^ 
tpP h utnLM on it. ituanifgubbui ugub^a on UMununu * fu * u. 
uiUiUM bttu^pp utn.- pu* Af- uapuBpp uubuil^Uy bL. ituipituat 
tbp Uin. PiutLiUL..npb It. iuu^ PiuitiUijipb iMbtpiii ^tii <^uiip 
tuhLiup* \^" •P H "i^ P*i^ ilbiiiui "IJi *biuPuaU ^kn-npitKb 
^n^ qnp uiinLabiui f^pp* \f'- "" utbltuii p tlbpun tptutua 
hJfnay tp^pp iUiuttp PuatLUML.nppb It. tuubiK f\pnJ^btnlL. 

1 om b. uMfh^. 92. * ib—Jt k om Bod. 

bb%n.u§%u§anL.uabu 92 ; loCO nni^unbu aa»t F-^PS^" V 611. 

< ^ut^nL^^g Bod forsan recte. * m«»«r Bod. 

• pppb-^p^u.^. om 92. ' b] ^u.%.ib 92. 

^ b t^^t-fu luTSkbgbiui^ Canon : b ^bp 1-lt"U b*^ p-uai^biui_ bp b 

aftua alhunnLunu* 

» PuMi^\ ^uyu«ijl,m^ Bod. ''^ ^-^^/. Vcn 92. 

" jbpbuu ^-T Bod. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

150 funiuuip U. pJiuuinnLJJ'huU 

intuft t^pkuu iunpuifltn^ ^lfbn.uiblt ltd] L. uTiT i^P^ pUA 
fol. 9 *» puipnuPftgiM i^piiUL. npn^tmL. taJtin hiun^uyu ^n fup^Mup 

F^Pt t'tk^Pi ^Pk W*5J_ k iun^uiptuit IraJtuiwnutgpU it 
utuuifftiu^jf ^utUq^ f^uilAi^jfyi 'bItbnL.utaL.nait It. UMunnlruutuMUp 
iftiufuuib* \fL^ uiutiP QuinpuitU^ Tt ""^'-P J?*"P'*1_ t 

t^uib uipgnt^lfiug ^"g^ ^P'h t'tk^P blrbnMt%fi /^f II. umJIs'^ 
%l^tuih np luJtglrlM^ n^uinigKb h mtn^u huntutltg • l^*- 

^puiJuMjttug p-iutLiuunnU ^uMnnu ^iunttuii^ ^Ph t^tk'^P 
l^lrUi^iublt 4"» I/*- ^*^ fiiui^lt^ iftitnu^lt tt, uiunptuM^MMAsp 
i^uipiuiU jtupuwiub^in A mtnfiu hunkiu%a^* Xf- ^" uaulrtP 
gP-iutLiUL^nnb ujfbuiptunhir fB-^ JtuuU "Uf- au/lsnn. t'^P 
uinju^lruMg kahuimiuglflj^ n-nu Jh ^najun* tu tpP*yj "- 
uBiug %i/ui uiuiutiuuhiuibh^ It. u^uMnlfit h jtaJuM^uwnu/^ hu 
ptnpg uiiu J^l"l_* ^^pjtU. inuuiu p-uiOMiL^nnU nunuMfu bqu^f A_ 
b tir^~IU putqtKuLuibpis piuaubgnjg qtuanuuuuipb* El, p 

Jiun^ub Q-plfgh uin. uiptuutuA LfflA hJf^ uiUiugh umjuu^I^u* 
^\npJ-tuiP LiupiLUiU 'Pg-hp^ n-nL. nputut innt^p • P • amum^u 
iupi-nunj^ L. p mnuMju n.lrn.uifuuiuuu^ U. •p • ^[fl*u uUnt^gui'^ 
%nnu^ np aJu^Lutlfb* II. uiutrb umbuumI^u Leul^ • 
iPP * ^"h" • UMnpa^u* Oiupiniunpu Luum^ fuuidtuiU* l^'- """-y 
dfuubhi * P- • uiiupunM* vpuuiusnL.P'p unput • p • ^ • liMMMUtM.nijt 
II jprA^niii Jhr It. ^UMUwnnt^p-hub %nput JJr • II. utnt^p ^ha^uutlt» p uipl^ng g/uAtLu/UgU U. inntp ^tput^ntjw uMp^na^lruagU 
bumJ^U op ttiunJIUu • p • It- utnup ^iuu^tt adiuUliuwpU h titpuMi 
tupo-nungiif It. upuLuiu Pit p^u lunJibtj uJuj^Il. unJnnnMjB-fttii 

* -{- /iLgiufpuAtifii^tfp Bod. 

' U. ^puaJUykuMg fiuplrutiag ODl Bod. 

» IpMi^nig Bod. * '^ki_ ^«"-««- Canon. « Ju^p. «;i,q„^ Yen. 

* JcO^k"^ •V' ^^T^' t'^'^t"^'^ Bod. ^ jpi^lp''^ JIb Ven. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fu^^UipUMJ 151 

UMnAtnuii% Itl. unUuil^u unJnnntJB-lt annLJ» JKu^Ll OMtnci^ 

nuiUuiU • p, iC* AuiiiLncii9 Xf- MuatutnuAA ifliii hiP JHI^ 
ntluMUinnub ^#f« uinuin quaP tliunJuinuilth *n^n l^i_, luuiuan* 
jUMptJ-iuii uinouitU ^ntudunlnua jfUci iAumm ita.niUinnu% II. 
hpnlL. ^iuuh h n.nunis taJtiutnnuh^ tuh-h oduibLutKu jtun^nah 
nnuilfU u. ununn^nb* L. LuMiutah n Jknun lunh-nungb* fol. 10' 

p-n^unt n Jtn II. Buuncintuguib^ It. JfuiULinn^pU uinuinuM^^hU u. 
uiul^nb ItiUL. vpn* h'tih uinpa^u* TCuinuBtunDU LuA fuuithuib* 
II. tu funLtunu tunJt aiuuutaiub^ ft ^tan Jutn ni^ L. ^uA*^ 
O-fi^iifif fJ'A ^uinLuMb^n* dtnuP'Uial^D^ tnnt^j^ V^P f^f-P^ 
TCuinmuinjfy x l/^^"'/ "^P^^fft* ^9^'Y''"''<7''«9^ ^ quinJuiauiu 

#n^cr u. na^utfu tqu.^ II. ^nuidunaiua h^nt^auAtt auhuj II. 
uiu^ tL ^uibahn ut^nuuiuututa 'bnatu^^ h^P '"PP ^ na^auju 
ftp* II. Juinpti t^ utn. nu* tu hppt^ 'Hit ^1^^ k'*ih'"3 
apu p-uiOMiL^nnb u. uiui^ ghu w^^f^ h uibngA ^n* U. uiuhtT 
uiapLuMU /^ uiiincJi pJ2 ^utbap uuipna^L hJT uKImum jatuippJun 
utp^uMjfA* Xf- PPP"- I'''-""- p-uuMMia^nnb inpanJtgtuL. jy^f 
U. uiulf tu uMjuin^u uibiupa^ P-na^tgun Jum^ uffUuwuMphaluii 
uinptypb UMunptutnuMutuMig^ np umpnuL Jh uin^mptuMg lun^ tu 
uiuMi fAi upuuiUiuluuAft^ \f^ utu^ Sb"^ ^PP t """^ •P" ^ 
JiunptA t^ iun. tu t \yL. hppU. aluinfiiA tAuigt^ ^puiJuA tm 
uip^uiA apua^uigb h'-P'^gf f^ Vl^dSl^ ^nuaiftm LuipJtp* 
t. plfpA uip^uMj qqhguML. qatuan h-tpuAt t t. 'bumutu 
juip-nnA pt-pf t. ipuija^ %npui 2"'-p9 lAnihuu* ^puiJuMj^ 

tuig tt. 'P^ituig ttpu uan. Aijrpir A. uiu^* V^ pAtguJf na^JT 
%a/uAtar tu* LauaT uauajajA taP ata^aP %aliu%IAt V^ utaP 
%afuM% tu^ tts^^ %iaufuaupaupj^ ja^aa ^pafuAg 'Uangau* 

\^J^h sl"' "PP jaui.^U.aiAu j^n U. Jaun^aA tL aun. tu* tppU. 

1 ^V ^1, Bod. ' kl^ku^i^ Ven: -/- ^$ Bod. 

' om Ven, * om Ven. . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

\^2 funuiujp II htfuiumnL.phti 

tLh A inni% hJT II. Irlih Jtun^ii tun. ^i^f Vl^Slld fy""*"- 
oiuijaiua Itunna^ u. fniptf uqJrauML. Luindhn^ II. umu^ sb" 
m^iP %JuMUaJr tu^ Liujr ntULJtjfl* nJT na^iP %Jiu%lrb* 1>^ 
iuuaJT %Jiu% tu n.nL. UMntoMM^unt^ u. uuifuiunuinD^ on Tdun.ut*' 

^n II. Jtun^iii t^ iun. hu* U. jtpjtlL. tLun^i^ tAuagh 

ful. 10^® ^niudiubiug UiufuiunuMniugU qp Vt^33r^ qa.BUuau^ 
h-nju* L. ffiipb naa.tgiua^ aaJrum dtlrmnL.ntliuh-niia\ L. %uuaiUL. 
liuP-nn. ht^ li- uiu^ h a^JT %a/iublriP tu* 1^ uaJT auy %ifuMit tu 
n.uiiiunnj f u. iiutfuuMnuMn^it. on h-uanLutlan %nnuM* mXtu/inrunT 
uanj^unU nunuifu tnu. tu uiu^* 1^ uui nbi tpC'^JuapputU f 

yilAufpuinttP uanpuiiU nuJT 'uJfuiU 4"» l^"^*'^ ^W- [bgh 
jhy^l .Bt^1_ nulibuipuintjr uMnpunb^ nuibu^ %umtmi ^umu* 
uui tnutii (["^g t. uiutti tu* Vxant. juintuiu uiutdT 
y^BhuipuantiP uanpuajU *Uduab ^ a^i^pJfii l*- %uafuuanuinpU 
%nnuM dtuatnuutuMiiUinlM • inna-uMii l^iuJp ianuP'l^ ufbAnu.^^ A. 

uanlauiUljp nuit^n n auininajiu^ tiu/bi^ puinjuunnniJB-tuit^uaf 
nnnuiUMj t. luuhinL. aM^uan.uatnunp-u uantnuaLutb* U. tnna-uaJT 
LuiJt LusnLnt^ut uih"^ t. duaianl^ aJtunua nuaitun t. ^np* It- 
h-uanJ^ uipt. t. ^uipliuiblf qpnju nuapupy* X^^i "VZP'^^y 
uauiu Kui qpu^ ^ uAndt ^n* J^jutiP [ult^uMp ^ uiiinaii htfl 
1^ ul^ ^T^ffi.ii#/i-ii#yf<#Zr u iris nuns utnuMp% |^^ uautu npnu^tutt. 
uttut at p tun ^n uinpuMj LumiP LblanMiUp* y^^h p-uinuMi^npU 
UMju uiLp uMt^p<^%tuii ^np^Pi IP t'rh'^P bubnuMbp mtup^ ui^tut^j^ 
pJnJp mtup liaUnuibp* \f^ ^^ uuiLuMi p Jtpun tptumg ptRtg^ 
tpbpp upuap %Jui t. ^uiJfpnLptgh Aum* I^''^' P'^iajut^nph 

1 ipfiLfig Bod. ' U. — '^'^ul' om Ven. 

® altlriL^iLJiL.uah-nju Veil. * a^^PV Veil. 

^ ^'^mpui Bod. ' %^i.p- uin.%k uAJifitLMM,^^ Bod. 

7 ^uif^ut'h^ Ven. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

b'tk^U^ 153 

^uiUl^ iiujfu futuuuu ^ tp^ uhgit Jh fyutj^ L. h dtnun unit utu/uli 
tnLnmutUiMtU Jfunnp^ u. h tibnuti %naut utbhi^^ anbumJw^ II. 
b H^CHI '"^"^"/f^ unLJt^utttnMiLj^ tnLnL.^9 Jltb uu. ml. 
Jjti^uh umnanui^* Xf- ^'^utiT PutajUL.nn^ VUt """V'^'^jf 

^nnp-uinutirbanb ahunaU* ungjt Qpp utuutabn untunnb ^f II. 
Jiuinp bnltnunuiUUiU utufmpu Irb* uibnt^^pb tntunub utununo 
uidungU aii% unun^uibn.utL • p • JKttU utu It. JUl^uU uuMntnuil^ fol. 11*^ 
atntL U. Rh2^n^ ^ ^ \^ "^ P'UMOMMunnU 'tpb^ ^ bmAu umiu nn 

taahuimnul^ JltU^UL n 'bpbnt^ • IrlC^ jupuiufu ^*' apuinn. tna^utb 
unuuui%pii uhn uptnpAi9puli anhJiunuta itnna^ II. upna-hguila^ 
1^1/ fupLuMnu ttp n tiJuili^* II. Itutiuti mpnu Jhf U. ju/bnJt*^ 
JuMutuii inuMb^lfp tpiui t ^XtuAJ-uitP iuuiinubapb p-tuaiuLjnppb 
tp^ fuhlpup an.hub Jhp u/butpaJ^ U. quiphi/U utuib^l^^* 
l|lff^^f<#y a^u p-iuajut^npb^ U. utu^ • fuhltuMp^ ilutuU Jfp 

qn.puii ubp uibuMpaJru II qu^ppub inuibfbu* 1/^ utuau op 
nMMt pbi ^iififf JltuiU uipuip \ iUMibJ-utir mpuMnuin up bum 

pbi Puio-utL^nnb^ iunb %nput* .PWHffp 4/' "- c/""^ a-uidnu 
tpupPnL.auiii^p^ npu^ bpP-uti tuinpnubpu t W ti2zPi 

tuMjuJhL ^DuiL. UL. t^uiut 'I'Hp^-P' uw>UMnuinpb^ tt. IrlpM uyup* 
\>L. UBul^ UMnpuMpt pbi unuuilfU p-ntJi^ Ph ''p^^'h ^tputautp 
putli£ j^n tu jtdiuuvnnL.P'htittU ^p^lrtiutb^* QjiraJtupnnul^ 

JKb^L^ p iipbnul^ « klC ^ fupuiupt 4* ^"P'h '^ ^HPn^f- P "p 

Rpy^phf 'ib^^p'h t^uiut 'ttiT'-T' *Hp^wp^njp^ «- b^ tuuui • 

\y*-~ uiulrjr npui^u fupfublCnjb'^ anp inuutb LnuuuMl{p itp^ u. 

* [uiuutipm U. uMuli Ven. ' add i^»j ^uui% Bod male. 
» ^/»«f^l» k Ven 92 : % lege ^pu.u^^ 4- 

* U. i^uig. in. om Bod. " ^q.p%t% 92. 

* tf%tuutufi bqb. Bod. ' om ^nput "Ven Bod. 

* om ^»r-r Ven. • f<<f/»7^c% u.n.%ki' 92. 

»« lpbg^% 92. " -v-'r* Bod. " Mr^l"^"^ 92. 

" Canon sic : f^ k fbpf^uiff^^ ^pPi%£uffffi% juiumpfiu^ ^muutX liuuH^ 

Jbp qpi,^bun.%. 

L. A. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

J54 funuiuip II. htluMUutnL.p-niJi 

Jpna-bauMU\ ^ ul^ iunpunU p-nn *t^n-i tL U. Ju/btun jfbi 
uiiunutU iuuutq^% VKanu. tip au n tiJuiti^ uiulf PuMtLuiunnii" 
pbtf. nunpii* uitT^ 1P"i^ fuiuuun junLtunii uiuuiahp^ P'h "Hb 
ahtnaifp^ II. int^auii aifp upu/biM. 'l"U1-» "- tu tuiutuMi tP^St 
Pni^in unuuil^u* 'W VypliuipiMMnnJiu iunpusj^ '^lini^ uav. 
ihuinutunu iunpunn. ttLntuutnuuMat^na* Liuniuuu^ ab trnpLUinp 

tnfuuna intuu/bti^^ it. p-iutLiUL.nnp p-uMOMiunniua* n J-tuJiu^-' 

%iuLnu J^^'R^k ^ffnp it. iuUMnmp ^iififi tis tntuii^^ It. 

fol. 11^** lunh-iuP uiiuLiuukiua ttu/iiAnta abnna^ \\Pt ^P'"*^^""U "- 

utnun atntt phi n itni <^pniJuininuiirAn. utnh-uiP • 2f* • 

Du/^ptun* 1 >^ qp-ntJuuA ufUitkan It. Jinn usn. puMojuunnb It. 

uiutiP UMtuJT <^nnJuMntniuLpu itpbuit btP puiU^ np n^ ^utnuMppn. 

It. n^ Ptbl ^ "L. '^^Iy^"p^p'*'g'h b'~-P"3'r l^ Uf^ll 

uiUiuaKit uii[pU tp^ ub^p inuButi ti(p It. apinttlp upu/un. 
VUt* F^US ^" uiukJ^ pif int^biui 4"^ "'""yf^"^ JJtb^tttit. 
i^ o puMotiut apntpin* Xf- "^ liiupiugpb uMuai* It. 

puMotuii LiupttiuaKu* y^ ukJl tnutuit i{-» unp itpush- ^ 
innt.^* y^ u^ lunpuitb P^ tMiut^utnl-^ upupuib n^ tlu/btu pbi^ 
u<^iup^ ilrithupnnulf n^ inuiUhu* 1^^ ^" Jutit h tnnti Jh 
junppnpuiin^ It. €^utuaap unpuU wnuiuU nuuinp iupuJb o-untl^p* 

' qpbJ-bguA 92. * om wuk P^ Yen Bod. 

^ MfV] ^iuulsftb pk Bod. * liutphi-np h% Ven. 

* om u,buui%bi_ 92. * l^qk% 92. 

^ oiunutpn. II. n^ ^uipatufiuaiipiL. Veil : J^wnuiphiL. U. n^ %UMJuuMpiun§un 

ftupng^ Bod sed pi-pngif. puuctls notat : p^^q. U. n^ add 92 et om 

oMuuuaahua 92. 

^ Canon ju^tt-uaJT Jinuy^np^ l''qk ^ p Ptk'"^9 kli" """^^ ^'"k^sh 

anp3L ni-uut^ utpU^ Stua.^p» L. jnp^uMtP h-uMthuaij utpU^ JuuMtt^lrnh 
An^ pi»n- u§L.uta L. wpljlp p L. hpUJrguML. 2"^^ nptq^u Ji$/ianao 
It, muhiP an p hiP taanpaatj ^puaJauitruMi afi tt-nanJh-uair%» • t 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

JuftllUMpUiJ 155 

U. n h-iuatt uMnU.ngis ausjPta It wnuitiLr LuibLntJbu • ^ • L- 
iunJt tf»n2P UMuuiop u. iuuLn ^ h-uiUb u. 4'ihb P ""'* 
knUJaauMu nntu^u duiUiuhj^* 1/^ UMutiP ^nuMiKub innun 
tunpuMj qp J-nnnJtualrii autuMnuAun.^ it. tu "IJi Jfiubaaha^ 
WiEyiA. tuttu iunpuipM h-nh-utnagiuu U. utu^* Y^ L.n^^buii tu 
tM.nL. tutt^tit^p tLptAf \f'- uiUMniihL.u tlbh-tutlbh-u ttn nUi^ u. 
£r^f<Yf^£r latMlttiititttulf tptttt* u. atunttil II. futuntuttnt..p-a 
tut/a tunaituLbtug txpu It. lUttugn* ^r^BLnU. tnt..tut.. tunptMjjb 
unbtMiptMinlttP ttatutnt..utMUt ntl^ bt pltt^tuit..tu^ tttT ttt..ntufunt^p-a. » 
WiEifa. tttt^titaguip taJhtMbtMtUuit^ tun.btut tntuntuL. ttpu jtututu-' 
ntiiUu h'-Pi ^ r 'H"^~r' ntMtttthuLtttbltb atutMubgittg iwu* 
ti. tun tun nL.ntufunt..p-ntjM atuttttt^tP^ II. ttituniLbt^u 
tlbh-tutlbh-u Ann<^ttun Intci* Af- ""'4' st"^ "'L ^"UP 1"^ 
luhlttun^ fubunbtiit tnbl-b ujjt tlthtutlbh ttttunttJuu II. tntug 
j9^£r* U. tu tpLnn tutu tin Istltu t. tuuttH tunptaMi ttutJtutttMiU 
tutn^* ttnn H^i__ p^^ itpupt^ti ^tutljtu^^ tup,nL.utltu^tiij fol. 12 •" 

thtttnlfU ttT tMMtuniJiJtttif^ nn tnnt^tUL. l^ttttUu h-tun.tyltn ^nn* 
1^ ## Itbi tntuntu tAttup-tttb ^tn.nnit.nb ntP 'p^P nt^unt^nh^ up 
ff> nt^utuL. tftun.tu^pb nt.unL.uit p.tunL.tip^* 1/^ ^"^ "YZP'^A' 
AtuPtttb ^trt.nngJtU^ It citrt.u htl^ L. ^tutM^tnlt tAtu [Ait. 
tutt^L.utu tnlttup-ttt Jfinji nn l^n Il2'*-y • h* .2"'%B"'Py ^ luntttlt 
untu<^lfb hJyf t. jttibcA tuntunh tAtu p^iptuntylt hturtjuMtlA 
hdfnt* l>f> ^ntutlitJitnlt mmmA ^tunl^ttAti It pt^ntAu L. It 
thnn %nntu» u. tuuttT gttut It tItnttAtA ptP tt.. tttuAtA 
VP l^i— '""-'"^'''^ (utUL.untP /Atf. uttMj tL. tt.nL. irnttu It 

' u,n^ Bod 92. 2 j;„%„^^ Yen. 

* juUi^t-P-biudp. Bod. * bpl^piM£Uti^[i %t/ua L. QTH Bod. 


jusu. f . om Ven. ® add mw*^ Bod. 

® if.iupL.nSL Ven : btP Bod. * om Ven. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

J56 funuimp II. hJuiUunnup-hiJU 

Pjuinn II. ujui^tui* II. inunn itJlu ^"'jf uutuutL. II. 2"'--P 
UBuLutL.* Vifoutt ultuun II. uiutiT unuiu^u t 

tutartLMuAab t 

hifUML.uart uuuusl. ItutP'uth it. utu^ tntnJ^n aiupuutauin^ Mi A 
^"tlP A</r Jkntut ,£"1$ ^"UP b*^ funLiun^^ "Pi nnnnJhu 
jfbk h-uin^uiihu J^n^ II. tnta ^ta ^nn L. Jnfuhn^ II. h-iun^un 
auiiP uiuni^u LbUuig nJng* 1>£. Iru UMUirdT Aui s 

f l#7yLi7fi#^ iiuP-nn^ dtiun^iug ImP^I* "- n-fL. ' 
ttMi/3-nfL.nj hJnj Lnnh-uMhaatn upu t 

i\nn.tiuL tu Oilr^btpi L. h-jtnuiUnu ^tvf ^ O-nL. 
^nnnJ uiUiUiLuibagbn qJuMnJItliU niP ^ s 

itpnJtiMiu tu CLUtpAniugnugh q^hq nnuil^u ut2utuipiuq* 
qp tp^ tLtug^ uMiL. pu p-^tuupb tipg Ml. utJputgugg p J^^q* 
ii.nt^ pi^pUJfU qinuip pAutJIt UMUthr pJnj s 

f |/7«tirii#^ tu tuim^ 'hR 'i b ^^^^-^^ "- b *'l^^*^b^"^ t"^ 

JiumUagap qpu p ittuu p-AuiJnL. II. Jui<^nL. s 

fl/'T^^"'^ ^^ ni.i/n£^A q^bq^ npui^u iuiqu rnqnt^tung^^ II. 
uipt on h h-uili ^n U. Jluufb^ hJT LnLtp h ptpuiU ^n* II. 
fol. 12^ tflumnuiip ^n uptgtp Jum^u faiT^^ x 

* mutgli Bod. 

■ luk Ven : p>lrgnLguAb% Bod : + it- p}"!- pu\fm\ p$lrgmLgMAL% 


' Canon : it nfuuag$aap p^l- ^'l^['"P'i-l/^ ,g" « ^ uaulrtP ^uy juap-nta. 
aituapuan • • • 

* allraiaay — t'l'lp^p om Ven. * ^"i^ L. om Bod. 

" Ord iJiup* faaP aaaaq. 92. 

7 p-^uaaqtb ai^aup i\g'h/f% /f uaau% 92. 

® Canon melius ita : n* "'^"'-gf' 'bg^i_ ""C ^«»^«»* 4. 

liiuaaaati^p oaa aaptraua hf^ fi tJ"*iP l"^ ^"'^'gb f"^ ^^ i^P hp 'niraaaaa%Bra 

* U. a/aaaaaait plrpaaa% ^aa om Ven. *** aapirp jaulp ^n Ven. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fuft^iupuy 157 

thnuttua apu II. utiuntanja npu* II. uihnpuia^ ^n n^ 
tiu^nnlriua ^tat 

i\ngM.auiL tntn nUi nnuil^u LuMnmC nn t^iun oiuubtpiy 

niunAautt a^iun uP-iuP^ nL.ninniJt u. iiut Jr^utp aP-uifa-u 
h J a nun unnut it. iCdtaiug Aiu II. tuu^* t"Pr^ "i- tP^'^PP 

i\nii.tiMML anan nbi nntu^u uMtirU nn nuut^n auinnnVb^ 
iuu^ tnnnnltU u^ numtu wfy n^ aJtuitu^ tpt^ nbu- 
nnnh-llh qJnnpitti. ^n* umu^ unirU • \f" b ^ffi^'t-^u^ni-Pfru 
nuutttT l^^l* I*- J^"" Jui^nL.utli h^y fuiVu quau^ ^n II 
pfiiilrii qJnnP hiT t 

i\nn.truiL * trntrn nbi npus^u unU nn intuin tAbut iknLpUu 
II. «^ Luinuin ^uiUlfi n Jtn* ^i iluiUw'^p^nLp-hi% ht^n 
2Ui<^anuia^* op tLtuniuML. iiitni n 'IW'-p' P'-P ^ 

^\xuinAauii^ tntn Mti nnui^u utnt/u/bui^UMUM nn nuthttun 
nnhuu • J- * L. J-nnnJkiun nnht^u ^ftbar L. 'yi_ uftMi^uiu t 

i\niLtui£f tntn fHii nnui^u LtunKb ^ nn ^tnn^n qi-guni^ 

^ om Ven. 

> i^qtnmtA — ^p-utp% om Yen. 

' Canon om f-VA* Deliinc ita: «^ ^^«»4//» ^-f/t ^u»p[i7^ p-k 

tlOftKLp-fig ^n Mtnu fiiP !;• 

* Canon ita Syriaco concors : p-k aupJiumnil^ b'^'L * V4^^ ifJapP^ 

» ^ifciL Ven 92 : -yw^g Bod. 

• ^ Ven : 4. ^ 92 : jlri^ Bod : j^'^v Par 69 : e canonico restitui. 
' ^ ,j.uipJihu,i^ 92. ® ii^piiku,^^ if/ffj^«if( 92. 

» ^pp..m ^f,%^ Ven 92 : "r'ik" • i^". Bod. 
^^ om ui/i_ Ven. 

" Canon: n^^k" t^utu^ qup ^uipk[i%* luuk haatn^ bp^ ^i_ h^P 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

158 [unuiufp II. nifuMUinnuphi^ 

Ltunh'^nn tp^ qantnp inntu AnuiK f-^yS ''P'h i^PSP ^'"tP 
junup napL. Lu/bLnuliU • Ir* ^PIJ "ttnpb n^ Ltup^ fUnu./ ♦ 
U.L. pt^ l^r ""Y' "nnuM nnuil^u h-nnuibn Jfiunuhni Ptuajug^npn 
"i- k*"ph *taJiUibbi4t ^\9bl ^^"3P "i"P infutnunh Piuajut^nnn ^ 
pMMMiQ Mfpli nuub^ n^ ^p uiL.a.nL.inf u. n^ uipuiuAp* ^fji 
uiUuil^tn II. Juiin t 
fol. 13 '^ ll#7«i.A^fi#^ tntp piii npui^u oAtua. h-ph-njith np utbuuML. n 

pntiani ItLpJI^* II. tqptn tptui uwpu Jp II. umu^^ "Pi c//'^ 
p quiut Up l^*"/ "ill ""^ tl^Pb ^PP ^p^'Y "^ utul^ aummJm 
h-ph-n^uiU tp^ Bpiuppn. nnp pbi tupuipap p 'N'^'-p' J?" 

t'^pht^ I 

fl#7YLA^fc#^ ^ffcifir np unpub piipb nt^m^f LbpuiLnup f^^UPS 

itn^^ np piii n^ uiutAioU nLunJp ^uMinnab Am s 

fl/7M.i7ii#A tntp piii npuil^u tptpntLUijP np PiUiiouit H"ijp 
ttunphiiU* tiLptn mAhu lC%lCttni^L tih L. iuu^ HP i- O-nt^ * 

^ om uau^ h, Ven. 

^ "t. J""t 7^*- ^^ quern secutus sum. utu^ ^f»p ffbl jusqP-lri_ 

• Canon ita p/'T-^'^f 7-***- u^uup ^. p-k anlni^ lu^^aupuy giaHuJ^ 

* f«f/f^ /?'"-/. Vd 92 : i^ni- Bod. Apud MS. Canon dehinc 
sequuntur Syriaco consona ita : n/'7-^««'f > ^'' 'y"^k» ^«»/»^4^* p-k 

biuaah-u k inntA ^Jf U. tt-uapuAaLlruatru o/^V^ Ac/^ "UL. P*"" "'^w^k'*- 
"y "V^en 6t om %np§u ^piV < utup %np 92 < uyupu %nput npi^^u (sic) 


« /=*^ Bod 92. ^ iu,i,p% 92. 

8 ^u,f,ip% 92. • j^>> Bod. " 't''plr% Bod. 

" n(u)pu»i.^ Ven 92 : unt^ig Bod. Comge uLuml^ 

12 + if/f if^ 4 92. *' ^uyp om Bod. 

" om 7-«*. 92 : 69 dat if'i'i ^-ph^ir*,. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fuftliiupuy 159 

II. uiulf liunoP-u LiuJT tun. tuh-* tuu^ TC%lCnnuUli «. "(jn- "/' 
p ahnuilin. ^ lt"i_ i* utu^ lungaing ^'^'^h^ h* J^^P*' 
iiuLtauiu iCpU^qniJpM tunJtnut a^uiA U. LuiiuiL. uuitunui-' 
'bnauMult9 utu^% tp^ J^^'W^I'^S ^^Sb^ 'HI" kp '"^ 
uiiUuilfU lulf tunoPpa ^"/f < 

fl/vA^iify iuuiuapti n.uMjtniJi$ P^ P'^S k'*'3 P Q-"^^"^» 
UMU^ tp^ It puia LlrbtMttP IpttdLnt^ptuUtutT • qp tfttt^p!* tu^juau 

fl/vA^fff^ trnap pUci ttpui^u R-^^ "P ttputntu^katUL. 
jt2nt%^ L. tuul^ "12.1/^ l^t -P^ll jntluMbutlr* tuu^ "ni.lft"t 
unn- ut % P^^hli "/' nupuptMibtt. jntnpa pJna tupituLatua it. ttn 
ffbi titbutubai tftptuu ^tt ^^p u- tupautuppntjltu^ t 

i\pn.irtu^ tittp ftbi ttptq^u itL.ffit* ^ itp irtntu q^Ltpi ltL.p 
q^ tttttpMiip* turt.ttut 2^'-p "V^ fi '/^P"{J ^"P"* * 

t\Pt^"'i ^75/' fi*^ ttptq^u pntiti tip tt/ h ottuptiMt 
pptnlfit* jnpJ-tutT 2^n.tut^ u^utUL. <^tuflrf^tr ptptnltb % 

i\pti.lrtuL tuutuapb att^pptnt tp^ P"! quittlitptuLtub 
ptuVb^f L. ^tut/iupitu^ l^b p*"^ 4?^1l J'"PB"'-^h" t/uttuUtt 
II. tttultt^ tuutug tiiphub^ ^Ph ^itsH^ ^i.'P f"^ nuLjt trt^ foL 13^ 
PtuP ptP tupo-tupp qutttlnptulttub ptiiljlit iti P'*nl'3 ^ 

^ om. ^ng Ven. 

^ linulptup. sic Canon Bod Ven : ^m^put'tiuJ* 92. 

' add k. 2^'^ Bod 92 : Ven om, sed apud Canon sic : "'1^3 i^^^ ^ 

aitnnnuu oqjti-ut x 

^ npn^ui^ usque ad uippnt^u om 92. ^ iut.m%ui%uili Bod. 

* Canon Syriaco concors om /«»/» U. tup. ' mi^ 92. 

® ipinalnpau^usi, ptu'Vit Von 92, CanOn I tpintlnpn,.p-fi^bt^. Bod. 

* ^Buduip^uili ^^%[i fLuA% ^kq_ Ven : eadem 92 Canon sed om fuuVl» « 

^utt/SitpJiau^iruMj^ b% p >^^7 Bod. 

*® fuupu /nP Canon. 

*^ Post p-"qt3 Canon haec habet Syriaco consona: {ipfi-lnuli %uip-uik 

^i.fV pu,pmup[iiAu ^JplfffP ^iri^ A. ^i. ^my L. ^g»Lp uip^irf^p 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

t\nn.tiuL tntn phi nnui^u iut^aUt nn thuiPuiptatui^ n 
tluMunauMi II. uibLuiu n a.auAi* intuttut tfliui OMUjtngii* umu^* 
iu<^ui luinU ft luinii ^th-tuit ^* It. ^j**n ^ «/» 'h'^ph 'fl'nuui t 

i\nn.tiuL tntn nbi nnui^u f^n^'-pn- "/' ^/'"^ r ^uit^ti^ t_ 
fW/ P"f- 'HII 'H"*'3 J *'**"* ^"i^3 ^jptuuiutinj\ II. utniuiLtuMi 
utph-ltL. Jjt ^iun. tflttUf II. uiui^n futnunipa^ ^Ph "/ 4/'^ 
nuimpu^ n iftnun niP n jhdT uttnpU l^n Liuntuii futuntu-' 
niuuuih LinMUit^D x 

^\p'H'^"^ IR^HII'U ^*uiAt tnt^untjSu tnilpb a. uMutrU umuui* 
'yp* pti* ntiT • u. liui tuu^p *y^t py^f O^uin-t* t 

i\pn.tuiL qfuntA p piuniMMhpiMU inuMpuiU^ t. im uibltttut h 
Jha^putufU p-iUL.u»i^p uiutinJ^^ p itpn. inuuin^o L. tu 

Viiuiuuti u^uiut^ liutputh U. uiul^p* ^uMjp pJT fupuuMp^ 
uu Jisnunt^trb^ u. %ui fS-nnnt. jnptruiiT JbnuMj^ iuuirU* ^"^JP 
utnuMj »P"1J* P"l P*^^ "- ^" ^n"3 ^ 5L ^w'-uiU 

auMjuJ^tin^ J/tb^UL lUiMJttntuMhr* 1^^ uiutJT nUuip-uIlM 


^\pn.tuiL tntp pbi npm^u uipJiuu.lrUh np pnuutuit i^p 

itap ntinnut^ inptruttP upnnunlt ^utuiuu^p but ft tt-tutA 

tuULutltlfp* t^ttut tnl^pit h-tun.tub tun. ft Ltnptt tAtu^ tu tuu^ 

h-turtit P^n IPU J^N"*^ tntqL.n^u'^^* q^ tfftt^u tutlft F^Pbs 

lu^Muafi fmP^V* Yf- 'f-'"- qJiupiiftU jaJT uaquil^uahlrijb-fi ^ unmg^ fu$MaLutg$fi x 
f^pn-trutb aAuL^fi ^jP^R "P'^k" f^^lfP qauiii^utii^^ Ttl' ' ^ ifJ"- aiLiraa»\im 
ft J* ^nputgnL.ghp qfw t 

1 lu,iri0ni^tu,% Yen 92. » V] + q^p"- Bod. 

^ qju^t^^u Ven: qq-iu^t^ii 92. * ^^r^ +^.«Yf^ 92. 

* ^/&*r 92. ® J^^i^iuuA 92 : Ji>B.j,u,\ Ven. 
' ^'HiV ^^^ • ""fi Bod. ® uiiiinr Ven : ^^q__ Bod. 

• Canon my f^ tu%^tut.mptujjf. ^^ om Ven. 

" uf/uiT BudfB Canon. ^* Jf,uum%,^uMjr Yen 92. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fuftllUipUMf 161 

uj in nun Urn 1^"^ "'4/' ^uin.njii Mh^L. ai^f/ umljb i^H^P pbci 
uinuMUibn* uni ni uinmuniuiunnu x 

^\nn.lnuL utS- usiuntnnjn npu Jua/b uiUuBnniJUr hJy^ "- 
1J^t*t h'^PIJ" J^^uli uiUiuunl^nL.P'aiulM ^n» 1^ umnuuih- 

iuniiJ^ thnjutun^ [njnt- pu u. t^'t- 'R'"t_^ lb iuaJuM 2^^"^ 
^nin uiujj L. atnuiVb ppP < \^ ^UJItU J-uiifnu nun.tnuiu 
inuPiuu u. uiUiutuin.arniuL. * u. tu uiuaJT x 

^Xpnlriuli nn ngunh uin%l^ PTP ^"""^4'* "- "P "UlTB ^^^' ^^' 
hinnhinnuiwn ihnn^ ftlfA uiULuMUn n uJiu^* LuiUMtunn DLiunnU 
h auinn a. ^uufus ft }nip* fKiutuuunn uututiunanutu ntpLtup^ x 

' aftnfuuafik'b Yen 92 : n.utiatututnut% Bod. ' ppp Veil. 

^ add MfV" JiupJfh %nf$ui Bod. 

* p %Jut Ven 92 : ^ lunpfunpuMu, ^od. Sed Canon Syriaco consonans 

ita *, f'L. np i^npja pi* p^ht-n^ iu%3iiutfB. h^P"'/ fbnu* 

^ 92 add nJihuutL. juhhtunu L- tunauu^p II. iuuMu$JnL.f3-h$i juhhuapauf 

The following textual notes need to be added for pp. 125-140, 
based on a recollation by Father Alishean of San Lazaro of my printed 
text with Cod Ven :— p. 126, 1. 1, «iY«fnL^/^_p. 134, 1. 15, iq€u.p% for 

a^if§ui^uih% p. 136, 1. 16, read Mf^/^wwtWMflkMf^ for uiq^utmaaa%a§§i^ 

p. 136, last line but one, l^qp^p for hpp-uyp — p. 137, 1. 3, ^^Jnu^ — 
p. 138, 11. 7, 8, thfii- ^uiqu.n.u.lin^p^l,^%^^, 139, 1. 5 Cod Ven also 
adds the ten sayings — p. 139, 1. 7, ib t e^V'"-d\ 1- S> it Z**^* i^P 
^nuutn^ ^uMugk — p. 139, after 1. 14 add this precept: n/'7-^«»f> '^t 

L. A. X 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

\Q2 [unuiuip L. hiluiutnnupht^ fultLuinuMj 

^lUfi^uA^f pjiy^ ff^£^ fiv^ ithh-kx — ^p. 139, last line but one, ti-hmfiVb 
for V4Ar— p. 140, L 7, ^1^^ for iC-M* ; 1. 9, ^u^u, for it«*-m— p. 140 
omit lines 11-13, and then proceed, instead of lu[i^u»puyt thus: 
(lftq.irut^, ^M-tnufj/i F^t 7f»** ^«Y'^«'*- /u/i^utpph etc. — p. 140 in note 
for plane om read add. The whole text of pp. 140, 141 is given in 
Cod Ven as printed. From p. 141 to the end the readings based 
6n the second collation of Cod Ven are embodied in the text and 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


While these sheets are passing through the Press, collations 
of two of the Syriac MSS. in the Library of the American 
Mission at Ooroomiah have come to hand. In the body of the 
text they do not show a great deal of variation fix)m the 
Cambridge MS.; but in the Sajdngs of Ahikar the order is 
much disturbed and there is a good deal of variation. I reserve 
these texts and the critical questions which they provoke for 
discission at some future time. 

J. R. H. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


«4jA 1. 7 for ^^.^5-1 Tead ^^.JM 

lUSQ 1. 11 f&r ^^J^ \\^ read ^ft^ ■ \jlf> 

\**« 1. 6 for >^A emend »2Lx. 

OfiO 1. 9 /or K^AlLcJLA read K^Allg'i Tn 

CU09 1. 10 /or ^^.^f^ ewwnc;? ^l< 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

»|Vi\\ -^oAjj l^CCSQ i\^flf» ^^^cciA \snf^ .^K" V^CO^IQ 

.f^ir<la r^L*.*i\^ ,r^Lsr^^ ij^K" .Aus 

5 f<!i.i «^_cciA ^K" .i^LMa .^K" ^r^Lfi f^n\ K'.Tii:^. 

.f<iAAi& A^ f^Mi^n »coa,Stt.ft> r^i.2a«».i ouLiA >V3 
caTfti ^A^..i ^'isnK'o ■K'l^N-i Aj^o A^j:^.^^' ocdo 
10 .K^i^^K^ Ain r^l *^^J^ 

>iii ^:iL.i .ij.snK'.i reiAdusoA >cfXft^iijL >V9 ^k" 

.A*iuLifi9.i K'i&floc T<lsajk2u» iau^K".! tCooAioQ a^\t„ 
' Cod. «L«» ' Cod. A:^. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^aK" ^CD ^ vA QOLjj .»X ij^f^a tia •^JU KLi:^ 

r^:k.ia .v^sl^i t**it^ r^acoK'a , f<Aia \ % flf» f^.icD 
KlX iuK'a .ft^Tin f^ia^K' r^K'a .vvAuAa.i K^HaUi 15 

K'loQia coaK' orAfkC •K'lca^ A:^ f^aco ^r^Lfi.i Klifi.i 

iMK'c .KiaaiM v^ r^.Tn:k.a .r^hsxsL r^^ico timAiT 20 
f<ia^f^ vJu.i f^.ia .^ijLAK' red vd*.V3 .coisn ooA 

f^JLk. lAia r^lx^Q .\^*gn .coA ^ij^K" r<af^.iX >ia 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f^ cAf^.i ^^.^aoA ^iMK'a K'iiz.aA& ^^.^k" ^liruia 
5 ^isnK'c ojLk. ^.^..o^ h\aca r^cco K'Aiai K'iucAa r^K" 

r<!xa^.l vvAf^ i^Lf^A-SQ &uiA rdA&ia t^K" f^f^L:^. 

lo red iiig^ r^K" . rtlsnr^lito.i r^.iK^a r^l2nTtlfl9.i t t^Vi^ 

• f<lf^ r<nnT. 
r^Uifi9 A:^ f^acD ■ni\i.i r^cut vyK' >i-a »X ^aco 
^.^.OaA XSnr^a r^LaK'.l ^^^^K' K'VAtO .K'lcnla K'.TX.a 

15 .^ai^ r^AioA ^^K" cAk" .f^cuf ciA iJMK" ^_aciA 

• ^cfiJiia.ia K'w^-i f^liajLCUf ^aco 

^U»a .osAi^oA ^Sk&CD .K'acD >!\^ r€\ caiai.i A^.a 

• orukla »l=90 onus 
20 ^^^aoo^cia2>af<\ r^o^^ caco.! r^Li:^ ^u» r^K' >V3 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f^f^ .iuuL& ^ ^.vsn acD .oA vsnK'a •f<'^9:i:M 

^ caz&A acD .^'^f^i&^.i i^iK""^ vyr^ >V3 A ^aco 
^acD . .^ n\^'^ tCoaiAM coixAa .^icuLsn KlX K'^osa 5 
> r< M i\ duaA »€DaiAM \\*in.i r^;x^^ vyK" >i-9 lA 

r^lAaCLo.1 f<ia^r^ A;^.i rCaX^ vv»r^ >i-a »X ^aco 

^acD ^^^acvaua un^\ >ia ^m)li lAia ^a .^mti.i 
K'V** .i&a .r^ii\ f^acD Aif^.i f^i»v*» vyr^ >ia »1 10 

• CX4JJ90 aii.i 

^^JixM f^iav*» A^ vyJu:^.! .r^ll^^ vycaiK" p9 A.^ 
•K'caii r^LaK'.i.i r^iujsa •Aak' €d.*u^ ^.l kIslI^ tis» 15 

* Cod. om. :i K'lf^ is probably corrupt. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

KlX f^coAf^a i^^o-if^ ^if<^a ^^^o-if^ r^lAA^ iui^ 

^^Q K'i.SaiJLS iV\^^.l f^lK' ^^-ftK' >V3 tA ^acD 

•Qa^iCLo ti:^ >lzj3 K"^ .ciA iJMK'a r^Lsno*.! coi.^^ 
5 . h\ iuf^ ^cfi*.i r<*n\ T. vy f^ . oxA isnK" ^.i aco 




f^i^^ f^^f^a .f^AiLiaLa r^aco i^A^ r^M^ >i^ 

ij^f^ .f^lAicD iuf^ .Tn:^ f<i*n .coA isnc^a >cfXftV*» 

• T^idL^ ciA ij^rt^ .r^f^ f^^SQ f^oAf^ .r<4dL& ciA 

f^^*Uk. ^ajjA .r^jdi^ ijMK' . OJLsa v^o&s ^f^.i acoa 

.v^a .cDicv^ €D.T^a .cm m 10 ccd f^i.^^ jsi^a 

•vJjA .^^ti r^ .ciA iuK" r^l\^SQ.i K'ciAk' 

AiaiM.! f^iGia:^.! it^^n \ n vyc^ >V9 >-A ^acoa 
r^'.lK' oaA a.Tn:k..i f^ vyv^ oi-s »-A ^cco 
^ififtik..! f^vkx*f^ j^ii.i K'i&f^ vyf< >V3 »X ^acD 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

»Au4jL2a .oil ^iJbOf^c . f^\ M ^ttA iuiLsna . »A\iu*ga 

• f^LvMJftA r^l&r^A f^.ix^i acD vyr^ >V9 A ^aco 
• Aao ft'oAft' ^ K'cQ^^a .^A^ r^ f^LvMJftAo 

^ A:^i.i cointti f^u».i acD vyv^ >V9 »X ^acD 15 

• tCDcAik. r^Lsnia r^jisnn r^Lai^ AnTO .ouLioa 
^€Ui^.l ^ocD u^T*n »J^\ \nn r^l^n >V9 ^.1 >cA 

r^ f<laiS9afio Ai&a^-a .^Mjskr^ .\it. K^taUi.! Klajci 
^cAiSQJsn .lOjoa coi^ja^ vyi^i f^acai ^...^a .^ftla 20 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

5 rCfkLsn riA&a , »c!ni\\ r< Kli^o* aco.! \\^ 
lo ^^.^i< iuAJSaif^a -^H^^ ^iiBftJk. AoAv^n r^ii^.l 

' Ood. rd£v3 • Cod. 

^ vA 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.^CD ^■\nTi .lOA^ >i:50 .r^L^LsaA coA ^\snr^ ^.T*€D 
rddJLsio .*IA& ^a^a •aoi^a^ >€DCUi-aiaia kIaJoq 

»^f^ f<aJLfiak2kf^.i A \^*w rCfkLsQ >i» .ciA ^isnr^a 10 

f<lx.i» f<l€D ^JSO K'.^uB »A ^ I n ft! ^ f<^\ T.rdA 

ccD r^LsnOft ij^c^a vyju^ .r^L^A-sn ,\^t. .i&a .coA 
K'ciiAf^ yin-n vyi-a f^aca^ .ijajjjf^ cvaua :iJuA^f^«i 15 
Kl^ajjaa r^Lai r^Lsno^ .vv<^u» r^^ika.! Ajk.a .^i^sa:! 
^^.1 ^r^SQ.i K'^K'.vsn »X ^cfXft ^.*U€D .r^f^ :ia^ 
AiAJ&CD rCfkLsQ »i:M .A*iuLifi9 ^cA A \j^no .^ujl 
r<ai r^Lsno^a .>i\nnc t-^iai^ Ada aooa .Au^^sno 
ijMK'a 1^1 V c .t-ia^af^ cdAua-a tla JLVaa^. 20 

L. A. 9 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^^c i-A-^ K'r^lsadvA^ .Au-UL rdXJLM Ausf^lito 
rdJA .TMis hsif^ %:snr^ ^K'a .ic^Kd r^\^x\ ^l^xso\A 

jiT^ ijDAjjK' . A ij^f^a • .^^ »\jiv> rCfkLsQ ^^■^^ 
cax.1 A-^ ixMf^ .IM f<lQ \ nriK' .r^co i^Av^n tA 
Aasc .t^\ \ji\^ ^^^ K'llK' Aas .k^iW ijos.^1^ 
ID •r^so.^cK^ .*U»c K'lCUf .iM . ^ ■ \ nu ^i^ f^\ \^i \^ 

• CD^QAK^ f<lf< .Ta:^ f^lK'c .r^Ju».i r^dajj -^^^X. 
20 f^^rCiJSO ..Ta:^.^ r^ K'.ico »^^.l .»X ijsort' ^.i^co 
AvstK-M^f^c Aia^ ^.*U€D •vyA KllsaciXK K^ ^i^S9q:i 
•r^LflJbo.i cqIa^cd ^ laA JkcL&ia ..Tnik.K' ^f^.i >ais3 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

•rCfkLsQ »X i»f^a .r^Lsncu .tmo t^dcd Klia , 
.1^.109 f^^flua^ oi-ftiuftf^ f^li-sa ijaj4jf^ >JCU9 .t^ 

en \ n A *gnT.o .la^r^o Acd^ wwdon on..! ft»cuflg 
f^^OASk >.A «^^a|ic^.i ».in\\ ^:in&a .rCfkLsn ^:ia 

>i\\\ f<l!k!Lsn tiso .coA ^isnK'a Aui^a .^ iur^ 15 

• f^acD f^vii.i f<i.v^ aco^a •K'aco 1 i ^ t. »\jf> 
cfi:^!^ ^acD Air^'a .ti^n »1 n^\i.i ^aco A^iififiLSa 

s^ ^ iauAf^ r^f^ f^V*».i vyv^ .»X iJSOf^a ft^%\*w 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.TA&c .».iJJr<a cbiiAAAa coAi^i^ K'^i^^ t^iciAc 

5 K'.icaa iad^ .coA ^iJSOf^c »€DCLJdQ.ia A^ \ \ c KI2JL23Q 

XJSkCk .vvA W^S i *WT. f^.i K'AiJLm AuftK* K'^i-^j^ 

ID .cQjsn^ rCfkLsn A^iriT x^o .la^Kli t'^^^'^ KIaam ^'ifkfi 

15 rei\A.iiKd cJ^arc" .f^jiiX r^LMlK^ .f^\\*w r^liA^ aoco 
rdJiisn t^Um .t^o ^[.-^^v^ K'l-^K' K'i:^} .^AA^.l 
rOjuJ^a i<iufii ^nftii inAMK' r^K' ^i^cd .coa^ 
•CLoi:^ ^^^orAfk.i r^Js^^s^ .KL&\sn.i r^LiaiaiX ^cco 

' Cod. ^*si^ 

' Here the text appears to be corrupt; but perhaps the words 
in brackets should stand before r^;.ii»if^) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^ A \ >i:90 .A*iuLifi9 r^l2n.i . .a*^ iuK" .T.& 

rdisk >:^i ^^^o •K'.ivs ft^\\e f<'i\^ ^ \ n ^ 
^,^^au»iuA Kli.i »coa n i \vAo ••• f^.i n^T*wi t\ 
»€DGULaiaiXa .r^aozs n^^No A\*gn\,i ^ AmV ^Jlajo 5 

.v^\\n.i iukSox. *\*niT*an K'cco r^ .r^L&lsn »\ ij^r^o 
»i:50 Kliiiis >^f^ Aj^.i^ .oA AiiJSOr^ r^K'o .vviJSn 
• fliW .TA^ r^.i ^.i-M p9 lAaicxz. K'oolK'a .rd^l^Q 

K"^ ia*xi\o vyki^ iAA«ftf^ Ai .rCfkLsQ |A ij^r^o 

* An attempt has been made to erase this comparison, and two 
words are almost entirely illegible. Perhaps it was * the god Bel ' for 
an original * God of Heaven.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


.»conni\vA vy-i^ioia r<lx^aJLX f<\ \^ >i:M iuAc^ 
ATiN iM^V.! .»€Dcaaiai\ rd^LsQ .sa^ .*iA&a .>^a\ 

»i:50 iuf^ r^l2n.i .ciA ^iJSOf^a .^a-SO.i ^^soA t-iaioio 
ij^f^ ^a^o .r^LikSkO^ vvu^ioio f^icojaoA r^L^Ajso 

acoQ .r^LaJ^dfio ^^^ofia^iu f^ll&^cD |JL.iAia .^ii&^na 

.^aM.i ^^sqA lAaiaia .y\n%^f^ r^r^ r^lsn.i ^29aA >A 
vv&iaioic .^fttii\ f^LflJbo tijso ^t^ r^Lsn.i ciA ^vmt^o 

15 r^.-|a> .fA iJSOf^ r^L^Jusn ^.t»€D .tCOOiiacaA ^ 1^.1 
^^l^.ia .>€DC*i»cx^ t-iaioic . Ain\ >jAu».i c^iuai 
^^.la .aCdoaAiA oaioic r<T^T\ >jAuJsn.i ^^lai 
>jiusn3 «^^if<.ia .f^LaACL^ lAaicio K'laifiA >jAuJsn.i 
pQAAfsK' t-A i-Mf^ Ai\rw .>€DCVAacfiA t-iaicia ^ftiii\ 

20 .oA ^vMK'a hui:^ r^f^c .r<l2a.i ^^soX vJu.i vvi:^ 
i&.i^^ »i» ja^i i> 1 fti \.i rdLftJLsQ »i:M v^ oa^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.^i\i\yn.i rei\A.iirdl g^T.aK' .r^inX r^UtiK" .ft^\y\^wi 
^IK" .^i^mA ^i\i*gri n&a ^..^aJK' hsjooAn ^.i^co 
f^^f^.i .fCDcaaiai r^%\*gn\ avMf^a .r^L^Jbo.! rd^i^ 
jsca»a rdALsQ :ia&o .la^f^.i r^L^Jbo 1.IX..1 K'in]^ ciA 5 
.>09flusn:ia iiLk. r^Lsno*.! coiAiaXa .r^L*ijLsn Aus »X 
iMK'o r^l^\» f^j:k.a .cn^\T*i ^rdJLa oq\ ^.*i^a»o 
»€Da^f^ >LaAar^ .ciA ^iJSOf^ r^K^o .v^aJL p9 .A 

^OAfsK" A| .»X 1.1-Z. CD^OaLsQ.I f^\yiT. ^f^l^T nT,.i 

.TA& ^.T*€D o^clA f^^o K^i.^^ ^.laa . vyv.<SArd\ 
acoa .f^LxusooA^ afift^&if^ Tiji*gtt\.i .tcocoaiciA r^^Asa 

iuK' r^l2n.i .ciA ^iJSOK'a Aui^a .t-iaioi ^&.2q.i polo 
»ac^c . tCoa'iJMOAA v^Aj.aiaia . Ain\ r^L^Jbo »isa 

•cQAfioiQA A^ ^Ai^a f^icuf vaX r^l&JbQ acoc .f^icu» 20 
' Cod. f<l¥.aT. ' Cod. rdLLCUE. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.^ics.i r^laioi r< .lau^ KLai r^± q c u >o K'Auai 

A^f^nosN ^t ^\tK^ t^K'o .f<'ixj aa\ ^T^inn \ o 

•rt^^Lsn ft^ii\^ .f^LiSkca «,^_aiMrdi.l ^^^oaK" »^_^Aio 
15 fiy^^TK'o .^i\i^n.i f<Lk.Vir^ CL^Of< .rtlliA r^UiiK" 
iiiJsaK' ^.*ucD .ii.*ui;^ .cnA ^u\t.,i 7i.*i.saJL2k tii^K" 
•ifko .^r^:9A AiK" lUnniT.o >i:sa .ioa^ ,f^\\*n\ 
l\^ •VWA .^ire^o r^llxjA A iii-a.l .Alr^lsoX A an& 
•K't&j » Vi\ ^.^aJK" Am&K' .f<i^.TD K'iioa AurA 

^ . r<%\ \ r^±JOoiA CLnifioo «^_OJf^ a\nT.o ^^^ocoaJl^ 

' i.e. Kkm^iov * Cod. JqSjlK' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

AaAc^Q rtLlo^jiK'a ^H^Jk r^r^^n AaAuM rtl^fioA vOl 
•'isa lA >2a^ v^mnftOjLfc oiA iJsnK' .^Haa ^it^w h 

r<li^> ciA .aciaLftO • »\ ifk.iiiii r^ K'.icd . vw^Q.ia 

^i^ne'o imifl^o liLr^ls aiAi&o .>iiaX r^l^^ ^r^llAoa 

>H&^^o .K'l^^n .\ 1 iii*«i >?aat.c\\p .t-*.TijA r^^^ »^a.ia 

\iuMf< •»! iJSnK' r^lai r^Tuno . j *«i v AS^Li.i i^aoa 10 

iA i-snK'a . iJOCKi r^ t-a.=i.i Ti-l^sn .^vm v^a-^k".! 
f^.ijjaoK'o .vvi^iio v&jaoo ioAMK" vy&unX Ai .r<\\*?n 

\^r^ »a\inn ouocdc >dunA diLk. ^iucd .tdiciA r^^ 

f^Jsn ioAMK" huUM •»A iJSnK'c r^L^Jbo f<li:k.c .r^LaAsn 
iiijsjQK'c iuii^c .^r^so.i f<l&L» ^^^cu^i^ t-A «aii2k 
rdA K'iu^ K'iiCLa^ K'.ico A^ r^L^Jbo >i» .coA 20 

r^K" f^Liac ^t^aA rdir^ AlK" r^K" .v^ rt'ocn^ 

L. A, 8 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

..IfiUila vJu.l vy Vt n cA.l .Kl^LsQ tlJSn AuK" J^.*U 

5 ^CD vyre^.i K'i^aa^ .vvoare^ 7ia.*u»ifl9 t'lTi r^re^ 

r^cD kIjlcd J&r^o .^orA r^ccn r<xx^ r^V&flo ixujjr^ 

lo »-^fl» r^l^Ajsa .N*«i T ^^cD :u&a , re' t i iVi jam t, 

^^ODoda* .^*^T. ^CD nfko .orA iuacD .aciaL» K!acD.i 
15 .oA isor^o .Aj^ r<2iJLs».i tcncLSa.To .>Aii& ^i\fti^ 

.rd^Jl^n ^ ^ ^ ^aAci3 .*i^o . >CDa^r^ r^Vun u^^.*!^ 

20 r^iftZ^ K'ia^^ Also .v^sa-floOAft Also Also .ijsare^c r^lijk. 

^K" IMK".! vyr^ ^^^ . •^.*U r^ K'iutAa.i f^n \c 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.1 n \o .r^^iiia r^.A«:ii K'coAk' .i-SiQK'a f^coAi^ 
>i90 .^?aaT. .v^ f^io.l GiA ^K" laifii r^c .r<U» r^ 

^i^so.i fd^Ajsa ^^^osb^i^ .^^T. n^o i^thsx^n cnVnn 

K'^i^K'o K'CCD K'rij^ >\nf> .iiL^^^K" ioAMK" r^lJK'.l 

•i&a .r^Lso^Jk^ t^ A^ toacuArdx.K'.i 71.1:2^ A»^ 
vvX i.*ULr<o r^i^K" .r^CD vyK^.l K'iai^ »A i.TX.i\ 
tA i:ix.i\ r<lA ^^^f^o .^xiz. ^^:i ^t^m.i r^^T<%sn 15 
tJi AAua coA fdJr^ ArtLx.2n.i Tirudo A.^.1 K^i n \^ 

• r^ ia^f^.i f^i\r^.i» »A i.*ixxb i-ai^^ .rdM^^iSl 

• «^orA iJ^ne'o cDiiaskisn.! K'lrtUiO Klisioi «_^acaL^ 20 

^ Cod. vviilfk.1 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

5 .f<LaJb9 .a^iMHVi\ cuom flAiK'o .rdoLsnc r^lsouA t **f^ 
^Aftaa K^'^UL^ o\^Ti .IfkC .ciA &UJSa K'i&flff icujjr^.l 
vOuaut .fOCD »^Ji2«f^o ^oiJu&K' ^Hj# r^laLio .cocd 
.^.^.j^K^.l K'ii^icil -\r<Lflo r^JsnxA^ r^^AJSo iA&jjK" 

lo r<A£9 iua .*ia;^ Ai .ciA iJsnK'a >ia ^.JuiA f^\\rw 

i^Xk' .iJ.icfax. .ico^SQ f^lisir^o |A :iA!k. r^^a iua rd\ 
^^^ClIK" v^Aj^ore^a K'vii&c r^Ln«H-flo KlziW coA %X!k 

15 i\j*yic «h.^^aorA K'ocD iu\T*gn rt^iVitt >^axsaf<lAo 

f^iiAur^c K'ia^ ^O-a^.l Kl^jao .^co^ ti^iuK" 
f^l&a&iAa rtllK" r^±ai iaj4i»f^ rdiK'o .cnm\ i\m*^\ 

20 iiis» ^o .fiua <\\ji ^vMJ^Awdoc ^A&a :uk >i\CLnx^c 
jtiuiko .>^i^ ^^i\fti^ vCafloda* K'^K' K'Acdbcu AAa 
ftiif^a .ft^i^ato r^Lsa^A »A >q»o . >i,\-i f<l.aQa t^itla 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^ocD J^.*u.i \\^ .vy&Ji2^ rdl\a vJ^nSoX .A*iiJLiito.i 
vv^i^o . f^iiaJL&J09.i K'AiLk. vw^ i^ocd ^re^ rdl\.i 
vv<&u^r^ .Ifko .v^J3 r^L^AjM ccd.i r^±a.*i^ rdLuus 
r^LJUL^CL .kA .aciaLft K'iiaioi K^AiacDCLSQ >CDCL2n.*|.xiA 
tJ^iAg v^laLcq ^K" J&K'o .en 1 *w AuLul K^fX^V \jy> io 

A ^K" K'oa .r^L^Jbo vvicnio AA^^r< rdAn r^^d^a 
^a^MO .en *w T, i.2k*u^sa K'.ia^ A».l K^'i-A-jaoi^ Aua 
»CDcA:^ iAJk.K'c K^.m ^\ »cn I T n \rc^ tT ni\ .i\CL2a4.i 

tTOn\ .*! ft! ,10 .A^ GiA ^ifk t\fir> '. >Au& ^i\fti^ 
iAJk.K'a .r<\Mj»r< duasi.i ocd K^.in\\ »^_air^ ti \r< 
^^,,0031 *w t» >i v\^ 1 A ^ no . f^L>oA\i ^ \ ^^^OJIK" 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

fOiAAjjir^a .ixujjTU »cni\a\yn Ai ^cus .coX iJSnr^a 
ti^re^ Aj^ Avl&J ^.Iacd .^ASOKf K'r^sn cn.iix. ^ oiLiA 
r^Likisa >i2a i^lJSJOK'o . A1.1 ?^nf) f^\\*n\c .r^lj^ire^ A^. 

r<lAf^ '^^V^ iu!\^ r^.l fdire^ J^.T» rtllK'o . vO^^a^ 

.acDO .cnivxa j^i^ua ioAurdA >caAcO^ Al .>ivJ^ 
10 ^ i> 1 T tAA-A9r^ rtllr^ ^.*I^cd . K^^iQ 1 n \ cni\^^ 
r^l^K" iJsncDo2^ Alia ^ iAi^i\.l ti^^K" »i\^9ky.rdlA 
^ 1 \ ■ 10 f^\ nK".! ft^T,ni\ ^T n \ ic .r^h\^ i\ \ .1 .T4J 
^^^gn^ic .|jk.ior^ ^^^fxiio .» \ \ ^■\nic «^j|ja*ua 
K^,?n.iJi\ ».*ia^. >^r^c .i^CLSQi^.! 73x0 r^^a Aua A^ 
15 .>iui-Sk ^ ■ ^ Ofi*yi v^^ga-flpQ i ■ \ ^r^Lft^uzj^o Kl&JMfloc 
1 1 1 no «^_CGa..^iardA i^ciSkO . en *ai \ .1 r^Lftoii'i^o 
Acu^K" fdJK' j&f^o .»Ani\ ,fc.^^aif^ jLk.K'c ^^^oif^ 
>\^flft.i A\y*ga >ii^f^ >i\^^T.K'o .r^Luif^ vyK" >Aunl 
ocD ii.ia^.o .ii^.*u 02A AvmAx..! A.^ .iiocn KIsoa^a* 

<n.*l^r^la >cdo . r^^yi u \ A \ \f^c . »^ ■ i\ ^....^aJiK' 
' Cod. ^A^K'o 2 Cod. r^LftAuLSa.1 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

vyin \y ■ n \ Al vvfiu&oa .Kl^^Ajsn >i.SJQ vw^ J^cii\ 5 
flJSn ^.*UCD .vvi9Q.w!L ^tCDCU^i^" iAA»r<l\c .rdsioiza 

vyiimT. t\fir>o •ii.^ia^k. i^dJL ii.*ui;^.i .L& .»\ i^ort'c 

oi^ClA K^ii vy.lfiUila Auii^'o. .oaii&o.^c CDiiirdlX 10 

• tA iJS'QK' t^VM ti-^c .f^lAJLrn >.*i.xiA ^^f^ ^n^co 
loiir^.l K'iu-ai^ i^a iJl*.! K'iJ&Jto i-xiAMK" ^^r^ 

vA iA^ .A isof^a »is ^..J!-^ i^Li^o .A Awmlajci^ 

v^oaf^ r^L^An >a,>iui»» ^.*i^cd .rdAii^ vv ■\ \jc 20 
^ Cod. ^iiy iiM ^ Cod. >ai*^r< 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

r<^f^ AuaiuskA cDiuiLftiu& ^r^ »2n.ia '.oi-s .lOMi^'ii 
•aii&c tAiK'o f^L&Lsa.! fdi.i&r^la ^K" ^aiuto .iJu.i 
A*i»iLlfi9 ^.1 vy K" . fiicA ^ K'iiijjre' K'iii\r<' .sail 
r^l^kLsQ jui M 1 nf> ^ .ai^iu^ ^cdo .>i-2n r<%\ ^ 

iJk.iar^ f<h\o lao^ ^^ ^o -^^ K'ixiAuM.l 

*.vy^aX rtllK' •aiaAuM.l t-A^v»».l Klsac .rtUiift .ar^la 
lo .r^lsiiiX .T»iw:^.l K"! i \^ vyi^" t\ina\ r^JLajj lO.Uto 

15 .r^L&Lsn 713x1 ^f< r^xoo .^K" jAja-K" GUiLSkZJ^:! ccd 

CCD r^LsooA ^iJKJi ^ snOfcN Aireli y^da .v-^iio 

tiicA ciif^c .fl.» r^L&LdoX >ia «^:i-A •K'ociii 
' God. r^hu\ur< ' Cod. K'i&Qo iax«»f<X JLa.i K'^I^.O 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f<^M .fi-SQ ac0 i-SQK" ^cDO .^cn f^ljsn ^colsk 

^aK" ioAMi^".! li^'ccD i-SQr^ ^cnc J^^ i.^» % »Anni 

:>^r< ^^.jniniA tCDoiajaLS aco* r^lsaA.1 -.^oA >^aL 
rtda TDAuK' rtliK' ^\*gnT .ifk : cnivxa ^ »JAMii »\a 

l^■^^*^n ^1^ ^iiiii K'iiH.^K' ^ii^ .aiuo '.coaLs 

iJk.icrdl\ K'ii poem *.vy^aX r^A.^^^ i^'.icd f^4ii.\f< 15 

K'i^QjJLMc .r^lava rdX.i t^^n 1 1 l \ vv \ % re" rdJK'a 
t. A. 7 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

rdl\c *. ^^jj'iVy ^1 \aM ft^^fli \u vyu^ 1 >i^ 73 

5 .v& tvvn^r^ls f^lacD.1.1 r<iuav-^ >.&ja9ii r^ ti^ 75 
:ci3^ i^ ^...juA i-OAjji^" ^i^".! KlidAcu ftlico 

lo rdl\ iAjsq >i^ tt.^Jl-^:! • ^ccD .^•T» r€!^a *. r^LaJL^a:! 
jwiii A;^a -.aiA .ar^Lflo »r»re^ icujjK'.i i.SJOK'a 


3iu:k.iii orA ^i-^io :cni ■ V 1 oA v^cdc : ^af^jD 

: «^ aoA reUiLsa .ta ^ ».in\\ [jLr^laJsa] tis ^...^ tix-c 

15 Ajwo »i n ^ Aj^ r^oca ooi^lu r^Xa zi^o-sna m Mo 

: A \^n iJLAio : r^lsici rt^n ■ itto K^i.t t % tiicojaoK' 

^.^^ .ciA iii-SQK'c Aui!k. :^r^ tJiaof^ rd\ cDii.iJLa;k. 

f^.TftK'.i .lAJSnK" f^icsos fia .^ioiii^ rdA t-fiaikA »va 

20 fi-M .AATjjLlfiA ^OmC :Alfiftaj rdA ^it^liv Aua ^f<A 

^ Cod. f!! n^i fi-a, where a word seems to have dropped. 
» Cod. rd\.i » Cod. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

\r^%^:k. f<i\*wi3 r^±a3^ rdio^ 

67 vCnciA il& *.>aA^ K'ocsii.i ^i^ ^"^^^^ »^J[7^ »^ 

68 ^.^^.1 A2^ •. K'ooaii r^ r^^hof^^ r^l 

69 \'^ 1^ : coA\\^n J&f< v.icd cnTOn\n ift.icD.i ti^ 

: cnA^i ^ n ^f< .\yii, cnT.on\*i 

*.caX ATA 

71 r^o :Aiidk2ka iiacn ft^\nflf».i r<^r< Ai\ii ^r^ ti^ 

72 r^a *. vyJU^ ^^fiUiii r^ K'iA&z..! i^'i^^r^la ti^ 
^.i^K" K'KIjL^.I A\*:ff -.vd*.l rdlA.l K'i&oaLa rdnaii^ 

* Cod. om. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


AaiiAcaa.! K'in^ m\i ,\\^ *.v^al o^ 

'. en I T \ n Aa^Ac^Q KlXc .en n\n 
r^l:^lf<9 cfiJLk.K' '.K'iutAa i^^^A^n .^^griT.^ ^^.^ »^ ^^ 

v^OjJl r^lsaA.1 •vvCLai<':i ousoui ^ ju»iiif^ >i^ 57 
:r^l^ii vyK" f^n^i icuuo *.r^iL\^ ^•^. «*^i^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

46aiA* r^a :r^r^l& ^ua^cno r<l\ii.& h\ i \\ >ij3 

47 rtlftUM.1 5^re^.l : vyi^A r^CD^o f<lJ&^ ^i^ ti^ 

*. coiua i^.ia cnli^. 

48 ,cn*i\n vcu^:! acD ^ ^tCPAVi\n vci:^ .aJ^ >i^ 5 

r^Lx.oAi23 AiK'a K'ii^iii f^Utioi^" jiit. rdA^ 


51 K'l.TAA ^i^'Ai&i ^ vyur^la.1 r^L^i^ f^i\ tija 

.SL^a .1.1-ajdQ.i K'liia.^ ^ f^Lxj,AJS9:i r^^<\ Wfn^ift 
'.r^**U»f^.l r^lr^lx.o r^^CLS fSn vvaL^.1 r^xsns^n r^r^Ssa 


^ vmL^.*i 

*.vc»jji ii.'i^oK' vv<&A2a i\&lu.i r^±a.i 

* Cod. om. ' Sic! sed scriptor emend, r^^i 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

KliiT<.i.i r^^ \ *r\ CD^IOK" ^^^i \jbp.i K'li^ tia 36 
\\n . v^QA A»Ai&:99 ^^K'a v^-zA rdlMK" tija 38 

v s \ \ j A-:^ vvi.1.1 vvi 

jjlA rdl t 

1 1 M \ lag n rCl >va 39 

*« vvic^ A^ vvoi.*U KSsol.!.! 

r^A^JSo «h.^^c .tCDa«.*ui&ii r^o rdsoA^At 1.TX. ti^ 41 

jinnT.Ai ^.TftCDO .r^llaaao r^laxula vvia r^lfiai tia 42 
15 *«^i^Aakiuo vyXUa >'r^la 

• K'iai.sna KlsaA&4» K'ioAcdo i^Ajm co.i^K'.l ^ tia ^^ 
'.rt^V^TO f5^i\\fti^ f^iaAcaa K'lAfiftjj cd-i^K".! ^o 
2o ^U9 r^a .r^i^r^ Ai.&^cdo r^u\ ^ ^1\\ >i-a 45 

' Cod. ^llM.T^\ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

• ooX AvA f^Aiso K^^^K^o rdj»K^.i K^ia\p .»cpoinno 5 

: K' >cDfli&*i\ K'ia.i.i 
29f<AK' .>iAa4i» f^K'o A % flf> >i:sn.i TJsnK"^ r^ >i^ 

ipoui^^o tCoasacLsaa >cfij^flLaA 10 

30 r^ f^i'iMK" .!& ft^*gai\ti vvXAui Aaau»^ r^ >i^ 

31 .iiBtt^^^ f^l^oAi vvijsn >.ia vy \*Tfii A.\ji^ rtA 

32 ooia vvijsn v^ i:snr<Ji.i .vyAsn »^Ji»v. ^oom >ia 15 

34 • '• 

kr^iks vyi^ K'^K'o ooijsn nn t..i r^Laifi^ ,ija 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

: oAa ^1.1 
r^o .AiK"^ r^ K'^^K'l K'i^flUL liua >i.a 19 
.Qri*g<l\\ K'^^K'.l K'i^tiUL.l A \^ .V^aia oiA^ji^ 
5 : cbi3CD casncA iiSbno 

*. K'AooA.iJka 
.j^l^ioa r^ f^Kl&c .^f^^xi r^a KlAoj^ Asa >ia 21 

:cn*j>i \ K'oAf^'.l A3^ 

lo K'^cuilM.i A\pn .r^lifk^ r^ •..^jaiksn ^ ^^ >^ ^^ 

.K'tMjjA K'ifl^K' vyK'c .rtlAuii^ f^lLal vyrt* r^l^SA^ 

rK'isojj.i cai\ja r^Vnu vyi^'o .K'^cum AaA CK" 

^T^l r^ n;^ . r<^i\ \ ceo .Uk. vv^ia jlo-sl^ >l.a 23 

:.&AJ^^ icofluu»icuoo A&aa .vyL^ 3is^a vOlsq 

1^.1 A:^ :k'Aiai.\^ K'ioaK'o r^Laci^ K'rpx:^ r^la^ 
: v^UQ oA ^xrsosn Auia.i >.i*in\\ 
^o ^1 ■ ^ T. K^H^ vyK" f<\ \jt rdSLIK" JbsQ ii^ 25 

: ^ooA AfkK^ ftlaA ooA ivA.i 
2o .f^^^ r<tA vyLk. v^K'.lC vyajaK".! K'Ai^oA ,ia 26 
iK'ru*^ r^ v^ia.1 K'Aii^^^ rdsoAi 
^ Sic Cod. : at lege f^l\ OfViia^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f^lSQ lAAuK".! 

8*" cAk'c .f^lsaflu :uic9 i^'cco r^Lia ^^ ^i^ ^.i K'lSaM 

12 .CD^OI^K' >Am^^C ft^^i%t» K'iA.^A K'cA^K' lia K 

13.1A^C .K"!.!!.! JLC.1 vyAXH^ f^llfiafin ^K" .T^ f^SD 


:vyia »Ialc vyin\ r^U»icK' 

:oQL9kK' mi«k\\.i ^Hjsqi^'c .r^Li^sksn ^SD ooLakK'c .oiA&K' 

* Cod. ciiaCU* ' Cod. om. 

L. A. ,6 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Aj^c ,vyT ^11 poAfiff^ f^amarwc ^vyo&^c vyaoci^a 

5 ^K" f^'Ui.lO .VSOK"^ i<\ ^K" .^^gfl T .1 Afk lis 3 

lo r^ ciia f^i^flu j^XSf^ vysl'r^A ^i^n ^ru^oLk oA 
»^^a^ rd:^.l.l .vviAM ^^Kla ia\^^ r^ iia 6 

^.iacA.l K'loA vwK" f^jpcpi fti*W K'ooo^ r<!\ li-a 7 
15 K^tiUL iCCD r^f^" .Afkr^Auda GO-aK^ f^^iijAc .ft^^\ 
oQsif^ ^^acAa .r^As^ K^^iajA.1 .f^^oi\ vyK^ ^^s\yC 

.K'Aua ^K'ccD f<1 nAvao r^lSQl r<\nn cAk".! A\^ 

' Cod. VOQA^C 

' The text here is conflate : for the MS. has r^lioa cA.l \\^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.AAf^a f^x^j» i^ai^K" .^:i«c .>A^a» i^oi^i^^ r^ia 
f^^asLU» ia.i^o .f<t>tln rt'ix.K' v^ .»2a.ia poafioX 

t*2n.iac .iaK" ^c.*i^iiB9 ^.la iAJu»r^ A^coii vwf^".! 
l\y^l OCDC .|CDCUlijl3 »j^iiu3 CDia poaar^a ..^i^^K^ 

iJ^K^ f\JS^ ^f^ Skf^ ^CD .rdlx.oaX r^JSi^^s^ vyM.ToO 
•jjL&&iz.i\ ^r^l&A^K'.i .f^oo 119.1 oo^cul!^ >:^ v\moi 
K'.ioo r<\ \ *w .\*^Ti .1^ ^.Iaoo .»i\aA.i vv ^n n ■ \y 
.^.1 \jr> f^i^LsaA %suMf^ rdJr^o /^tA acoa it^li'^ani 15 
coAi^jajtol f<lsa.i:k. .9191 cni^\n> ^ ^aco r^lix. Kllc 

.^k^coAk' JLSb vyK' A-»A 

' Cod. r^Vi*r^O * Cod. Aaco^ et sic passim. 

* Cod. A * Cod. lis iVSO 

* Cod. cnXr^ (sic). A comparison with the Cod. Sj suggests that 
some confusion existed in the archetype, which appears to have been 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

vOM. r<lvi r^K" ^^...coriA K'coo i<\ K'^ia f^\i\.l 

• K'.ICD f^lln h\X3 t-1 Al^JM&ULK'c .fJU^. JL^ *^i^ ^ 

^K" *tli^T*y^ coAv.saa0.i K'AuA.^ai^ 70^:1 •K'l-a vwX 

10 f^is »X A^^ *-J!^ .»i^5o f^'oAi^' ^^f^' .^isar^c tA 

• iju^. A:^ K'i&jk. Klsaii hsosnt^ .t&.i i^ la ^^jijlA 

AJ^jsnc .K^i^ >^ l-a ^.^..uA lA Aia£a4o .^.ia:^ 

coAuaic .^t^Ljsn r^lUM^ ooA iv2aAx.K^ K^cco rdA.\^3 

15 coAoBjaAr^o .f^hSlsn A:^ cnAvfio-^K^a rt^Tnrta >i.aA 

• K^llf^ xt^f^ AitiULO .|ia r^Aic .r^a\JiK^c i^^aa 

UAMf<' Cf^ .>A TJSnre'c »Jia .Atre'i f^Lft^f^ ^ r^ALtw 

^ These two words omitted in Cod. and added by a later hand 
on margin. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


(Cod. Add. 2020 = Sj) 

Au&CK' .f^Hisn r^Lishssk r^ciAK" reiLjj A^ jao^ 
Jul u 1 nr>.i K^-ft^jaoc fdJ&a.A.&»u i n ■ t»nc^.i k^Auj^lx.^ 

caA*.i K^ijaj9» ixiAMf^ rdlr^ ^cco i^u*!^ .K^CULa^.io 5 

r^ocD »^ft» ^OCD f^lla.i K^iitOJ^o .vsA t^ocn r^ 
^Aiz. ^coA iuiac . A^nftii ^azJ ^Aiz. . i:sar<.'S>a\.i ^iso 

A\nri T.o .rdLfiaua oxjLa K^iuai r^.*u» K^AuL^ »\ Aula 

f^ r^iao i\CLMf^ 2.1A .iia« f^'coAi^' ^^^re' .^TJsnf^ 

r^c AvoJM .f^cfiAr^ oilao r<^n\o r^r^A 
' Cod. f^iaito « Cod. :iA.i 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




.QnMa\\^y K"^^!^.! cbid^tiUL.1 ■\\y'^ .^ia^i\ f<\ ooia 

vvrtluao v^ii^* ^^ r^ iia . . cbi.ico ausocL& itLsnc 20 

^f^ f^W*» ..^j:^ jia . . ■i\'^ AtJf^' .A^ciK' .y ■ n -1 21 

Caetera desunt. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f^ccD ft^n ti T ^.»o '.tt^n M T. 1 I ^ ^Ausq r^^a^^sn 

11 Ti-^c .Aioiito^ r^ f^^n i % tt 7a-^ lia . . r^lL.Aua9 lo 

12 f^"! n \\ K'oA^K' »va . • ^.^.^^^ r^ r^U»Dij99 
f^^l i\\ K'flA^^ r^c .cohxa^r^ ^a&jj^^o f-^l2a->.fu> 

15 vviau.! Aj^o .vyk-usn AcL&r^ >ia . . ooAaK" oiiA^ 

17 f^ .A^^.l vvf<!lfl9 ^K" r^U> •^^ >ia • • Aoi^K"^ r^ 

18 coA\n\^n >ia . . vcb.i&ic >cuxi re^2aA.i .ooa Aco^ 20 

1. 17. Cod. cnLsk sic. 1. 20. leor^hs 1 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

5 r^^ncusno .vyoi^itc vyswA.^ "I r^i\iaJda.\^ t^oea^ 

fdA Aulr^ K'Wu.l A.-a^ li-a • • >.:k.ii\^ r^coAK' 3 
lis . . ft^\ \^ fdA ^K" ■% *w T .1 A..Jkc : TJsnr^^ ^ 

lo A>^^ ^ n .aKl^r^o vyi-zA r<ljU»K^ >i.a . . ^cAu*»i\ 5 
r^^^n-jk. f< fvi \ V ft^ \ n nf> reAc >cp r^ vg n *n 

Vwfl-li].^ >-»l[i\ Fol. 114v 

15 aiAj^ii\ kA -. f^'iua^Sac [r^AAAflD.i t^hx^t^ K'Ui^o 7 
^f^.l ^.1 ^ \ \ aiA [_lh\^ «^^1 A\^ .vyi \ -I 

1. 1. Cod. ^coA r^TJSnf^!sa which appears to be a corruption 
of the above. 

L 5. The first letter is not legible. In the same line Cod. has 
vvftCL&^ ex errore. 

1. 7. Cod. >ia.i^^ 11. 11, 12. Cod. cqVsco* 

1. 17. Cod. re'vAi[*]? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


(from Mus. Britt. Add. 7200 = Si) 
Fol.lUr [Thecal f^ f^ia.l} i-l f^'CCO [isfli^'Aif^'] 

f^.*U» r^AujLk. t-A Aula ^:i»CD . ^ori \ ^w K^^m ^.so tA 
r^TJsn »^...or<9 .^ij^i^o ^i.iia .r<^^i r< ^ m *^.i 5 
Klsai^ ^CLSnK' .1^.1 f^'i&.l K'la lA ACD .K'coAr^' 
Ai^j^' rdLfi ^ia K'.ico ^:i«CD .tJl^ A:^ r^ift:^ 

vA .ia:^ D-]^^ vvAu* ia *-J?:f^ ^^ f^r<' .i^'ia vA 
Hi \ T A\ ^.1 ^ \ \ cdAv.a-31^ ^Jsa.i r^Li^r^ *. r^i.a 10 

AuaCcd ij^K^ f<i %coc . . K^i.a tA K^ocDO i&u» ia 

1. 1. The transcription follows the MS. line for line. 

1. 2. The word ^dlZ. is not perfectly clear. 

1. 4. Cod. K'Aulk. 
u A, 5 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I HAVE copied the story of Haiqar and Nadan at Dr Rendel 
Harris' request from the Carshuni MS. No. 2886 of the S. P. C. K. 
Collection in the Cambridge University Library. I have added a 
few sentences from the text published by Father A. Salhani, S. J., 
of Beyrouth, in his "Contes Arabea" These are enclosed in 
square brackets, and a few more have been added from a manu- 
script in the British Museum, Add. 7209 of the Rich Collection, 
which are enclosed in round brackets. 

In regard to Arabic grammar, I have not put in the vowel 
points, from motives of economy, and because they are not in the 
MS. The few instances of nunation which I have given are from 
that source. Hamzas are there entirely overlooked, but I have 
given a few where they seemed necessary to distinguish some 
words from other similar ones. 

In reading Carshuni one finds that the Arabic alphabet, being 
more copious than the Syriac, one Syriac letter has sometimes to 
do duty for two Arabic ones, or even for three. The following 
table of values, as they exist in No. 2886, may therefore be found 

Syriac Arabic 

•< = Pi 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 


It will easily be seen that some words give room for divergence 
of opinion, for example ^U» or ^l£», ^^U. or v^l£», J^l£» or 
J^U». If in these and other instances I have ventured to differ 
from Salhani, I trust it may be found that I am not wrongs 
A few words and even sentences in the text of the MS. are 
surrounded by a thin stroke. Another reading of these is in- 
variably given in the margin, and this I have generally adopted, 
as it is evidently a correction. 

I have to thank my sister, Mrs Gibson, for helping me to 
revise the proofe. 


^ The most remarkable instance of this is in Salbani's book, page 10, line 5, 
where for Ij^jJ^ liLfM .iUUit c/aUU I have read lii^ JiXJ\ i»U^U 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

A^L>3 d»taftt ^^^J3 {r>^^^ dP^ (J^ ^5^-^ .AlSy ^JUit jUt»- f. 106 a 
w^U^ ^iUU^ dJJjLA^ O^jkiJ^ 4*i0^ CJUJt^ o}^3 ^^^3 AjJL^ j 3 
Ae^*^ >^ i5*y« O' v^r^t-!- L5^' L5-^^ ^:*y-U d3j^\ OjU^ 
^**-MJ i5>^ ^ ^^ \i^' cJW (^^^ w-^ iS^^3 W C^ ^>^ 

0*«l 0*«l Ot^l ,^U3 aU! o>*^ 
^ Cod. 4si 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

\j\ •JUJI c^t^ ^ytJ! 01 J^^ JUU^t ^j!^ ^1>> J^J ^..r-^^^W 

Ot irs^U >!;U' j^\ a^jLft •Ut ^lij. ,^JU cJLfe i^JJf 
.^^^JlakJt* j^l ^ O^ >»' O^-^ L5^< L5^^^ ^ ^^ ^*iaJLf 

f. 106b ^>t^* 0-* >e^' >--Jt rt ^ y > ^ , f # (^jJ^ li -o^ j«^ ^ i^h 

^JJt t^JU.^) ^jJ^ U .^^U^ ^U >UUt ji^ v^JJt JUi 
^Jt^*' J15 .g JU! Ji lU lyUi a^ljJU! >jQ ,^^ v^-^^-^ 

^^3 c^y s^wt (^ jU*Jt t>»^3 l5*^3 w m,^^ 1^ l5*^^3 

C^j tit^ .^t A^ft^t IjJj OjJ^ 1i! Jl5 ^JJ! JyUt c^ jJ 

^JJt^ .^^^^^t*- -XS-i^J^ Jni*:! l5*^' ^^3 W -S'J^ A«>ft>< .'jJ^ 

.*i^^^J L5^ >»^^3 '^J^H >i^ .^SUmoJ^ >5!^^' ^J*i3 ^Ui^< 
4JU. o^ >^t \JJk obU ^ UU .JU^JUJ W ^^j 
» Cod. j^-^e-^l^ 2 co^ ^^j,^ 3 (^j^ ^1^ 4 Q^ ,^j.;jdxJ| '^l 
' Cod. a^>tA ' Cod. ^j^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^,^jLs ^ U y^^ siJUi l^^>' V;3 t5JJ« l«-i Ji* cr* 
lyu ^JJI iiJii) Ji. oJt t^jJj W (^ t> ^jjJ U ,>* 
jJw ,i)l*«J»i3 v-»i *>♦ «>^ (^ ji-ai ,^;:^ aSj-Ji ^^ l»J 

I. 21U D 

^^b •^•'^<»^ J>^^ ^ U oJt fc t ut v5^j W [-^^ J^t Out v5*^^ OJ' 
a^j^^p o-^< "^^j cf^j ^ -vy^^d^^-b ^j^***^ {J ^>^ ^^b 

^>« Afii ^^2wl* j^^ W^ ' tf^ ^ ^/^ i^ j^5^ *^t *il^ j^5JUl O^ f. 105a 
^li|^ ^jJ\ ^JJ u^j^S O^ ^ OiljJl^ ^ O^ C^lj v^tJ^t 

jkStj v^Afl^ ^^ .5U»^«j .ilsjitjft ^l JLijI J^^3 «tb V^ 
' Cod. U^y » Cod.^crwM ' Cod. a^>JI * Cod. ji^l 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

,^fUU\ ju .s%ci\ cJ^ 4«Ji» ju::^! ^ as^ «jjk ^jut jiu 

.opj J^ IJuk ^t JU ..sUi ^ ^JJt ^1 »JL* 3A JLjt^ 
^1 aJ JUi .o**>^ ^^"9 JAIj >»JuwJ lit o*^' t5'^i.A*->»' Jl» 

^ i^^ ajiu^ji (^ oyo ^J) aM Ji« t5» «=>- ^' tJ>*»* W 

f. 104a JJL* C>« CJt t^jJj W -W^^^ aiUaJI juja J^ ^ .JLeJ 
UjL,4ifc v>Ui ^UamJI jLs UJi ak;> JW^' V^ fjj O^-*^! 

^^J ^-sdl Jl« ^^ 0^« CJJ ^ Vs .lye* ^>^* Jjii oW-' Sj>^ 
^JJt «,JU3t c5>Vd ^ •'>~^ uA^ j>>^ *9j ^•U) aSUjI J^j^ 

f. 104b Ue^ ^^ W] -Wl^Wt O^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^J^ 03^3 f^J ^"f^^ 
1 Cod. o*^UiJI ' Cod. v>*iUUI ' Syriac ^ 1 m -» Cod. ^^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

.•A^Mj^tj 3L^jZi\ O-^'^W ^^^»^jj .illpJ^j iilJL.^^.gnt3 ^^J^33 

«3iUt Jji^ cJL£»t v5JJt SJjiJt JJU Out ^^jJj b .<iJLL; ^^UjJt 
j^jjj b .aJ^ v^3 >jW *^ J^^ .>>i5 *^^ O^ U^J 

.j^j*Jt JJU v:)l£» y^ 1.1^^ >^ >J^ ^ ^j3l 5^^ ^^:J-;iJJ!j 
^j;^ U] .dX^\^ >^ 013 jUd*JI v^JLft jur'^f ^y O^ 5J^ B-M- 
^ Cod. ,^^j » Cod. ......^ • Cod. ^t 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

^0 ObOj jU^ 

jUjjfc aJ JUi ^^Ul£#3 ^yXo oLtiu 0>j« yj j^>pj ^^^ C5t^ 

%J\^\ .Sle^ ^t ajjju Jx^*^ jU^ vii>:|>^ W ^ Ut^t .iUJt 
f. 102b U^ dJL^ Ij^ ,dXiJ« 0< ^ M/^»«^3 \^^^ ^t^^ i>* L5^^ 

ij.1^ j\a(M. JUi ,^j^ 3ua^ ^ 4j«^ ^^t%Jt' tJ^ O-^ L5t^ 

.*> >t^j ^iUjt vjjjs-"^ ^•iL- •^J' j^jt u ut jL^'iit ^1 juji 

^JU ^«jU3 cu;£> o^ ^>df3 JUJt ^-i jNii^t Ut i^t ^J^gg^ ij Ut 
«/tfyj L5** wW ^-^ *<i^^ L5-^^ ObO ,^1 v>t ^^^i«i»^l 

«J^tj JL^JL^ y>« aLJ^^ ^ A^JJL^ Jft^jj Al^t |>^t ObU jU^ft. 

*>*<3 ^^ Ufc^J ♦'•nj^ J*a5 «*M Aft^i v^ J«^j -Oj-u ^Jl 

AeU J*^j u^t ^li|^ >fe^ o^-^ ^ ♦UJl Jiyyt ^i 

f. 103 a JfiWj >j*. sJ^j >5-i J^ ^ 4,jkju ,;)l d^tj LjU. JU.3J 

ObU Al^t o^t v^^ S'>*^^ J^«^ Uo-i^ j^Ae^ O^j »t« 
Ot^^b t^6^ Jb£» ^ihuo cJ^^ o^>^ i5^3 W ^U^^ a) JyLf5 
JlJU'^W JftS ^ t J^b v5>jJb ^;««*^W A-fl»>ft ,^>W ^^h 
iS^ 0^>^ J^ *^>«^--i ^j U5« ^>«* A<;>t v>« C^-^ "^ ^ 

» Cod. ,^^1 « Cod. az^t » Cod. ,^1 * Cod. ajLu- 

* In naargine difXg^j ^ df^j. . ,^^ *^*^ « Cod. U3 

L. A. 4 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

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